Columbia County, Arkansas

Columbia County is a county located in the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 24,552; the county seat is Magnolia. The county was formed on December 17, 1852, was named for Christopher Columbus; the Magnolia, AR Micropolitan Statistical Area includes all of Columbia County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 767 square miles, of which 766 square miles is land and 0.7 square miles is water. Columbia County is in South Arkansas. Columbia County, along with Union County, is home to the largest Bromine reserve in the United States. Dorcheat Bayou flows through Columbia County from its origin in Nevada County southward into Webster Parish, before emptying into Lake Bistineau. Nevada County Ouachita County Union County Claiborne Parish, Louisiana Webster Parish, Louisiana Lafayette County As of the 2000 census, there were 25,603 people, 9,981 households, 6,747 families residing in the county; the population density was 33 people per square mile.

There were 11,566 housing units at an average density of 15 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 62.08% White, 36.06% Black or African American, 0.26% Native American, 0.34% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.46% from other races, 0.77% from two or more races. 1.05% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 9,981 households out of which 30.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.90% were married couples living together, 15.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.40% were non-families. 29.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.03. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.10% under the age of 18, 12.30% from 18 to 24, 25.30% from 25 to 44, 21.40% from 45 to 64, 15.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 90.90 males.

For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,640, the median income for a family was $36,271. Males had a median income of $31,313 versus $20,099 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,322. About 15.80% of families and 21.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.70% of those under age 18 and 20.00% of those age 65 or over. U. S. Highway 79 U. S. Highway 82 U. S. Highway 371 Highway 19 Highway 98 Highway 160 Future Interstate 69 Magnolia Municipal Airport is a public-use airport in Columbia County, it is owned by the city of Magnolia and located three nautical miles southeast of its central business district. Over the past few election cycles Columbia County has trended towards the GOP; the last Democrat to carry this county was Bill Clinton in 1996. Magnolia Emerson McNeil Taylor Waldo Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times.

However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications. The townships of Columbia County are listed below. Emerson McNeil Magnolia Taylor Village Waldo List of lakes in Columbia County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Columbia County, Arkansas Columbia County Sheriff's Office


Toptable was an online restaurant booker covering the UK as well as major cities in Europe and New York City established in 2000 and bought by OpenTable in 2010. Toptable was founded in 2000 by entrepreneur Karen Hanton for restaurant owners to advertise their venues and book customers directly. Toptable sat over 1.5 million diners in 2006. Toptable lists more than 5,000 restaurants in the UK, plus Paris and New York City, providing online menus, reviews and 360° images of each restaurant. Diners can compare information about restaurants before their table booking online. Today, 2.3 million visitors view the Toptable website each month and, in February 2010, a dedicated Toptable iPhone app was launched. The toptable Android app has been available, at least since Sep 2013Toptable provides a restaurant booking engine for Time Out, British Airways, The Guardian, The Times Online, Visit London and View London. In 2006 toptable bought City Eating, incorporating London Eating for an undisclosed sum.

Investors in Toptable include football manager Sir Alex Ferguson, celebrity chef Gary Rhodes and Diageo. In September 2010, toptable was acquired by competitor OpenTable for US$55 million. OpenTable official website

The History and Present State of Electricity

The History and Present State of Electricity, by eighteenth-century British polymath Joseph Priestley, is a survey of the study of electricity up until 1766 as well as a description of experiments by Priestley himself. Priestley became interested in electricity. Friends introduced him to the major British experimenters in the field: John Canton, William Watson, Benjamin Franklin; these men encouraged Priestley to perform the experiments. In the process of replicating others' experiments, Priestley became intrigued by the still unanswered questions regarding electricity and was prompted to design and undertake his own experiments. Priestley possessed an electrical machine designed by Edward Nairne. With his brother Timothy he constructed his own machines; the first half of the 700-page book is a history of the study of electricity. It is parted into ten periods, starting with early experiments "prior to those of Mr. Hawkesbee", finishing with variable experiments and discoveries made after Franklin's own experiments.

The book takes Franklin's work into focus, criticised by contemporary scholars in France and Germany. The second and more influential half contents a description of contemporary theories about electricity and suggestions for future research. Priestley wrote about the construction and use of electrical machines, basic electrical experiments and "practical maxims for the usw of young elecricians". In the second edition, Priestley added some of his own discoveries, such as the conductivity of charcoal; this discovery overturned what he termed "one of the earliest and universally received maxims of electricity," that only water and metals could conduct electricity. Such experiments demonstrate that Priestley was interested in the relationship between chemistry and electricity from the beginning of his scientific career. In one of his more speculative moments, he "provided a mathematical quasi-demonstration of the inverse-square force law for electrical charges, it was the first respectable claim for that law, out of which came the development of a mathematical theory of static electricity."The book contains an account of the kite experiment of Benjamin Franklin, taken as authoritative.

Some details not found elsewhere are presumed to have been communicated by Franklin. The status of this account matters for the priority dispute over the experiment in which Franklin became involved; the focus on Franklin's experiments influenced the reception of his work in Europe. Priestley's famous text supported the distribution of Franklin's research, which helped it becoming one of the most important works on electricity in the late 18th century. Priestley's strength as a natural philosopher was qualitative rather than quantitative and his observation of "a current of real air" between two electrified points would interest Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell as they investigated electromagnetism. Priestley's text became the standard history of electricity for over a century. Priestley wrote a popular version of the History of Electricity for the general public titled A Familiar Introduction to the Study of Electricity. Gibbs, F. W. Joseph Priestley: Adventurer in Science and Champion of Truth.

London: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1965. Jackson, Joe, A World on Fire: A Heretic, An Aristocrat And The Race to Discover Oxygen. New York: Viking, 2005. ISBN 0-670-03434-7. Schofield, Robert E; the Enlightenment of Joseph Priestley: A Study of his Life and Work from 1733 to 1773. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-271-01662-0. Thorpe, T. E. Joseph Priestley. London: J. M. Dent, 1906. Uglow, Jenny; the Lunar Men: Five Friends Whose Curiosity Changed the World. New York: Farrar and Giroux, 2002. ISBN 0-374-19440-8. Priestley, Joseph; the History and Present State of Electricity, with original experiments. London: Printed for J. Dodsley, J. Johnson and T. Cadell, 1767