Edison Records was one of the earliest record labels which pioneered sound recording and reproduction and was an important player in the early recording industry. The first phonograph cylinders were manufactured in 1888, followed by Edison's foundation of the Edison Phonograph Company in the same year; the recorded wax cylinders replaced by Blue Amberol cylinders, vertical-cut Diamond Discs, were manufactured by Edison's National Phonograph Company from 1896 on, reorganized as Thomas A. Edison, Inc. in 1911. Until 1910 the recordings did not carry the names of the artists; the company began to lag behind its rivals in the 1920s, both technically and in the popularity of its artists, halted production of recordings in 1929. Thomas A. Edison invented the phonograph, the first device for recording and playing back sound, in 1877. After patenting the invention and benefiting from the publicity and acclaim it received and his laboratory turned their attention to the commercial development of electric lighting, playing no further role in the development of the phonograph for nearly a decade.
Edison's original phonograph recorded on sheets of tinfoil and was little more than a crude curiosity, although one that fascinated much of the public. These earliest phonographs were sold to entrepreneurs who made a living out of traveling around the country giving "educational" lectures in hired halls or otherwise demonstrating the device to audiences for a fee; the tinfoil phonograph was not fit for any real practical use and public interest soon waned. In 1887, Edison turned his attention back to improving the phonograph cylinder; the following year, the Edison company debuted the Perfected Phonograph. Edison introduced wax cylinders 4 1⁄4 inches long and 2 1⁄4 inches in external diameter, which became the industry standard, they had a maximum playing time of about 3 minutes at 120 RPM, but around the turn of the century the standard speed was increased to 160 RPM to improve clarity and volume, reducing the maximum to about 2 minutes and 15 seconds. Several experimental wax cylinder recordings of music and speech made in 1888 still exist.
The wax entertainment cylinder made its commercial debut in 1889. At first, the only customers were entrepreneurs who installed nickel-in-the-slot phonographs in amusement arcades and other public places. At that time, a phonograph cost the equivalent of several months' wages for the average worker and was driven by an electric motor powered by hazardous, high-maintenance wet cell batteries. After more affordable spring-motor-driven phonographs designed for home use were introduced in 1895, the industry of producing recorded entertainment cylinders for sale to the general public began in earnest. Blank records were an important part of the business early on. Most phonographs could be fitted with attachments for the users to make their own recordings. One important early use, in line with the original term for a phonograph as a "talking machine", was in business for recording dictation. Attachments were added to facilitate starting and skipping back the recording for dictation and playback by stenographers.
The business phonograph evolved into a separate device from the home entertainment phonograph. Edison's brand of business phonograph was called The Ediphone. Edison holds the achievement of being one of the first companies to record the first African-American quartet to record: the Unique Quartet. A notable technological triumph of the Edison Laboratories was devising a method to mass-produce pre-recorded phonograph cylinders in molds; this was done by using slightly tapered cylinders and molding in a material that contracted as it set. To Edison's disappointment the commercial potential of this process was not realized for some years. Most of the regional Edison distributors were able to fill the small early market for recordings by mechanical duplication of a few dozen cylinders at a time. Molded cylinders did not become a significant force in the marketplace until the end of the 1890s, when molding was slow and was used only to create pantograph masters. Before using metal cylinders though Edison used paraffin paper.
Mass-producing cylinders at the Edison recording studio in New Jersey ended the local Edison retailers early practice of producing recordings in small numbers for regional markets, helped concentrate the USA recording industry in the New York City – New Jersey area the headquarters of the nation's Tin Pan Alley printed music industry. In 1902, Edison's National Phonograph Company introduced Edison Gold Moulded Records, cylinder records of improved hard black wax, capable of being played hundreds of times before wearing out; these new records were under the working title of "Edison Hi-Speed Extra Loud Moulded Records", running at the speed of 160 RPM instead of the usual speed of 144 RPM or 120 RPM. Until ca. 1898, Edison's speed was 125 RPM. In 1908, Edison introduced a new line of cylinders playing 4 rather than 2 minutes of music on the same sized record, achieved by shrinking the grooves and spacing them twice as close together. New machines were sold to play these records, as were attachments for modifying existing Edison phonographs.
In November 1912, the new Blue Amberol Records, made out of a type of smooth, hard plastic similar to celluloid invented by Edison labs, were introduced for public sale. The first release was number 1501, a performance of the Rossini's overture to his opera Semiramide, performed by the American Standard Orchestra; the plastic Blue Amberol rec
Emile Berliner Emil Berliner, was a German-born American inventor. He is best known for inventing the Gramophone, he founded the United States Gramophone Company in 1894, The Gramophone Company in London, England, in 1897, Deutsche Grammophon in Hanover, Germany, in 1898, Berliner Gram-o-phone Company of Canada in Montreal in 1899, Victor Talking Machine Company in 1901 with Eldridge Johnson. Berliner was born in Germany, in 1851 into a Jewish merchant family. Though raised Jewish, he became an agnostic, he completed an apprenticeship to become a merchant. While his real hobby was invention, he worked as an accountant to make ends meet. To avoid being drafted for the Franco-Prussian War, Berliner migrated to the United States of America in 1870 with a friend of his father's, in whose shop he worked in Washington, D. C, he moved to New York and, living off temporary work, such as doing the paper route and cleaning bottles, he studied physics at night at the Cooper Union Institute. After some time working in a livery stable, he became interested in the new audio technology of the telephone and phonograph, invented an improved telephone transmitter.
The patent was acquired by the Bell Telephone Company. In America, Thomas Edison and Berliner fought a long legal battle over the patent rights, but on February 27, 1901 the United States Court of Appeal declared the patent void and awarded Edison full rights to the invention, stating "Edison preceded Berliner in the transmission of speech... The use of carbon in a transmitter is, beyond controversy, the invention of Edison" and the Berliner patent was ruled invalid. Berliner subsequently moved to Boston in 1877 and worked for Bell Telephone until 1883, when he returned to Washington and established himself as a private researcher. Emile Berliner became a United States citizen in 1881. Berliner invented what was the first radial aircraft engine, a helicopter, acoustical tiles. In 1886 Berliner began experimenting with methods of sound recording, he was granted his first patent for what he called the "Gramophone" in 1887. The patent described recording sound using horizontal modulation of a stylus as it traced a line on a rotating cylindrical surface coated with an unresisting opaque material such as lampblack, subsequently fixed with varnish and used to photoengrave a corresponding groove into the surface of a metal playback cylinder.
In practice, Berliner opted for the disc format, which made the photoengraving step much less difficult and offered the prospect of making multiple copies of the result by some simpler process such as electrotyping, molding or stamping. In 1888 Berliner was using a more direct recording method, in which the stylus traced a line through a thin coating of wax on a zinc disc, etched in acid to convert the line of bared metal into a playable groove. By 1890 a Berliner licensee in Germany was manufacturing a toy Gramophone and five-inch hard rubber discs, but because key US patents were still pending they were sold only in Europe. Berliner meant his Gramophone to be more than a mere toy, in 1894 he persuaded a group of businessmen to invest $25,000, with which he started the United States Gramophone Company, he began marketing seven-inch records and a more substantial Gramophone, which was, still hand-propelled like the smaller toy machine. The difficulty in using early hand-driven Gramophones was getting the turntable to rotate at an acceptably steady speed while playing a disc.
Engineer Eldridge R. Johnson, the owner of a small machine shop in Camden, New Jersey, assisted Berliner in developing a suitable low-cost wind-up spring motor for the Gramophone and became Berliner's manufacturer. Berliner gave Frank Seaman the exclusive sales rights in the US, but after disagreements Seaman began selling his own version of the Gramophone, as well as unauthorized copies of Berliner's records, Berliner was barred from selling his own products; the US Berliner Gramophone Company shut down in mid-1900 and Berliner moved to Canada. Following various legal maneuvers, the Victor Talking Machine Company was founded by Eldridge Johnson in 1901 and the trade name "Gramophone" was and permanently abandoned in the US, although its use continued elsewhere; the Berliner Gramophone Co. of Canada was chartered on 8 April 1904 and reorganized as the Berliner Gramophone Co. in 1909 in Montreal's district Saint Henri. The Gramophone The Gramophone was presented as an apparatus for making permanent records of the human voice or other sounds, including music of all kinds and for reproducing the same at any time thereafter as as desired.
