Columbia University is a private Ivy League research university in New York City. Established in 1754 on the grounds of Trinity Church in Manhattan, Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in New York and the fifth-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, it is one of nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence, seven of which belong to the Ivy League. It has been ranked by numerous major education publications as among the top ten universities in the world. