Umatilla National Forest
The Umatilla National Forest, in the Blue Mountains of northeast Oregon and southeast Washington, covers an area of 1.4 million acres. In descending order of land area the forest is located in parts of Umatilla, Columbia, Wallowa, Garfield, Asotin and Walla Walla counties. More than three-quarters of the forest lies in the state of Oregon. Forest headquarters are located in Oregon. There are local ranger district offices in Heppner and Ukiah in Oregon, in Pomeroy and Walla Walla in Washington; the Umatilla National Forest takes its name from the Umatilla Indian word meaning "water rippling over sand." Explorers Lewis and Clark passed through the area in 1805 on the Columbia River, Marcus and Narcissa Whitman passed through in 1836 to establish a mission at Wailatpu near Walla Walla, Washington. Thousands of emigrants followed the Oregon Trail west, many remained in the Blue Mountain region. Discovery of gold in Oregon in 1851 led to the settlement of the North Fork John Day River area. More than $10 million in gold and silver were mined, remnants of the era are still visible in the National Forest.
Some claims are still being mined. Umatilla was established on July 1, 1908 from part of Blue Mountains National Forest and all of Heppner National Forest. Wenaha National Forest was added on November 5, 1920; the forest was the site of the School Fire, the largest fire in the contiguous United States of 2005. Common wildlife in the Umatilla National Forest include moose, bighorn sheep, black bear, mountain goat, mule deer, white-tailed deer, timber wolf, coyote, Merriam's turkeys, transplanted Rio Grande wild turkeys and ruffed grouse, Franklin's grouse, chinook salmon, coho salmon, rainbow trout, brook trout, lake trout. More than 20 percent of the Umatilla National Forest is classified as wilderness: Wenaha–Tucannon Wilderness, 177,400 acres, straddles the border between Oregon and Washington. North Fork John Day Wilderness, 121,800 acres, is in the southeast section of the National Forest and located in neighboring Whitman National Forest. North Fork Umatilla Wilderness, 20,200 acres, contains the narrow valley of the North Fork Umatilla River, the source of the Umatilla River.
A 1993 Forest Service study estimated. Common recreational activities in the Umatilla National Forest include OHV riding, hiking, hunting, wildlife watching and rafting. Spout Springs Ski Area in Oregon and Bluewood Ski Area in Washington operate under special use permit within the forest. Jubilee Lake has the most popular campground in the forest. List of U. S. National Forests Umatilla National Forest, USDA Forest Service
The Columbia River is the largest river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. The river rises in the Rocky Mountains of Canada, it flows northwest and south into the US state of Washington turns west to form most of the border between Washington and the state of Oregon before emptying into the Pacific Ocean. The river is 1,243 miles long, its largest tributary is the Snake River, its drainage basin is the size of France and extends into seven US states and a Canadian province. The fourth-largest river in the United States by volume, the Columbia has the greatest flow of any North American river entering the Pacific; the Columbia and its tributaries have been central to the region's culture and economy for thousands of years. They have been used for transportation since ancient times, linking the region's many cultural groups; the river system hosts many species of anadromous fish, which migrate between freshwater habitats and the saline waters of the Pacific Ocean. These fish—especially the salmon species—provided the core subsistence for native peoples.
In the late 18th century, a private American ship became the first non-indigenous vessel to enter the river. In the following decades, fur trading companies used the Columbia as a key transportation route. Overland explorers entered the Willamette Valley through the scenic but treacherous Columbia River Gorge, pioneers began to settle the valley in increasing numbers. Steamships along the river linked facilitated trade. Since the late 19th century and private sectors have developed the river. To aid ship and barge navigation, locks have been built along the lower Columbia and its tributaries, dredging has opened and enlarged shipping channels. Since the early 20th century, dams have been built across the river for power generation, navigation and flood control; the 14 hydroelectric dams on the Columbia's main stem and many more on its tributaries produce more than 44 percent of total US hydroelectric generation. Production of nuclear power has taken place at two sites along the river. Plutonium for nuclear weapons was produced for decades at the Hanford Site, now the most contaminated nuclear site in the US.
These developments have altered river environments in the watershed through industrial pollution and barriers to fish migration. The Columbia begins its 1,243-mile journey in the southern Rocky Mountain Trench in British Columbia. Columbia Lake – 2,690 feet above sea level – and the adjoining Columbia Wetlands form the river's headwaters; the trench is a broad and long glacial valley between the Canadian Rockies and the Columbia Mountains in BC. For its first 200 miles, the Columbia flows northwest along the trench through Windermere Lake and the town of Invermere, a region known in British Columbia as the Columbia Valley northwest to Golden and into Kinbasket Lake. Rounding the northern end of the Selkirk Mountains, the river turns south through a region known as the Big Bend Country, passing through Revelstoke Lake and the Arrow Lakes. Revelstoke, the Big Bend, the Columbia Valley combined are referred to in BC parlance as the Columbia Country. Below the Arrow Lakes, the Columbia passes the cities of Castlegar, located at the Columbia's confluence with the Kootenay River, Trail, two major population centers of the West Kootenay region.
