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Columbia County, Arkansas

Columbia County is a county located in the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 24,552; the county seat is Magnolia. The county was formed on December 17, 1852, was named for Christopher Columbus; the Magnolia, AR Micropolitan Statistical Area includes all of Columbia County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 767 square miles, of which 766 square miles is land and 0.7 square miles is water. Columbia County is in South Arkansas. Columbia County, along with Union County, is home to the largest Bromine reserve in the United States. Dorcheat Bayou flows through Columbia County from its origin in Nevada County southward into Webster Parish, before emptying into Lake Bistineau. Nevada County Ouachita County Union County Claiborne Parish, Louisiana Webster Parish, Louisiana Lafayette County As of the 2000 census, there were 25,603 people, 9,981 households, 6,747 families residing in the county; the population density was 33 people per square mile.

There were 11,566 housing units at an average density of 15 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 62.08% White, 36.06% Black or African American, 0.26% Native American, 0.34% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.46% from other races, 0.77% from two or more races. 1.05% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 9,981 households out of which 30.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.90% were married couples living together, 15.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.40% were non-families. 29.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.03. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.10% under the age of 18, 12.30% from 18 to 24, 25.30% from 25 to 44, 21.40% from 45 to 64, 15.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 90.90 males.

For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,640, the median income for a family was $36,271. Males had a median income of $31,313 versus $20,099 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,322. About 15.80% of families and 21.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.70% of those under age 18 and 20.00% of those age 65 or over. U. S. Highway 79 U. S. Highway 82 U. S. Highway 371 Highway 19 Highway 98 Highway 160 Future Interstate 69 Magnolia Municipal Airport is a public-use airport in Columbia County, it is owned by the city of Magnolia and located three nautical miles southeast of its central business district. Over the past few election cycles Columbia County has trended towards the GOP; the last Democrat to carry this county was Bill Clinton in 1996. Magnolia Emerson McNeil Taylor Waldo Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times.

However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications. The townships of Columbia County are listed below. Emerson McNeil Magnolia Taylor Village Waldo List of lakes in Columbia County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Columbia County, Arkansas Columbia County Sheriff's Office

Toptable

Toptable was an online restaurant booker covering the UK as well as major cities in Europe and New York City established in 2000 and bought by OpenTable in 2010. Toptable was founded in 2000 by entrepreneur Karen Hanton for restaurant owners to advertise their venues and book customers directly. Toptable sat over 1.5 million diners in 2006. Toptable lists more than 5,000 restaurants in the UK, plus Paris and New York City, providing online menus, reviews and 360° images of each restaurant. Diners can compare information about restaurants before their table booking online. Today, 2.3 million visitors view the Toptable website each month and, in February 2010, a dedicated Toptable iPhone app was launched. The toptable Android app has been available, at least since Sep 2013Toptable provides a restaurant booking engine for Time Out, British Airways, The Guardian, The Times Online, Visit London and View London. In 2006 toptable bought City Eating, incorporating London Eating for an undisclosed sum.

Investors in Toptable include football manager Sir Alex Ferguson, celebrity chef Gary Rhodes and Diageo. In September 2010, toptable was acquired by competitor OpenTable for US$55 million. OpenTable official website

The History and Present State of Electricity

The History and Present State of Electricity, by eighteenth-century British polymath Joseph Priestley, is a survey of the study of electricity up until 1766 as well as a description of experiments by Priestley himself. Priestley became interested in electricity. Friends introduced him to the major British experimenters in the field: John Canton, William Watson, Benjamin Franklin; these men encouraged Priestley to perform the experiments. In the process of replicating others' experiments, Priestley became intrigued by the still unanswered questions regarding electricity and was prompted to design and undertake his own experiments. Priestley possessed an electrical machine designed by Edward Nairne. With his brother Timothy he constructed his own machines; the first half of the 700-page book is a history of the study of electricity. It is parted into ten periods, starting with early experiments "prior to those of Mr. Hawkesbee", finishing with variable experiments and discoveries made after Franklin's own experiments.

The book takes Franklin's work into focus, criticised by contemporary scholars in France and Germany. The second and more influential half contents a description of contemporary theories about electricity and suggestions for future research. Priestley wrote about the construction and use of electrical machines, basic electrical experiments and "practical maxims for the usw of young elecricians". In the second edition, Priestley added some of his own discoveries, such as the conductivity of charcoal; this discovery overturned what he termed "one of the earliest and universally received maxims of electricity," that only water and metals could conduct electricity. Such experiments demonstrate that Priestley was interested in the relationship between chemistry and electricity from the beginning of his scientific career. In one of his more speculative moments, he "provided a mathematical quasi-demonstration of the inverse-square force law for electrical charges, it was the first respectable claim for that law, out of which came the development of a mathematical theory of static electricity."The book contains an account of the kite experiment of Benjamin Franklin, taken as authoritative.

