Columbia is a census-designated place in Howard County, United States, is one of the principal communities of the Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area. It is a planned community consisting of 10 self-contained villages. Columbia began with the idea. Creator and developer James W. Rouse saw the new community in terms of human values, rather than economics and engineering. Opened in 1967, Columbia was intended to not only eliminate the inconveniences of then-current subdivision design, but eliminate racial and class segregation. Columbia has ranked in the top 10 of CNN Money's Best Places to Live in the United States. Columbia proper consists only of that territory governed by the Columbia Association, but larger areas are included under its name by the U. S. Postal Service and the Census Bureau; these include several other communities which predate Columbia, including Simpsonville, in the case of the census, part of Clarksville. The census-designated place had a population of 99,615 at the 2010 United States Census.
It is the second most populous community in Maryland after Baltimore. More recent estimates by the U. S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey put the population at 103,467 as of 2015. Columbia was founded by a native of Easton, Maryland. In 1935, Rouse obtained a job in Baltimore with the Federal Housing Administration, a New Deal agency whose purpose was to promote home ownership and home construction; this position exposed Rouse to all phases of the housing industry. In the 1930s he co-founded a Baltimore mortgage banking business, the Moss-Rouse Company. In the 1950s his company, by known as James W. Rouse and Company, branched out into developing shopping centers and malls. In 1957 Rouse formed Community Research and Development, Inc. for the purpose of building and operating shopping centers throughout the country. Community Research and Development, Inc., managed by James W. Rouse and Company, became a publicly traded company in 1961. In 1966, Community Research and Development, Inc. changed its name to The Rouse Company, after it had acquired James W. Rouse and Company in exchange for company stock.
By the early 1950s Rouse was active in organizations whose goals were to combat blight and promote urban renewal. Along the way, he came to recognize the importance of comprehensive planning and action to address housing issues. A talented public speaker, Rouse's speeches on housing matters attracted media attention. By the mid-1950s he was espousing his belief that in order to be successful, cities had to be places where people succeeded. In a 1959 speech he declared that the purpose of cities is for people, that the objective of city planning should be to make a city into neighborhoods where men and their families can live and work, most grow in character, religious fulfillment and the capacity for joyous living. In the early 1960s, Rouse decided to develop a new model city. Rouse's ideas about what a new model city should be like were informed by a number of factors, including his personal Christian faith as well as the goal for his company to earn a profit, influences that he did not consider to be incompatible with one another.
After exploring possible new city locations near Atlanta and Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina, Rouse focused his attention between Baltimore and Washington, D. C. in Howard County, Maryland. In April 1962, Mel Berman, a longtime Howard County resident, a member of the CRD's Board of Directors, saw a sign on Cedar Lane in Howard County advertising 1,309 acres for sale. Berman reported the option to the CRD and a decision was made to purchase the land; this was the first of 165 land purchases made by Rouse over the next year-and-a-half. In order to keep land costs low, Jack Jones, an attorney from Rouse's firm of Piper Marbury, set up a grid system to secretly buy land through dummy corporations like the "Alaska Iron Mines Company"; some of these straw purchasers included Columbia Industrial Development Corporation, 95-32 Corporation, 95-216 Corporation, Inc. Columbia Mall, Inc. Oakland Ridge Industrial Development Corporation, Columbia Development Corporation. Robert Moxley's firm Security Realty Company, negotiated many of the land deals for Jones, becoming his best client.
CRD accumulated 10 percent of Howard County, from 140 separate owners. Rouse was turned down in financing from David Rockefeller, who had cancelled a planned Rouse "Village" concept called Pocantico Hills; the $19,122,622 acquisition was funded by Rouse's former employer Connecticut General Life Insurance in October 1962 at an average price of $1,500 per acre. The town center land of Oakland Manor was purchased from Isadore Guldesky, turned down from building high-rises on the site by Rob Moxley's brother, County Commissioner and land developer Norman E. Moxley. Sensing that he had a key property, he requested $5 million for his 1,000 acres, signing an agreement by hand on a land plat; the competition between Rouse and Guldesky carried over to the competing Tysons Corner Center and Tysons Galleria projects, with each hiring their competitor's employees. By late 1962, citizens had elected an all-Republican three-member council. J. Hubert Black, Charles E. Miller, David W. Force campaigned on a slow-growth ballot, but approved the Columbia project.
