American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia in Concord led to open combat on April 19, 1775.
Militia forces besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, the Americans failed decisively in an attempt to invade Quebec and raise insurrection against the British. On July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States.
In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis Cowpens, he retreated to Yorktown, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in America, but the war continued overseas. Britain scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war.
French involvement had proven decisive. Spain failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar; the Dutch were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes. Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765 to pay for British military troops stationed in the American colonies after the French and Indian War. Parliament had passed legislation to regulate trade, but the Stamp Act introduced a new principle of a direct internal tax. Americans began to question the extent of the British Parliament's power in America, the colonial legislatures argued that they had exclusive right to impose taxes within their jurisdictions. Colonists condemned the tax because their rights as Englishmen protected them from being taxed by a Parliament in which they had no elected representatives. Parliament argued that the colonies were "represented virtually", an idea, criticized throughout the Empire. Parliament did repeal the act in 1766, but it affirmed its right to pass laws that were binding on the colonies.
From 1767, Parliament began passing legislation to raise revenue for the salaries of civil officials, ensuring their loyalty while inadvertently increasing resentment among the colonists, opposition soon became widespread. Enforcing the acts proved difficult; the seizure of the sloop Liberty in 1768 on suspicions of smuggling triggered a riot. In response, British troops occupied Boston, Parliament threatened to extradite colonists to face trial in England. Tensions rose after the murder of Christopher Seider by a customs official in 1770 and escalated into outrage after British troops fired on civilians in the Boston Massacre. In 1772, colonists in Rhode Island burned a customs schooner. Parliament repealed all taxes except the one on tea, passing the Tea Act in 1773, attempting to force colonists to buy East India Company tea on which the Townshend duties were paid, thus implicitly agreeing to Parliamentary supremacy; the landing of the tea was resisted in all colonies, but the governor of Massachusetts permitted British tea ships to remain in Boston Harbor, so the Sons of Liberty destroyed the tea chests in what became known as the "Boston Tea Party".
Parliament passed punitive legislation. It closed Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for and revoked the Massachusetts Charter, taking upon themselves the right to directly appoint the Massachusetts Governor's Council. Additionally, t
Chatham (town), New York
Chatham is a town in Columbia County, New York, United States. The population was 4,128 at the 2010 census; the town has a village called Chatham on its south town line. The town is at the north border of Columbia County; the early settlers were Dutch, but Quakers and New Englanders arrived. The town of Chatham was formed from the towns of Canaan and Kinderhook in 1795. Contradictory of its current condition or image, Chatham was an industrial center of multiple inter-state rail lines in the early 1900s, including the junction of the Boston and Albany Railroad for connections east and west, the Rutland Railroad for connections to Vermont to the north, the New York Central's Harlem Line for connections to New York City. In 1887 a terminal designed by Henry Hobson Richardson was constructed. Amtrak service on the Lake Shore Limited does not stop. In years Amtrak has planned to build a rail station in Chatham; the Blinn-Pulver Farmhouse, Melius-Bentley House, Peck House, Riders Mills Historic District, Silvernail Homestead, Simons General Store, Spengler Bridge, St. John's Lutheran Church, James G. Van Valkenburgh House, John S. Williams House and Farm are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 53.6 square miles, of which 53.2 square miles is land and 0.31 square miles, or 0.59%, is water. The north town line is the border of Rensselaer County; the north end of the Taconic State Parkway is in the town, Interstate 90 passes through the town. New York State Route 66 and New York State Route 203 intersect in the town; the town of Kinderhook is to the west, the towns of Canaan and New Lebanon are to the east. The towns of Schodack and Nassau are to the north in Rensselaer County; the towns of Austerlitz and Ghent are to the south. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,249 people, 1,762 households, 1,196 families residing in the town; the population density was 79.8 people per square mile. There were 2,110 housing units at an average density of 39.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.00% White, 1.74% Black or African American, 0.21% Native American, 0.71% Asian, 0.16% Pacific Islander, 0.16% from other races, 1.01% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.75% of the population. There were 1,762 households out of which 29.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.1% were married couples living together, 8.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.1% were non-families. 25.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.87. In the town, the population was spread out with 23.5% under the age of 18, 5.7% from 18 to 24, 24.6% from 25 to 44, 33.0% from 45 to 64, 13.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.1 males. The median income for a household in the town was $49,234, the median income for a family was $60,097. Males had a median income of $40,067 versus $26,452 for females; the per capita income for the town was $28,599. About 4.8% of families and 6.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.6% of those under age 18 and 4.6% of those age 65 or over.