The records were of hard rubber, solid metal or other indestructible material and could therefore be handled without fear of breaking or injuring them. The sound records were grooves of depth but of varying direction, as apposed to those of straight lines and various depths in the Phonograph and Graphophone; these records could be multiplied at will to any extent, each copy would sound like the original. It was based on the Leon Scott Phonautograph, invented nearly forty years before, which traced sound as curvilinear lines upon the smoked surface of a brass cylinder by means of a diaphragm with a stylus attached to its center. Early in 1877, or six months before the discovery of the phonograph principle by indenting tin-foil or wax, Charles Cros, of Paris, had conceived and placed on file the theory that if the curvilinear record of a Scott Phonautograph be phot
Phonograph cylinders are the earliest commercial medium for recording and reproducing sound. Known as "records" in their era of greatest popularity, these hollow cylindrical objects have an audio recording engraved on the outside surface, which can be reproduced when they are played on a mechanical cylinder phonograph. In the 1910s, the competing disc record system triumphed in the marketplace to become the dominant commercial audio medium. On July 18, 1877, Thomas Edison and his team invented the phonograph, his first successful recording and reproduction of intelligible sounds, achieved early in the following December, used a thin sheet of tin foil wrapped around a hand-cranked grooved metal cylinder. Tin foil was not a practical recording medium for either commercial or artistic purposes and the crude hand-cranked phonograph was only marketed as a novelty, to little or no profit. Edison moved on to developing a practical incandescent electric light and the next improvements to sound recording technology were made by others.
Following seven years of research and experimentation at their Volta Laboratory, Charles Sumner Tainter, Alexander Graham Bell and Chichester Bell introduced wax as the recording medium and engraving, rather than indenting, as the recording method. In 1887, their "Graphophone" system was being put to the test of practical use by official reporters of the US Congress, with commercial units being produced by the Dictaphone Corporation. After this system was demonstrated to Edison's representatives, Edison resumed work on the phonograph, he settled on a thicker all-wax cylinder, the surface of which could be shaved down for reuse. Both the Graphophone and Edison's "Perfected Phonograph" were commercialized in 1888. A patent-sharing agreement was signed and the wax-coated cardboard tubes were abandoned in favor of Edison's all-wax cylinders as an interchangeable standard format. Beginning in 1885, prerecorded wax cylinders were marketed; these have professionally made recordings of songs, instrumental music or humorous monologues in their grooves.
At first, the only customers for them were proprietors of nickel-in-the-slot machines—the first juke boxes—installed in arcades and taverns, but within a few years private owners of phonographs were buying them for home use. Each cylinder can be placed on and removed from the mandrel of the machine used to play them. Unlike shorter-playing high-speed cylinders, early cylinder recordings were cut at a speed of about 120 rpm and can play for as long as 3 minutes, they were made of a soft wax formulation and would wear out after they were played a few dozen times. The buyer could use a mechanism which left their surfaces shaved smooth so new recordings could be made on them. Cylinder machines of the late 1880s and the 1890s were sold with recording attachments; the ability to record as well as play back sound was an advantage of cylinder phonographs over the competition from cheaper disc record phonographs which began to be mass-marketed at the end of the 1890s, as the disc system machines can be used only to play back prerecorded sound.
In the earliest stages of phonograph manufacturing various competing incompatible types of cylinder recordings were made. A standard system was decided upon by Edison Records, Columbia Phonograph, other companies in the late 1880s; the standard cylinders are about 4 inches long, 2 1⁄4 inches in diameter, play about 2 minutes of music or other sound. Over the years the type of wax used in cylinders was improved and hardened so that cylinders could be played with good quality over 100 times. In 1902 Edison Records launched a line of improved hard wax cylinders marketed as "Edison Gold Molded Records"; the major development of this line of cylinders is that Edison had developed a process that allowed a mold to be made from a master cylinder which permitted the production of several hundred cylinders to be made from the mold. The process was labeled, "Gold Moulded" because of the gold vapor, given off by gold electrodes used in the process. All cylinders sold had to be recorded live on the softer brown wax which wore out in as few as twenty playings.
Cylinders were reproduced either mechanically or by linking phonographs together with rubber tubes. Although not satisfactory, the result was good enough to be sold. Cylinders were sold in cardboard tubes with cardboard caps on each end, the upper one a removable lid. Like cylindrical containers for hats, they were called "boxes", the word still used by experienced collectors. Within them, the earliest soft wax cylinders came swathed in a separate length of thick cotton batting. Molded hard-wax cylinders were sold in boxes with a cotton lining. Celluloid cylinders were sold in unlined boxes; these protective boxes were kept and used to house the cylinders after purchase. Their general appearance allowed bandleader John Philip Sousa to deride their contents as "canned music", an epithet he borrowed from Mark Twain, but that did not stop Sousa's band from profiting by recording on cylinders; the earliest cylinder boxes have a plain brown paper exterior, sometimes rubber-stamped with the company name.