The Howard County Planning Commission Chairman Wilmer Sanner declared, "if this adds to the orderly development of the county, that's what we are looking for." That July, Sanner sold the majority of his 73-acre S
Douglas Webster St Aubyn Berneville-Claye, born Douglas Berneville Claye, was a British Nazi collaborator and member of the SS British Free Corps during the Second World War. Douglas Berneville-Claye was born in Plumstead, the son of a Staff Sergeant in the Royal Army Service Corps, his father's family, the Clays and Wainwrights, were industrial working-class from Leeds and his father, Frederick Wainwright Claye, was awarded an MBE in 1919 for his services in France. He was educated in 1932 enrolled at the Army Technical School at Chepstow, he left the Army Technical School and went home to his parents' pub at Little Ouseburn, a village on the old Roman road between Ripon and York. His father had retired from the army after long service. In 1934 he joined the Lancers at York, where he learned to ride, he was still only 17 when he left the army to work as an instructor at a riding school near Thames Ditton and married there for the first time. That marriage resulted in a daughter. In 1936, he abandoned his wife to move to Leeds, where he worked as a freelance journalist for the local press.
On the outbreak of the Second World War Claye volunteered for the Royal Air Force and was accepted as an aircrew trainee, but he did not pass his final exams. In April 1940 he went AWOL to enter into a bigamous marriage with his current girlfriend. A son was born of the first bigamous marriage. Following this, he joined the Home Guard. Claye borrowed his father's old uniform and began wearing it in public, with a set of RAF pilot's wings attached. While doing so he was involved in a traffic accident, after hospital treatment was sent to a convalescent home for officers. While there, he stole another officer's cheque book and after a police investigation was discovered to have obtained the sum of £5 10s by deception, he was additionally fined £ 7 for impersonating an officer. Although he was remanded for trial, the charges were dropped because he had repaid the money he had stolen and agreed to be bound over for two years, it was at this time that Claye started calling himself the Honourable Douglas St Aubyn Webster Berneville-Claye and enlisted as a private soldier in the West Yorkshire Regiment.
He did not stay in the ranks for long. At enlistment, he claimed to have been educated at Charterhouse School, Magdalen College and Emmanuel College, as a result was selected for officer training; the officer training was carried out at Pwllheli and Sandhurst, where he was granted his commission as a second lieutenant in October 1941. He spent six months with the 11th Battalion of the West Yorkshire Regiment in June 1942 was posted to Egypt. Berneville was one of his given names, along with Webster but it's not known why he chose to use'St Aubyn', his surname at birth was Clay. In the next few months he was again charged with cheque fraud and court-martialled, but he carried out his own legal representation and managed to be acquitted, he supposedly inherited his father's title and became "Lord Charlesworth" and volunteered for L detachment of the Special Air Service in a quartermaster role. His father had had a successful army career, working his way up through the ranks from the early years of the 20th century to his retirement in the early 1930s as a senior NCO and the award of an MBE, but there was no title that could have been inherited.
In December 1942, he took part in a penetration operation in Tunisia and was captured by the Afrika Korps. He was sent from North Africa to Italy where he was interrogated, sent to an Italian Prisoner of War camp in northern Italy, from which he claimed to have made repeated escapes. After the Italian Armistice in September 1943, Claye and his POWs were evacuated to Germany where he ended up in Oflag 79 at Waggum, near Brunswick. During 1944, the prisoners in Oflag 79 began to suspect that one of their number was an informer, they decided that it was Berneville-Claye. In December 1944, after Oflag 79 had been moved to Fallingbostel, the Senior British Officer informed the camp's German Commandant that the prisoners planned to court-martial and execute an informer and Claye was transferred by the Germans for his own safety. Claye's subsequent movements are unclear, he was sighted by POWs in Fallingbostel and Hanover dressed in civilian clothing but disappeared from view until early March 1945 when he was appointed to the staff of the III SS Panzer Corps at Templin, dressed as an SS Hauptsturmführer.
He was invited to dine with the III Corps commander, Obergruppenführer Felix Steiner, where he explained that although he was a captain in the Coldstream Guards and a member of the British peerage, "Lord Charlesworth", he was a firm anti-communist and had volunteered to fight to preserve Europe from the communist threat. He was so convincing that Steiner took him at face value. At that time, the remains of the British Free Corps were in the same area, Steiner decided to appoint Claye to take charge of them. On 19 April 1945 he arrived at the Corps' base in Templin'dressed in a black SS tank uniform bearing the insignia of Hauptsturmführer in the British Free Corps.' Claye told the Corps members'that he was the son of an earl, a captain in the Coldstream Guards and was going to collect two armoured cars and lead them against the Russians. He guaranteed that the BFC men would be in no trouble with the British authorities, telling them that Britain would be at war with the Russians within a few days.'.