Chatham – The northern half of the village of Chatham is in the town by the south town line. Chatham Center – A hamlet on NY-66 west of the geographic center of town and north of Chatham village. East Chatham – A hamlet at the east town line east of Old Chatham. Kinderhook Lake – A lake in the town by the west town line. Malden Bridge – A hamlet in the north part of the town, east of North Chatham. New Concord – A hamlet east of Rock City by the east town line. North Chatham – A hamlet in the northwest corner of the town; the Peck House and North Chatham Historic District are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Old Chatham – A hamlet northeast of the geographic center of the town, it is one of the earliest settlements in the town. Rayville – A hamlet in the northeast part of the town, northeast of Old Chatham on NY-66. Riders – A hamlet in the northeast quadrant of the town between Riders Mills and Rayville. Riders Mills – A hamlet in the northeast part of the town. Rock City – A hamlet south of the geographic center of the town and north of Chatham village.
Edgewood Acres – a small quaint community, home to the elderly, working class, outsiders. Marguerite Chapman, film actress of the 1940s and'50s, was born in Chatham. Lillian Shadic, All-American Girls Professional Baseball League player in the 1949 season, a Chatham native. Actor David Schramm, who portrayed Roy Biggins in the 1990s sitcom Wings, has a home in Chatham. Moe Howard, leader of The Three Stooges comedy team, owned a home in Chatham for many years. Union Station Town of Chatham official website Chatham Public Library Historical information about Chatham, NY Chatham information Shaker Museum, Old Chatham Chatham Area Business Alliance
The Mohawk people are the most easterly tribe of the Haudenosaunee, or Iroquois Confederacy. They are an Iroquoian-speaking indigenous people of North America; the Mohawk were based in the valley of the Mohawk River in present-day upstate New York west of the Hudson River. As one of the five original members of the Iroquois League, the Mohawk were known as the Keepers of the Eastern Door. For hundreds of years, they guarded the Iroquois Confederation against invasion from that direction by tribes from the New England and lower New York areas, their current major settlements include areas around Lake Ontario and the St Lawrence River in Canada and New York. In the Mohawk language, the people say; the Mohawk became wealthy traders as other nations in their confederacy needed their flint for tool making. Their Algonquian-speaking neighbors, the people of Muh-heck Haeek Ing, a name transliterated by the Dutch as Mahican or Mahican, referred to the people of Ka-nee-en Ka as Maw Unk Lin, meaning "bear people".
The Dutch heard and wrote this term as Mohawk, referred to the Mohawk as Egil or Maqua. The French colonists adapted these latter terms as Maqui, respectively, they referred to the people by the generic Iroquois, a French derivation of the Algonquian term for the Five Nations, meaning "the snake people". The Algonquians and Iroquois were traditional enemies. In the upper Hudson and Mohawk Valley regions, the Mohawk long had contact with the Algonquian-speaking Mahican people, who occupied territory along the Hudson River, as well as other Algonquian and Iroquoian tribes to the north around the Great Lakes; the Mohawk had extended their own influence into the St. Lawrence River Valley, which they maintained for hunting grounds, they are believed to have defeated the St. Lawrence Iroquoians in the 16th century, kept control of their territory. In addition to hunting and fishing, for centuries the Mohawk cultivated productive maize fields on the fertile floodplains along the Mohawk River, west of the Pine Bush.
In the seventeenth century the Mohawk encountered both the Dutch, who went up the Hudson River and established a trading post in 1614 at the confluence of the Mohawk and Hudson rivers, the French, who came south into their territory from New France. The Dutch were merchants and the French conducted fur trading. During this time the Mohawk fought with the Huron in the Beaver Wars for control of the fur trade with the Europeans, their Jesuit missionaries were active among First Nations and Native Americans, seeking converts to Catholicism. In 1614, the Dutch opened a trading post at New Netherland; the Dutch traded for furs with the local Mahican, who occupied the territory along the Hudson River. Following a raid in 1626 when the Mohawk resettled along the south side of the Mohawk River, in 1628, they mounted an attack against the Mahican, pushing them back to the area of present-day Connecticut; the People of Ka-nee-en Ka gained a near-monopoly in the fur trade with the Dutch by prohibiting the nearby Algonquian-speaking tribes to the north or east to trade with them but did not control this.