By the late 1890s, record companies pasted a generic printed label around the outside of the box, sometimes with a penciled catalog number but no other indication of the identity of the recording inside. A slip of paper stating the title and performer was placed inside the box with the cylinder. At first this information was hand-written or typed on each slip, but printed versions became more common once cylinders were sold in large enough quantities to justify the printing set-up cost; the recording itself began with a spoken
Odeon Records was a record label founded in 1903 by Max Straus and Heinrich Zuntz of the International Talking Machine Company in Berlin, Germany. The label's name and logo come from the Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe in Paris. Straus and Zuntz bought the company from Carl Lindström that he had founded in 1897, they transformed the Lindström enterprise into a public company, the Carl Lindström A. G. and in 1903 purchased Fonotipia Records, including their Odeon-Werke International Talking Machine Company. International Talking Machine Company issued the Odeon label first in Germany in 1903 and applied for a U. S. trademark the same year. While other companies were making single-side discs, Odeon made them double-sided. In 1909 it created the first recording of a large orchestral work — and what may have been the first record album — when it released a 4-disc set of Tchaikovsky's Nutcracker Suite with Hermann Finck conducting the London Palace Orchestra. Between 1910 and 1911 Odeon was acquired by Carl Lindström.
On January 30, 1904, Odeon became a part of the Carl Lindström Company, which owned Beka Records, Fonotipia, Lyrophon and other labels. Lindström was acquired by the English Columbia Graphophone Company in 1926. In 1931 Columbia merged with Electrola, HMV and other labels to form EMI; the Berlin Odeon plant recorded and exported records to many countries. There were extensive national catalogs for some of these countries: Greece, India, all of Arabia, Estonia, Portugal and Central America, Turkey, China, Dutch East Indies, the Balkan countries etc. In the 1920s and 1930s about 70% of the German Odeon production was exported; some Odeon recordings were leased to the American Okeh Records for distribution in the United States. Odeon discs were first manufactured in America, for export only, in 1905 or 1906 by the American Record Company, which produced lateral-cut, 10¾-inch 78 discs made of blue shellac; this business ceased in 1907. Lindström tried again to open an American branch, this time through Otto Heineman, who worked for Lindström's company and was living in America when World War I broke out.
Stuck in New York, Heineman created the Otto Heineman Phonograph Supply Company in 1915 four years started his own label, Okeh Records. In 1919, OKeh began issuing foreign recordings in the United States on the Odeon label. During the 1920s, Odeon issued American jazz records in other countries, such as Germany, Italy and Spain. During the 1930s and 1940s Odeon sold its Swing Music Series. Odeon recorded and issued over 2700 titles of Indian music from the period 1900–1940. Odeon's shellac disc issues were in two phases: 1912–1916, 1932–38. During the first phase their engineers visited many cities to record the diverse regional music of India, after production in Berlin shipped records back to India; the company was based in Madras during the second phase. However the outbreak of World War II, the subsequent trade embargoes, meant that the company had to wind-up its operations in India; the company's output included "drama songs, folk music, classical music, drama sets and plays, vocal and instrumental music".
It has been estimated. The British Museum have digitised some of these records. List of record labels Odeon Records: Their "ethnic" output. Paul Vernon. 31 July 1997. Accessed 2 Apr 2010. Russian-records.com, Odeon-Record The British Library: Odeon record label recordings from the Indian subcontinent Odeon Records on the Internet Archive's Great 78 Project
Sir Cliff Richard, is a British pop singer, performer and philanthropist. Richard has sold more than 250 million records worldwide, he has total sales of over 21 million singles in the United Kingdom and is the third-top-selling artist in UK Singles Chart history, behind the Beatles and Elvis Presley. Richard was marketed as a rebellious rock and roll singer in the style of Elvis and Little Richard. With his backing group, the Shadows, Richard dominated the British popular music scene in the pre-Beatles period of the late 1950s to early 1960s, his 1958 hit single "Move It" is described as Britain's first authentic rock and roll song. Increased focus on his Christianity and subsequent softening of his music led to a more middle-of-the-road image and he sometimes ventured into contemporary Christian music. Over a career spanning 60 years, Richard has amassed many gold and platinum discs and awards, including two Ivor Novello Awards and three Brit Awards. More than 130 of his singles, albums and EPs have reached the UK more than any other artist.