When the Corps members refused to follow him, Claye took Alexander MacKinnon, one of the Free Corps sold
HD 41004 is a star system 139 light years away in the constellation of Pictor. HD 41004 A is a primary orange dwarf star of spectral type K1V and apparent magnitude 8.65. In 2003 a planet HD 41004 Ab was first discovered by Zucker, but not published until 2004, it has a mass >2.56 times that of Jupiter. It orbits at 1.70 astronomical units. HD 41004 B is a red dwarf with spectral type M2V and apparent magnitude 12.33. HD 41004 Bb is a brown dwarf that at the time of the discovery was orbiting closer to the star than any known extrasolar planet or brown dwarf, at only 145 km/s, because of its low-mass parent star, taking 1.3 days. Its orbit is circular despite the gravitational effect of HD 41004 A because of the tidal effect of the nearby star HD 41004 B. Zucker, S.. "Multi-order TODCOR: Application to observations taken with the CORALIE echelle spectrograph. II. A planet in the system HD 41004". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 426: 695–698. ArXiv:astro-ph/0303055. Bibcode:2004A&A...426..695Z. Doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20040384.
"HD 41004 A". The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. Retrieved 2008-07-21. "HD 41004 B". The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. Retrieved 2008-07-21
We're All Gonna Die is the fifth studio album by American folk rock band Dawes. It was announced on August 17, 2016, with the release of the lead single, "When the Tequila Runs Out"; the album was released on September 16, 2016. It was produced by former bandmate Blake Mills. We're All Gonna Die received moderate praise upon release. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 to reviews from music critics, the album has received an average score of 77, indicating "generally favorable" reviews, based on 6 critics. "One of Us" – 4:54 "We're All Gonna Die" – 5:06 "Roll with the Punches" – 4:25 "Picture of a Man" – 4:21 "Less than Five Miles Away" – 4:58 "Roll Tide" – 5:30 "When the Tequila Runs Out" – 4:46 "For No Good Reason" – 4:22 "Quitter" – 3:51 "As If By Design" – 4:16 Taylor Goldsmith – vocals, pianet, slide guitar Griffin Goldsmith – drums, percussion, lead vocals Wylie Gelber – bass, Kee bass Lee Pardini – piano, Ace Tone, Juno, organ, vocals Blake Mills – guitars, drum programming, glockenspiel, slide guitar, Korg MS-20 Rob Moose – strings Jim James – vocals Mandy Moore – vocals Lucius – vocals Jim Keltner – MPC Brittany Howard – vocals Will Oldham – vocals Nate Walcott – trumpet Airplay
The June deportation was a mass deportation by the Soviet Union of tens of thousands of people from the territories occupied in 1940–1941: Baltic states, occupied Poland, Moldavia. The deportation took place from May 22 to June 20, 1941, just before the invasion of the Soviet Union by Nazi Germany. However, the goal of the deportations was to remove political opponents of the Soviet government, not to strengthen security in preparation for the German attack; the deportation took place a year after the occupation and annexation of the Baltic states and Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina and targeted "anti-Soviet elements" – former politicians, wealthy industrialists and landowners, etc. In occupied Poland, it was the fourth wave of mass deportations and was intended to combat the "counter-revolutionary" Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists; the procedure for the deportations was approved by Ivan Serov in the so-called Serov Instructions. People were deported without trials in whole families. Men were imprisoned and most of them died in Siberian prison camps.
The mortality rate among the Estonian deportees was estimated at 60%. The number of deported people include: The June deportation has been the subject of several Baltic films from the 2010s; the 2013 Lithuanian film The Excursionist dramatised the events through the depiction of a 10-year-old girl who escapes from her camp. Estonia's 2014 In the Crosswind is an essay film based on the memoirs of a woman, deported to Siberia, is told through staged tableaux vivants filmed in black-and-white. Estonia's Ülo Pikkov addressed the events in the animated short film Body Memory from 2012. Latvia's The Chronicles of Melanie was released in 2016 and is, just like In the Crosswind, based on the memoirs of a woman who experienced the deportation, but is told in a more conventional dramatic way. Soviet deportations from Estonia Soviet deportations from Lithuania
The Rotherham by-election, 1917 was a parliamentary by-election held for the House of Commons constituency of Rotherham in the West Riding of Yorkshire on 5 February 1917. The by-election was caused by the elevation to the peerage of the sitting Liberal MP, Joseph ‘Jack’ Pease; the Rotherham Liberals adopted Arthur Richardson as their new candidate. Richardson had been Lib-Lab MP for Nottingham South from 1906 until January 1910. Richardson declared his position as being in favour of the successful prosecution of the war and the defeat of German militarism. No nominations were received from the other parties, who were content to honour the wartime electoral truce and Richardson was therefore returned unopposed. List of United Kingdom by-elections United Kingdom by-election records Rotherham by-election for contests of 1899, 1910,1976,1994 and 2012