European contact resulted in a devastating smallpox epidemic among the Mohawk in 1635. By 1642 they had regrouped from four into three villages, recorded by Catholic missionary priest Isaac Jogues in 1642 as Ossernenon and Tionontoguen, all along the south side of the Mohawk River from east to west; these were recorded by speakers of other languages with different spellings, historians have struggled to reconcile various accounts, as well as to align them with archeological studies of the areas. For instance, Johannes Megapolensis, a Dutch minister, recorded the spelling of the same three villages as Asserué, Thenondiogo. Late 20th-century archeological studies have determined that Ossernenon was located about 9 miles west of the current city of Auriesville. While the Dutch established settlements in present-day Schenectady and Schoharie, further west in the Mohawk Valley, merchants in Fort Nassau continued to control the fur trading. Schenectady was established as a farming settlement, where Dutch took over some of the former Mohawk maize fields in the floodplain along the river.
Through trading, the Mohawk and Dutch became allies of a kind. During their alliance, the Mohawks allowed Dutch Protestant missionary Johannes Megapolensis to come into their tribe and teach the Christian message, he operated from the Fort Nassau area about six years, writing a record in 1644 of his observations of the Mohawk, their language, their culture. While he noted their ritual of torture of captives, he recognized that their society had few other killings compared to the Netherlands of that period; the trading relations between the Mohawk and Dutch helped them maintain peace during the periods of Kieft's War and the Esopus Wars, when the Dutch fought localized battles with other tribes. In addition, Dutch trade partners equipped the Mohawk with guns to fight against other First Nations who were allied with the French, including the Ojibwe, Huron-Wendat, Algonquin. In 1
Burlington is the most populous city in the U. S. state of Vermont and the seat of Chittenden County. It is located 45 miles south of the Canada–United States border and 94 miles south of Montreal; the city's population was 42,452 according to a 2015 U. S. census estimate. It is the least populous municipality in the United States to be the most populous incorporated area in a state. A regional college town, Burlington is home to the University of Vermont and Champlain College, a small private college. Vermont's largest hospital, the UVM Medical Center, is located within the city limits; the City of Burlington owns the state of Vermont's largest airport, the Burlington International Airport, in neighboring South Burlington. In 2015, Burlington became the first city in the U. S. to run on renewable energy. Two theories have been put forward regarding the origin of Burlington's name; the first is that it was named after Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington, the second is that the name honors the politically prominent and wealthy Burling family of New York.
While no Burling family members are listed as grantees of the town, the family held large tracts of land in nearby towns, some of which were granted on the same day as Burlington. One of the New Hampshire grants, the land, developed as Burlington was awarded by New Hampshire colonial governor Benning Wentworth on June 7, 1763, to Samuel Willis and 63 others. In the summer of 1775, settlers began clearing land and built two or three log huts, but the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War delayed permanent settlement until after its conclusion. In 1783, Stephen Lawrence arrived with his family; the town was organized in 1785. The War of 1812 was unpopular in Vermont and New England, which had numerous trading ties with Canada. Neither Vermont nor other New England states provided financial support. Vermont voters supported the Federalist Party. At one point during the war, the U. S. had 5,000 troops stationed in Burlington, outnumbering residents and putting a strain on resources. About 500 soldiers died of disease, always a problem due to poor sanitation in army camps.
Some soldiers were quartered in the main building at the University of Vermont, where a memorial plaque commemorates them. In a skirmish on August 2, 1813, British forces from Canada shelled Burlington; this is described as either a bold stroke by the British with an ineffectual response from the Americans, or a weak sally by the British, rightly ignored by the Americans. The cannonade caused no casualties; the American troops involved were commanded by Naval Lieutenant Thomas Macdonough hero of the Battle of Lake Champlain. The town's position on Lake Champlain helped it develop into a port of entry and center for trade after completion of the Champlain Canal in 1823, the Erie Canal in 1825, the Chambly Canal in 1843. Wharves allowed steamboats to connect freight and passengers with the Rutland & Burlington Railroad and Vermont Central Railroad. Burlington became a bustling lumbering and manufacturing center and was incorporated as a city in 1865, its Victorian era prosperity left behind much fine architecture, including buildings by Ammi B.
Young, H. H. Richardson, McKim, Mead & White. In 1870, the waterfront was extended by construction of the Pine Street Barge Canal; this became polluted over the years and was a focus for cleanup in 2009 under the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's Superfund program. In 1978, the ice cream enterprise Ben & Jerry's was founded in Burlington in a renovated gas station, it became a national brand, with retail outlets in numerous cities. In 2007, the city was named one of the top four "places to watch" in the United States by the American Association of Retired Persons; the ratings were based on. Criteria included the factors that make a community livable: new urbanism, smart growth, mixed-use development, easy-living standards. Forbes magazine ranked the city in 2010 as one of the "prettiest" towns in America, featuring a picture of the Church Street Marketplace on its cover. Burlington is situated on the eastern shore of Lake Champlain, north of Shelburne Bay, it was built on a strip of land extending about 6 miles south from the mouth of the Winooski River along the lake shore, rises from the water's edge to a height of 300 feet.
A large ravine in what is now downtown was filled in with refuse and raw sewage in the 19th century to make way for further development. Burlington's neighborhoods are recognized by residents, but have no legal or political authority. Downtown: The city's commercial hub is north of Maple Street, south of Pearl Street, west of Willard Street. Hill Section: Burlington's wealthiest neighborhood is east of U. S. Route 7 and south of U. S. excludes UVM and University Terrace, while including all of Champlain College. The Hill Section is; the Intervale: The Intervale cannot be considered a neighborhood but is a large area encompassing many locally owned organic farms and natural preserves along the Winooski River. It is included on this list because its total area is larger than that of most neighborhoods in Burlington. New North End: Burlington's most populous neighborhood, a northwest suburban extension of the city, includes all points north of Burlington High School, as well as Leddy Park and North Beach, is west of Vermont Route 127.
Old North End: Burlington's oldest and most densely populated neighborhood is north of all properties along Pearl Street, west of
Henry Hudson was an English sea explorer and navigator during the early 17th century, best known for his explorations of present-day Canada and parts of the northeastern United States. In 1607 and 1608, Hudson made two attempts on behalf of English merchants to find a rumored Northeast Passage to Cathay via a route above the Arctic Circle. In 1609 he landed in North America and explored the region around the modern New York metropolitan area, looking for a Northwest Passage to Asia on behalf of the Dutch East India Company, he sailed up the Hudson River, named after him, thereby laid the foundation for Dutch colonization of the region. Hudson discovered the Hudson Strait and the immense Hudson Bay on his final expedition, while still searching for the Northwest Passage. In 1611, after wintering on the shore of James Bay, Hudson wanted to press on to the west, but most of his crew mutinied; the mutineers cast Hudson, his son, seven others adrift. Besides being the namesake of numerous geographical features, Hudson is the namesake of the Hudson's Bay Company that explored and traded in the vast Hudson Bay watershed in the following centuries.
Details of Hudson's birth and early life are unknown. Some sources have identified Henry Hudson as having been born in about 1565, but others date his birth to around 1570. Other historians assert less certainty. Mancall, for instance, states that " was born in the 1560s," while Piers Pennington gives no date at all. Hudson is thought to have spent many years at sea, beginning as a cabin boy and working his way up to ship's captain. In 1607, the Muscovy Company of England hired Hudson to find a northerly route to the Pacific coast of Asia. At the time, the English were engaged in an economic battle with the Dutch for control of northwest routes, it was thought that, because the sun shone for three months in the northern latitudes in the summer, the ice would melt and a ship could make it across the "top of the world". On 1 May 1607, Hudson sailed with a crew of a boy on the 80-ton Hopewell, they reached the east coast of Greenland on 14 June. Here the party named a headland "Young's Cape", a "very high mount, like a round castle" near it "Mount of God's Mercy" and land at 73° north latitude "Hold-with-Hope".
After turning east, they sighted "Newland" on the 27th, near the mouth of the great bay Hudson simply named the "Great Indraught". On 13 July and his crew estimated that they had sailed as far north as 80° 23' N, but more only reached 79° 23' N; the following day they entered what Hudson in the voyage named "Whales Bay", naming its northwestern point "Collins Cape" after his boatswain, William Collins. They sailed north the following two days. On the 16th they reached as far north as Hakluyt's Headland at 79° 49' N, thinking they saw the land continue to 82° N when it trended to the east. Encountering ice packed along the north coast, they were forced to turn back south. Hudson wanted to make his return "by the north of Greenland to Davis his Streights, so for Kingdom of England," but ice conditions would have made this impossible; the expedition returned to Tilbury Hope on the Thames on 15 September. Hudson reported large numbers of whales in Spitsbergen waters during this voyage. Many authors credit his reports as the catalyst for several nations sending whaling expeditions to the islands.