The Pend Oreille River joins the Columbia about 2 miles north of the US–Canada border. The Columbia enters eastern Washington flowing south and turning to the west at the Spokane River confluence, it marks the southern and eastern borders of the Colville Indian Reservation and the western border of the Spokane Indian Reservation. The river turns south after the Okanogan River confluence southeasterly near the confluence with the Wenatchee River in central Washington; this C‑shaped segment of the river is known as the "Big Bend". During the Missoula Floods 10,000 to 15,000 years ago, much of the floodwater took a more direct route south, forming the ancient river bed known as the Grand Coulee. After the floods, the river found its present course, the Grand Coulee was left dry; the construction of the Grand Coulee Dam in the mid-20th century impounded the river, forming Lake Roosevelt, from which water was pumped into the dry coulee, forming the reservoir of Banks Lake. The river flows past The Gorge Amphitheatre, a prominent concert venue in the Northwest through Priest Rapids Dam, through the Hanford Nuclear Reservation.
Within the reservation is Hanford Reach, the only US stretch of the river, free-flowing, unimpeded by dams and not a tidal estuary. The Snake River and Yakima River join the Columbia in the Tri‑Cities population center; the Columbia makes a sharp bend to the west at the Washington–Oregon border. The river defines that border for the final 309 miles of its journey; the Deschutes River joins the Columbia near The Dalles. Between The Dalles and Portland, the river cuts through the Cascade Range, forming the dramatic Columbia River Gorge. No other rivers except for the Klamath and Pit River breaches the Cascades—the other rivers that flow through the range originate in or near the mountains; the headwaters and upper course of the Pit River are on the Modoc Plateau. In contrast, the Columbia cuts through the range nearly a thousand miles from its source in the Rocky Mountains; the gorge is known
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Irish Americans are an ethnic group comprising Americans who have full or partial ancestry from Ireland those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural characteristics. About 33 million Americans — 10.5% of the total population — reported Irish ancestry in the 2013 American Community Survey conducted by the U. S. Census Bureau; this compares with a population of 6.7 million on the island of Ireland. Three million people separately identified as Scotch-Irish, whose ancestors were Ulster Scots and Anglo-Irish Protestant Dissenters who emigrated from Ireland to the United States. However, whether the Scotch-Irish should be considered Irish is disputed. Half of the Irish immigrants in the colonial era came from the Irish province of Ulster while the other half came from the other three provinces of Ireland. While scholarly estimates vary, the most common approximation is that 250,000 migrated to the United States from 1717 to 1775. By 1790 400,000 people of Irish birth or ancestry lived in the United States.
These early immigrants were overwhelmingly members of the Protestant minority in Ireland who descended from Scottish and English colonists and colonial administrators who had settled the Plantations of Ireland, the largest of, the Plantation of Ulster. In Ireland, they are referred to as the Ulster Scots and the Anglo-Irish and while they intermarried to some degree, they never intermarried with the native Irish Catholic population, in turn, the Irish Catholics never converted to Protestant churches during the Reformation. Of the 250,000 immigrants from Ireland to the United States between 1717 and 1775 10,000 were Catholics. By 1800, the number of Irish Catholics who had immigrated had increased in absolute terms to 20,000, but had declined in proportional terms, as one-sixth of the white population in the United States by that time was composed of those of Scotch-Irish descent. Like most Catholics in the United States at the time, these Irish Catholics settled in Maryland and Pennsylvania.
In 1700, the estimated population of Maryland was 29,600, about one-tenth of, Catholic. By 1756, the number of Catholics in Maryland had increased to 7,000, which increased further to 20,000 by 1765. In Pennsylvania, there were 3,000 Catholics in 1756 and 6,000 by 1765. By the end of the American Revolutionary War in 1783, there were 24,000 to 25,000 Catholics in the United States out of a total population of 3 million. However, most of the Catholic population in the United States during the colonial period came from England and France, not Ireland. Most descendants of the Protestant Irish today identify their ancestry as "American" or "Irish"; the terms "Scotch-Irish" and "Scots-Irish" were utilized in the 19th century to differentiate between Protestant Irish and the later-arriving Catholic Irish. The Scots Irish were tenant farmers, settled in Ireland by the British government during the 17th-century Plantation of Ulster; the Scots-Irish settled in the colonial "back country" of the Appalachian Mountain region, became the prominent ethnic strain in the culture that developed there.