Some details not found elsewhere are presumed to have been communicated by Franklin. The status of this account matters for the priority dispute over the experiment in which Franklin became involved; the focus on Franklin's experiments influenced the reception of his work in Europe. Priestley's famous text supported the distribution of Franklin's research, which helped it becoming one of the most important works on electricity in the late 18th century. Priestley's strength as a natural philosopher was qualitative rather than quantitative and his observation of "a current of real air" between two electrified points would interest Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell as they investigated electromagnetism. Priestley's text became the standard history of electricity for over a century. Priestley wrote a popular version of the History of Electricity for the general public titled A Familiar Introduction to the Study of Electricity. Gibbs, F. W. Joseph Priestley: Adventurer in Science and Champion of Truth.

London: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1965. Jackson, Joe, A World on Fire: A Heretic, An Aristocrat And The Race to Discover Oxygen. New York: Viking, 2005. ISBN 0-670-03434-7. Schofield, Robert E; the Enlightenment of Joseph Priestley: A Study of his Life and Work from 1733 to 1773. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-271-01662-0. Thorpe, T. E. Joseph Priestley. London: J. M. Dent, 1906. Uglow, Jenny; the Lunar Men: Five Friends Whose Curiosity Changed the World. New York: Farrar and Giroux, 2002. ISBN 0-374-19440-8. Priestley, Joseph; the History and Present State of Electricity, with original experiments. London: Printed for J. Dodsley, J. Johnson and T. Cadell, 1767

Highway Book Shop

The Highway Book Shop was a bookstore and publishing company, located on Ontario Highway 11 near Cobalt, which operated from 1957 to 2011. Considered a landmark and cultural institution in the region, it was one of the largest and most famous independent bookstores in Canada. First established as a conventional printing business in 1957 by Douglas Pollard and his then-wife Jean, the business expanded into book sales after accepting a box of books as alternative payment for a printing job; as the business grew, Pollard expanded further into book publishing, releasing an extensive catalogue of titles in English and First Nations languages. Books about the history and culture of Northern Ontario were the publishing arm's primary interest, although the company published some fiction and poetry titles by local authors, as well as how-to and humour titles. In addition to its physical store, the shop maintained an extensive mail order business, as well as a search service for people interested in purchasing rare or out-of-print books, travelled throughout Ontario to sell books at regional fairs and festivals.

At its peak, the store had over 300,000 titles in stock in a variety of locations, including the main building, on-site trailers and several warehouses. By the early 2000s, the store had a presence on AbeBooks, increasing its visibility for international sales of its rare books. Following Jean Pollard's death, Douglas remarried in 1979 to Lois, who became active in the store. Douglas Pollard was awarded an honorary doctorate by Nipissing University the following year, the first honorary degree granted by that institution. Douglas Pollard was active in the national literary community, including as a board member of the Ontario Arts Council and as a member of the committee for the Stephen Leacock Memorial Medal for Humour, he was inducted into the Order of Canada in 2008, although he died in 2009 before his actual induction ceremony. Lois Pollard accepted the award on his behalf. In her late 80s and keen to retire, Lois Pollard placed the store up for sale soon after Douglas' death, but closed it in 2011 after failing to find a willing buyer.

She published a history of the store, Highway Book Shop: Northern Ontario's Unexpected Treasure, in 2011, donated a large collection of records and memorabilia from the store to the Laurentian University archives in 2010 and 2011. Although the physical store is no longer in operation, its website still exists and some titles published by the company are still available for sale through the site. Highway Book Shop

Vyvyan Lorrayne

Vyvyan Lorrayne is a South African ballet dancer, now retired. Noted as a "softly classical stylist," she won acclaim as a principal dancer in England's Royal Ballet during the 1960s and 1970s. Lorrayne was born in Pretoria, the executive capital of South Africa, located in the northern province of Transvaal, her parents were Anglophones of British stock, although Pretoria was at the time populated by Afrikaners. Having contracted polio when she was four and a half years old, she was sent to numerous dance classes to help in her recovery. Upon finding that only the strict Russian systems of ballet training helped, she became a pupil of Faith de Villiers, a popular teacher of the Cecchetti method in Johannesburg, not far from her home town. In the early 1950s, the teenage Lorrayne danced with the Johannesburg City Ballet, directed by de Villiers, and, in Natal, with the Durban Civic Ballet, where she studied with Poppins Salomon, a specialist in remedial dance work. In 1956, at age eighteen, she immigrated to England, settled in London, enrolled in the Royal Ballet School on Barons Court Road.