Richard has had 67 UK top the second highest total for an artist behind Elvis. Richard holds the record as the only act to make the UK singles charts in all of its first six decades, he has achieved 14 UK number-one singles, is the only singer to have had a number-one single in the UK in five consecutive decades. Richard has never achieved the same impact in the United States despite eight US Top 40 singles, including the million-selling "Devil Woman" and "We Don't Talk Anymore". In Canada, he had a successful period in the early 1960s, again in the late 1970s and early 1980s with some releases certified gold and platinum, he has remained a popular music and television personality in Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Northern Europe and Asia, retains a following in other countries. Richard has been a resident in the United Kingdom for most of his life, though in 2010, he confirmed that he had become a citizen of Barbados; when not touring, he divides his time between Portugal. Harry Rodger Webb was born in British India at King George's Hospital, Victoria Street, in Lucknow, part of British India.
His parents were Rodger Oscar Webb, a manager for a catering contractor that serviced the Indian Railways, the former Dorothy Marie Dazely. Richard is of English heritage, but he had one great-grandmother, of half Welsh and half Spanish descent, born of a Spanish great-great-grandmother named Emiline Joseph Rebeiro; the Webb family lived near the main shopping centre of Hazratganj. Dorothy's mother served as the dormitory matron at the La Martiniere Girls' School. Richard has three sisters, Joan and Donna. In 1948, following Indian independence, the family embarked on a three-week sea voyage to Tilbury, England aboard the SS Ranchi; the Webbs moved from comparative wealth in India, where they lived in a company-supplied flat at Howrah near Calcutta, to a semi-detached house in Carshalton. Harry Webb attended Stanley Park Juniors, in Carshalton. In 1949 his father obtained employment in the credit control office of Thorn Electrical Industries and the family moved in with other relatives in Waltham Cross, where he attended Kings Road Junior Mixed Infants School until a three-bedroom council house in Cheshunt was allocated to them in 1950, at 12 Hargreaves Close.
He attended Cheshunt Secondary Modern School from 1952 to 1957.. As a member of the top stream, he stayed on beyond the minimum leaving age to take GCE Ordinary Level examinations and gained a pass in English literature, he started work as a filing clerk for Atlas Lamps. A development of retirement flats, Cliff Richard Court, has been named after him in Cheshunt. Harry Webb became interested in skiffle, his father bought him a guitar at 16 and in 1957 he formed the school vocal harmony group The Quintones, before singing in the Dick Teague Skiffle Group. Harry Webb became lead singer of the Drifters; the 1950s entrepreneur Harry Greatorex wanted the up-and-coming rock'n' roll singer to change from his real name of Harry Webb. The name Cliff was adopted as it sounded like "cliff face", which suggested "Rock", it was "Move It" writer Ian Samwell who suggested the surname "Richard" as a tribute to Webb's musical hero Little Richard. Before their first large-scale appearance, at the Regal Ballroom in Ripley, Derbyshire in 1958, they adopted the name "Cliff Richard and the Drifters".
The four members were Harry Webb, Ian "Sammy" Samwell on guitar, Terry Smart on drums and Norman Mitham on guitar. None of the other three played with the and better known Shadows, although Samwell wrote songs for Richard's career. For his debut session, Norrie Paramor provided Richard with "Schoolboy Crush", a cover of an American record by Bobby Helms. Richard was permitted to record one of his own songs for the B-side. For the "Move It" session, Paramor used the session guitarist Ernie Shears on lead guitar and Frank Clark on bass. There are various stories about. One is.
The Yardbirds are an English rock band, formed in London in 1963. The band's core lineup featured vocalist and harmonica player Keith Relf, drummer Jim McCarty, rhythm guitarist/bassist Chris Dreja and bassist/producer Paul Samwell-Smith; the band is known for starting the careers of three of rock's most famous guitarists, Eric Clapton, Jimmy Page and Jeff Beck, all of whom ranked in the top five of Rolling Stone magazine's list of 100 greatest guitarists. The band had a string of hits throughout the mid-1960s, including "For Your Love", "Heart Full of Soul", "Shapes of Things" and "Over Under Sideways Down". A blues-based band noted for their signature "rave-up" instrumental breaks, the Yardbirds broadened their range into pop, pioneering psychedelic rock and early hard rock; the band's influence on both the music of the times and genres to come was great, they inspired a host of imitators such as the Count Five and The Shadows of Knight. Some rock critics and historians credit the Yardbirds with contributing to, if not inventing, "the birth of psychedelic music" and sowing the seeds of punk rock, progressive rock and heavy metal, among other genres.