The descendants of Scots-Irish settlers had a great influence on the culture of the Southern United States in particular and the culture of the United States in general through such contributions as American folk music and western music, stock car racing, which became popular throughout the country in the late 20th century. Irish immigrants of this period participated in significant numbers in the American Revolution, leading one British major general to testify at the House of Commons that "half the rebel Continental Army were from Ireland." Historiographer Michael J. O'Brien examined many of the muster rolls from the Revolutionary War and found quintessential native Irish surnames and possible Anglicized Irish surnames, he estimated that some 38% of those in the revolutionary army were Irish. Irish Americans signed the foundational documents of the United States—the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution—and, beginning with Andrew Jackson, served as President; the early Ulster immigrants and their descendants at first referred to themselves as "Irish," without the qualifier "Scotch."
It was not until more than a century following the surge in Irish immigration after the Great Irish Famine of the 1840s, that some descendants of the Protestant Irish began to refer to themselves as "Scots-Irish" to distinguish them from the predominantly Catholic, destitute, wave of immigrants from Ireland in that era. However, most descendants of the Scots-Irish continued to consider themselves "Irish" or "American" rather than Scots-Irish; the two groups had little initial interaction in America, as the 18th-century Ulster immigrants were predominantly Protestant and had become settled in upland regions of the American interior, while the huge wave of 19th-century Catholic immigrant families settled in the Northeast and Midwest port cities such as Boston, New York, Buffalo, or Chicago. Ho
Washington's 5th congressional district
Washington's 5th congressional district encompasses the Eastern Washington counties of Ferry, Pend Oreille, Spokane, Walla Walla, Columbia and Asotin. It is centered on the state's second largest city. Since 2005, the 5th District has been represented in the U. S. House of Representatives by Cathy McMorris Rodgers, a Republican. Rodgers's predecessor, George Nethercutt, defeated Tom Foley Speaker of the House, in the 1994 elections. In presidential elections, the 5th District was once competitive, but in recent years has been a safe bet for the Republicans. Although George W. Bush carried the district with 57% in 2000 and 2004, John McCain just narrowly won the district with 52% of the vote, while Barack Obama received 46% in 2008. In 2012, President Obama's share of the vote dropped to 44%; the first election in the 5th District was in 1914, won by Democrat Clarence Dill. Following the 1910 census, Washington gained two seats in the U. S. House, from three to five, but did not reapportion for the 1912 election.
The two new seats were elected as statewide at-large, with each voter casting ballots for three congressional seats, their district and two at-large. After that election, the state was reapportioned to five districts for the 1914 election; the state's 6th District was first contested in the 1932 election. United States House of Representatives elections in Washington, 2008 United States House of Representatives elections in Washington, 2010 United States House of Representatives elections in Washington, 2012 Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present Washington State Redistricting Commission Find your new congressional district: a searchable map, Seattle Times, January 13, 2012
Dayton is a city in and the county seat of Columbia County, United States. The population was 2,526 at the 2010 census. Dayton was founded in the 1860s. A town site plat was filed by Jesse N. and Elizabeth Day on November 23, 1871. Dayton was incorporated on November 10, 1881 and was named for Jesse Day. Dayton has the oldest train depot in the oldest continuously used courthouse; the historical community of Baileysburg was once located about one mile southeast of Dayton, at the junction of North Touchet and South Touchet Roads. In the 1980s and 1990s, the town underwent a $3 million restoration program, repairing the historic depot and historic courthouse, adding pedestrian amenities to Main Street, creating a National Historic District. Dayton is located at 46°19′11″N 117°58′40″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.43 square miles, all of it land. The Touchet River runs through Dayton. Dayton is somewhat milder than most of eastern Washington in the winter and has a Mediterranean climate with hot summers and chilly, though not severe winters with only moderate snowfall.
Precipitation is moderate for most of the year except for a dry period between July and September when major wildfires are common in the region with the hot days and low humidity. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,526 people, 1,082 households, 670 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,766.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,200 housing units at an average density of 839.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91.6% White, 0.4% African American, 1.9% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.6% Pacific Islander, 1.8% from other races, 3.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.1% of the population. There were 1,082 households of which 25.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.0% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 38.1% were non-families. 33.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.85. The median age in the city was 46.3 years. 21.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.0% male and 51.0% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,655 people, 1,081 households, 695 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,803.0 people per square mile. There were 1,181 housing units at an average density of 802.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.58% White, 0.30% African American, 1.05% Native American, 0.49% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 3.54% from other races, 2.00% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.17% of the population. There were 1,081 households out of which 30.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.4% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.7% were non-families. 31.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 3.02. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.8% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 23.1% from 25 to 44, 24.5% from 45 to 64, 18.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $31,409, the median income for a family was $40,714. Males had a median income of $31,395 versus $21,339 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,925. About 10.3% of families and 13.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.0% of those under age 18 and 9.6% of those age 65 or over. Dmitri Borgmann, writer Frederick Gilbreath, United States Army General Robert Shields, writer Frank Finkel, claimed lone survivor of the Battle of the Little Bighorn Dayton Chamber of Commerce Pictures of Dayton and Columbia County
The Tucannon River is a tributary of the Snake River in the U. S. state of Washington. It flows northwest from headwaters in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington to meet the Snake 4 miles upstream from Lyons Ferry Park and the mouth of the Palouse River; the Tucannon is about 62 miles long. Part of the upper river flows through the Wenaha–Tucannon Wilderness; the Tucannon basin of 502 square miles ranges in elevation from about 540 feet above sea level at the mouth on the Snake River to about 6,400 feet in the Umatilla National Forest of the Blue Mountains. River flows in the Tucannon basin depend on precipitation and groundwater. Studies in the early 1990s suggested that these flows would not be able to meet all of the claims and private, on the water resources of the lower river. In particular, farm irrigation projects were competing with fisheries for limited water; the Washington Department of Ecology named the Tucannon basin a Watershed Resource Inventory Area and in 1995 began hearings about how to allocate the water.