After a year's study there, she was hired as an artist of the Covent Garden Opera Ballet. Lorrayne spent only a few months with the opera company. In 1957, she was taken into The Royal Ballet, where she would remain for the next twenty-two years. During her first decade with the company, she rose through the ranks, until she was appointed a principal dancer in 1967. Favored by Sir Frederick Ashton, chief choreographer of the Royal Ballet, she created memorable roles in four of his works. With Anthony Dowell and Robert Mead, she danced in the premiere of Monotones, a mesmerizing pas de trois of amazing plasticity and coordination set to the haunting Gymnopédies of Erik Satie as orchestrated by Claude Debussy and Alexis Roland-Manuel. In Jazz Calendar, set to music by Richard Rodney Bennett, she led the Wednesday ensemble, in Enigma Variations, set to music by Sir Edward Elgar, she portrayed Isabel Fitton, a viola student of Elgar's. Dancing to Variation VI, she created a pensive and, for a moment, romantic image of a pretty young girl.

In 1972, she danced with Barry McGrath in Siesta, a sultry, erotic pas de deux set to the music of Sir William Walton and created as a pièce d'occasion for his seventieth birthday. Other dancemakers created roles for Lorrayne. American director and choreographer Joe Layton, known for his work on Broadway, cast her in two works staged for the Royal Ballet: The Grand Tour, set to music of Noěl Coward, arranged by Hershey Kay, O. W. concerning Oscar Wilde and set to music by Sir William Walton. Ronald Hynd cast her in two works, both quintessentially English: In a Summer Garden, set to music by Frederick Delius, Charlotte Brontë, to music by Douglas Young, in which she danced the title role. Peter Wright looked to France and Spain for inspiration in creating Arpège, set to the Harp Concerto in C by François-Adrien Boieldieu, El Amor Brujo, set to the famous score by Manuel de Falla. In the latter work, identified as a "ballet pantomimico" by its composer, Lorrayne danced the role of the Andalusian gypsy girl Candela, haunted by the ghost of her dead husband.

Shortly before she left the company, David Bintley created a fitting farewell role for her in the lyrical Meadow of Proverbs, set to music of Darius Milhaud. Because of her pure classical technique, Lorrayne was cast in many major works in the Royal Ballet repertory, including The Sleeping Beauty, Swan Lake and The Nutcracker. Besides frequent appearances on the stage of the Royal Opera House, she toured with the company around the world, to Europe, the United States, South Africa, Australia, she was partnered by the male stars of the company, including Anthony Dowell, Donald MacLeary, Rudolf Nureyev. In 1980, she left the Royal Ballet to form Ballet Imperiale. A small troupe devoted to presenting works in the Russian classical style, Ballet Imperiale toured the English provinces and Scotland. Lorrayne served as administrator, artistic director, principal dancer all rolled into one. Given the burdens of running the company, not to mention the expense, it is little wonder that the troupe was short-lived.

On film and DVDs, Lorrayne's dancing can be seen in two ballet movies made for television by the British Broadcasting Corporation. She appears as a lead Snowflake in Rudolf Nureyev's staging of The Nutcracker and as the Fairy Summer in Frederick Ashton's Cinderella; as an actress, she had a featured role as Madam Bergerone in the Paramount film Top Secret!. An action comedy starring Val Kilmer, it is a parody of Elvis Pressley musicals and the spy movies of the Cold War era; the Nutcracker - Snowflake Lead Girl 2 Cinderella - The Fairy Summer Top Secret! - Madam Bergerone

Contour crafting

Contour crafting is a building printing technology being researched by Behrokh Khoshnevis of the University of Southern California's Information Sciences Institute that uses a computer-controlled crane or gantry to build edifices and efficiently with less manual labor. It was conceived as a method to construct molds for industrial parts. Khoshnevis decided to adapt the technology for rapid home construction as a way to rebuild after natural disasters, like the devastating earthquakes that have plagued his native Iran. Using a quick-setting, concrete-like material, contour crafting forms the house's walls layer by layer until topped off by floors and ceilings set in place by the crane; the notional concept calls for the insertion of structural components, wiring and consumer devices like audiovisual systems as the layers are built. Caterpillar Inc. provided funding to help support Viterbi project research in the summer of 2008. In 2009, Singularity University graduate students established the ACASA project with Khoshnevis as the CTO to commercialize Contour Crafting.

In 2010, Khoshnevis claimed that his system could build a complete home in a single day, its electrically powered crane would produce little construction material waste. The Science Channel's Discoveries This Week program in 2005 reported that, given 3–7 tons of material waste and the exhaust fumes from construction vehicles during standard home construction, contour crafting could reduce environmental impact. Khoshnevis stated in 2010 that NASA was evaluating Contour Crafting for its application in the construction of bases on Mars and the Moon. After three years, in 2013, NASA funded a small study at the University of Southern California to further develop the Contour Crafting 3D printing technique. Potential applications of this technology include constructing lunar structures of a material that could be built of 90-percent lunar material with only ten percent of the material transported from Earth. In 2017 the Contour Crafting Corporation announced a partnership with and investment from Doka Ventures.

In the press release, they claim that they "will start delivery of the first printers early next year" D-Shape 3D printing Broad Sustainable Building Contour Crafting website