This claim is contentious- others have pointed to strong evidence that it was Jonas Poole's reports in 1610 that led to the establishment of English whaling, voyages of Nicholas Woodcock and Willem Cornelisz. Van Muyden in 1612 which led to the establishment of Dutch and Spanish whaling. In 1608, English merchants of the East India and Muscovy Companies again sent Hudson in the Hopewell to attempt to locate a passage to the Indies, this time to the east around northern Russia. Leaving London on 22 April, the ship traveled 2,500 miles, making it to Novaya Zemlya well above the Arctic Circle in July, but in the summer they found the ice impenetrable and turned back, arriving at Gravesend on 26 August. According to Thomas Edge, "William Hudson" in 1608 discovered an island he named "Hudson's Tutches" at 71° N, the latitude of Jan Mayen. However, records of Hudson's voyages suggest that he could only have come across Jan Mayen in 1607 by making an illogical detour, historians have pointed out that Hudson himself made no mention of it in his journal.
There is no cartographical proof of this supposed discovery. Jonas Poole in 1611 and Robert Fotherby in 1615 both had possession of Hudson's journal while searching for his elusive Hold-with-Hope, but neither had any knowledge of any discovery of Jan Mayen, an achievement, only attributed to Hudson. Fotherby stumbled across Jan Mayen, thinking it a new discovery and naming it "Sir Thomas Smith's Island", though the first verifiable records of the discovery of the island had been made a year earlier, in 1614. In 1609 Hudson was chosen by merchants of the Dutch East India Company in the Netherlands to find an easterly passage to Asia. While awaiting orders and supplies in Amsterdam, he heard rumors of a northwest route to the Pacific through North America. Hudson had been told to sail through the Arctic Ocean north of Russia, into the Pacific and so to the Far East. Huds
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
2000 United States presidential election in New York
The 2000 United States presidential election in New York took place on November 7, 2000 as part of the 2000 United States presidential election. Voters chose 33 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. New York was won by the Incumbent Democratic Vice President of the United States Al Gore in a landslide victory; this marked the first time since 1964 that a Democratic presidential candidate won more than 60% of the vote in New York State, only the second time in history, solidifying New York's status as a solid blue state in the 21st century. New York weighed in as about 25% more Democratic than the national average in the 2000 election; the key to Gore's victory was wide margins of victory in greater New York Long Island. He did win some counties in upstate New York, but won with small margins, except for Albany County, which voted exactly the same as the statewide results. Since third-party candidates received over 4% of the vote, Bush did poorly.
Although, Bush did win a majority of the counties in upstate New York, including his largest victory in rural Hamilton County. Bush won just four congressional districts, including New York's 22nd congressional district, New York's 23rd congressional district, New York's 27th congressional district, New York's 31st congressional district; as of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last election in which the Democratic candidate won Montgomery County. John Hagelin was nominee of the Natural Law Party nationally. Al Gore won an overwhelming landslide in fiercely Democratic New York City, taking 1,703,364 votes to George W. Bush's 398,726, a 77.90% - 18.23% victory. Gore carried all 5 boroughs of New York City. Excluding New York City's votes, Gore still would have carried New York State, but by a smaller margin, receiving 2,404,543 votes to Bush's 2,004,648, giving Gore a 54.53% - 45.47% win. Technically the voters of New York cast their ballots for electors: representatives to the Electoral College.
New York is allocated 33 electors because it has 2 senators. All candidates who appear on the ballot or qualify to receive write-in votes must submit a list of 33 electors, who pledge to vote for their candidate and his or her running mate. Whoever wins the majority of votes in the state is awarded all 33 electoral votes, their chosen electors vote for president and vice president. Although electors are pledged to their candidate and running mate, they are not obligated to vote for them. An elector who votes for someone other than his or her candidate is known as a faithless elector; the electors of each state and the District of Columbia met on December 18, 2000 to cast their votes for president and vice president. The Electoral College itself never meets as one body. Instead the electors from each state and the District of Columbia met in their respective capitols; the following were the members of the Electoral College from the state. All were pledged to and voted for Gore and Lieberman: Susan I.
Abramowitz Leslie Alpert Martin S. Begun David L. Cohen Carolee A. Conklin Martin Connor Lorraine Cortez Vasquez Inez E. Dickens Cynthia Emmer Herman D. Farrell Jr. Emily Giske Patrick G. Halpin Raymond B. Harding Judith Hope Denis M. Hughes Virginia Kee Bertha Lewis Alberta Madonna Thomas J. Manton Deborah Marciano Helen Marshall Carl McCall Elizabeth F. Momrow Clarence Norman Jr. Daniel F. Donohue Shirley O'Connell G. Steven Pigeon Roberto Ramirez Michael Schell Sheldon Silver Andrew Spano Eliot Spitzer Randi Weingarten