The lower Snake River was home to bands of the Palouse and other Sahaptin-speaking people, including Nez Perce, Walla Walla and Wanapum. The Blue Mountains formed the western part of a 17,000,000-acre region traditional to the aboriginal Nimi'ipuu people, renamed Nez Perce by Lewis and Clark when they arrived in the region in 1805; the horse was central to the lives of the Nez Perce. The Nez Perce Trail followed part of the Touchet and Tucannon rivers, extending east from Wallula and reaching the Touchet below Waitsburg. From there it followed the southern bank of the Touchet River to present day Dayton. Here it followed Patit Creek northeast. On October 12, 1805, after a difficult passage through Snake River rapids and Clark passed through a shorter rapids just east of the mouth of the Tucannon. Lewis wrote, "This we called called Kimooenim creek"; the expedition continued down the Snake in dugouts. On their return trip to St. Louis on May 2, 1806, Lewis and Clark followed the Nez Perce Trail, crossing over from Patit Creek about 2.5 miles east of present-day Dayton to meet the Tucannon.
Only 12 miles beyond their campsite they reached the stream. This creek rises in the southwest mountains, though only twelve yards wide discharges a considerable body of water into Lewis' river, a few miles above the narrows, its bed is pebbled... N its narrow bottoms are found some cottonwood and the underbrush which grows on the east branch of the Wollawollah. Lewis and Clark camped on the Pataha Creek, recorded as the first locality for some distance where they were able to find ample firewood; the fur industry was important in the region. The Tucannon River provided a profitable area for otter trapping, which were abundant. F. A. Shaver's 1906 book, An Illustrated History of Southeastern Washington, said that prior to 1834 the British Hudson's Bay Company personnel were "undisputed occupants since 1829." A party was led by John Work, who served as an agent of the HBC. Starting from Fort Nez Perce in September 1831, Work and a 56-person party followed the Nez Perce Trail to the Upper Snake River country.
In the late winter of 1834, Captain Benjamin Bonneville crossed the Tucannon on the Nez Perce Trail, surveying the Northwest on behalf of the United States government. A number of wagon roads were built through the area in the 1860s. Settlers drifted into the Tucannon River area in the 1860s, but in the early 1870s settlement increased. In 1848, during the Cayuse War Captain Lawrence Hall's Company fought an engagement with the Cayuse on the Tucannon River: Returning to Waiilatpu, the best mounted and equipped of the riflemen, Hall's company among them, were selected for an expedition against the Cayuse Indians, whose exact location was at this time unknown; the object was to bring the Indians to terms by some means, by fighting or otherwise, recapture the stock stolen from the whites. The expedition started about the 10th of March, 1848, after a search of ten days or so found the enemy encamped on Tucannon River, about four miles above its confluence with the Columbia; the enemy adopted the ruse of hoisting a white flag, asked for and had a talk with the troops, anti pretended not to belong to the hostile party.
The troops outnumbered, fought on the defensive, marching in retreat, formed in a hollow square, to resist the assaults made on all sides. The first night the captured stock was turned loose; the next morning the attack and retreat continued, the Indians, as the Touchet River crossing was approached, took possession of it, attempting thereby to cutoff the retreat of the troops effectually. Here nothing but the most determined charge and fighting drove off the Indians and enabled the whites to cross that river and thus escape threatened extermination. During the Coeur d'Alene War on August 7, 1858, Captain Erasmus D. Keyes with a detachment of dragoons was ordered to the Snake River to erect a fort at a crossing point near the Palouse River, he selected the mouth of Tucannon River to establish Fort Taylor (a supply depot which honored Captain Oliver H. P. Taylor—killed that same year while he served with Lt. Colonel Edward Steptoe against the Spokanes in April. On August 25 this point served as a crossing point for Colonel Georg