Following the band's split in 1968, Relf and McCarty formed Renaissance and guitarist Jimmy Page formed what became Led Zeppelin. The band was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1992, they were included as No. 89 in Rolling Stone's list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time", ranked No. 37 on VH1's 100 Greatest Artists of Hard Rock. The Yardbirds reformed in the 1990s, featuring drummer Jim McCarty and rhythm guitarist/bassist Chris Dreja as the only original members of the band. Dreja left the band in 2012, leaving McCarty as the sole original member of the band present in the lineup; the band formed in the south-west London suburbs in 1963. Relf and Samwell-Smith were in a band named the Metropolitan Blues Quartet. After being joined by Dreja, McCarty and Top Topham, they performed at Kingston Art School in late May 1963 as a backup band for Cyril Davies. Following a couple of gigs in September 1963 as the Blue-Sounds, they changed their name to The Yardbirds, either an expression for hobos hanging around rail yards or prisoners hanging around a prison yard or a reference to seminal jazz saxophonist Charlie "Yardbird" Parker.
The quintet achieved notice on the burgeoning British rhythm and blues scene when they took over as the house band at the Crawdaddy Club in Richmond, succeeding the Rolling Stones. Their repertoire drew from the Chicago blues of Howlin' Wolf, Muddy Waters, Bo Diddley, Sonny Boy Williamson II and Elmore James, including "Smokestack Lightning", "Good Morning Little School Girl", "Boom Boom", "I Wish You Would", "Rollin' and Tumblin'", "Got Love if You Want It" and "I'm a Man". Original lead guitarist Topham left and was replaced by Eric Clapton in October 1963. Crawdaddy Club impresario Giorgio Gomelsky became the Yardbirds manager and first record producer. Under Gomelsky's guidance the Yardbirds toured Britain as the back-up band for blues legend Sonny Boy Williamson II in December 1963 and early 1964, recording live tracks on 8 December and other dates; the recordings would be released two years during the height of the Yardbirds popularity on the album Sonny Boy Williamson and The Yardbirds.
After the tours with Williamson, the Yardbirds signed to EMI's Columbia label in February 1964, recorded more live tracks 20 March at the legendary Marquee Club in London. The resulting album of rhythm and blues covers, Five Live Yardbirds, would not be released by Columbia for another nine months, it failed to enter the UK albums charts. Over time Five Live gained stature as one of the few quality live recordings of the era, as a historical document of both the British "rock and roll boom" in the 1960s and Clapton's time in the band; the Clapton line-up recorded two singles, the blues "I Wish You Would" and "Good Morning, School Girl", before the band scored its first major hit with the overtly pop "For Your Love", a Beatles-influenced Graham Gouldman composition built around a four-chord progression played on a harpsichord by Brian Auger. "For Your Love" hit the top of the charts in the UK and Canada and reached No. 6 in the United States, but it displeased Clapton, a blues purist whose vision extended beyond three-minute singles.
Frustrated by the commercial approach, he abruptly left the band on 25 March 1965, the day the single was released. Soon Clapton joined John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers, but not before he recommended Jimmy Page, a prominent young session guitarist, to replace him. Content with his lucrative sessions work, worried about both his health and the politics of Clapton's departure, Page in turn recommended his friend Jeff Beck. Beck played his first gig with the Yardbirds only two days after Clapton's departure. Beck's explorations of fuzz tone, feedback, sustain and hammer-on soloing fitted well into the raw style of British beat music; the Yardbirds began to experiment with eclectic arrangements reminiscent of Gregorian chants and various European and Asian styles while Beck infused a pervasive Middle Eastern influence into the mix. Beck was voted No. 1 lead guitarist of 1966 in the British music magazine Beat Instrumental. The Beck-era Yardbirds produced a number of groundbreaking recordings; these included the hit singles "Heart Full of Soul", "Evil Hearted You"/"Still I'm Sad", a cover of Bo Diddley's "I'm a Man", "Shapes of Things" and "Over Under Sideways Down", the Yardbirds album.
Beck's fuzz-tone guitar riff on "Heart Full of Soul" introduced Indian raga-style guitar to the pop charts in the summer of 1965. The fol
Alan Dower Blumlein was an English electronics engineer, notable for his many inventions in telecommunications, sound recording, stereophonic sound and radar. He received 128 patents and was considered as one of the most significant engineers and inventors of his time, he died during World War II on 7 June 1942, aged 38, during the secret trial of an H2S airborne radar system under development, when all on board the Halifax bomber he was flying in were killed when it crashed at Welsh Bicknor in Herefordshire. Alan Dower Blumlein was born on 29 June 1903 in London, his father, Semmy Blumlein, was a German-born naturalised British subject. Semmy was the son of Joseph Blumlein, a German of Jewish descent, Philippine Hellmann, a French woman of German descent. Alan's mother, Jessie Dower, was Scottish, daughter of William Dower who went to South Africa for the London Missionary Society. Alan was christened as a Presbyterian. Alan Blumlein's future career seemed to have been determined by the age of seven, when he presented his father with an invoice for repairing the doorbell, signed "Alan Blumlein, Electrical Engineer".
His sister claimed that he could not read proficiently until he was 12. He replied "no, but I knew a lot of quadratic equations!" After leaving Highgate School in 1921, he studied at Guilds College. He joined the second year of the course, he graduated with a First-Class Honours BSc two years later. In mid-1930, Blumlein met a preparatory school teacher five years his junior. After two-and-a-half years of courtship the two were married in 1933. Lane was warned by acquaintances before the wedding that, "There was a joke amongst some of his friends, they used to call it'Blumlein-itis' or'First Class Mind', it seems that he didn't want to know anyone who didn't have a first class mind." Recording engineer Joseph B. Kaye, known as J. B. Kaye, Blumlein's closest friend and best man at the wedding, thought the couple were well matched. In 1924 Blumlein started his first job at International Western Electric, a division of the Western Electric Company; the company subsequently became International Standard Electric Corporation and later on, Standard Telephones and Cables.
During his time there, he measured the amplitude/frequency response of human ears, used the results to design the first weighting networks. In 1924 he published the first of his only two IEE papers, on high-frequency resistance measurement; this won him the IEE's Premium award for innovation. The following year he wrote a series of seven articles for Wireless World. In 1925 and 1926, Blumlein and John Percy Johns designed an improved form of loading coil which reduced loss and crosstalk in long-distance telephone lines; these were used until the end of the analogue telephony era. The same duo invented an improved form of AC measurement bridge which became known as the Blumlein Bridge and subsequently the transformer ratio arm bridge; these two inventions were the basis for Blumlein's first two patents. His inventions while working at STC resulted in another five patents, which were not awarded until after he left the company in 1929. In 1929 Blumlein resigned from STC and joined the Columbia Graphophone Company, where he reported directly to general manager Isaac Shoenberg.
His first project was to find a method of disc cutting that circumvented a Bell patent in the Western Electric moving-iron cutting head used, on which substantial royalties had to be paid. He invented the moving-coil disc cutting head, which not only got around the patent but offered improved sound quality, he led a small team. The other principal team members were Henry "Ham" Clark, their work resulted in several patents. Early in 1931, the Columbia Graphophone Company and the Gramophone Company merged and became EMI. New joint research laboratories were set up at Hayes and Blumlein was transferred there on 1 November the same year. During the early 1930s Blumlein and Herbert Holman developed a series of moving-coil microphones, which were used in EMI recording studios and by the BBC at Alexandra Palace. In June 1937, Blumlein patented the Ultra-Linear amplifier. A deceptively simple design, the circuit provided a tap on the primary winding of the output transformer to provide feedback to the second grid, which improved the amplifier's linearity.
With the tap placed at the anode end of the primary winding, the tube is connected as a triode, if the tap was at the supply end, as a pure pentode. Blumlein discovered that if the tap was placed at a distance 15–20% down from the supply end of the output transformer, the tube or valve would combine the positive features of both the triode and the pentode design. Blumlein may or may not have invented the long-tailed pair; the long-tailed pair is a form of differential amplifier, popular since the days of the vacuum tube. It is now more pervasive than as it is suitable for implementation in integrated circuit form, every operational amplifier integrated circuit contains at least one. In 1931, Blumlein invented what he now known as stereophonic sound. In early 1931, he and his wife were at the cinema; the sound reproduction systems of the early talkies only had a single set of speakers – the actor might be on one side of the screen, but the voice could come from the other. Blumlein declared to his wif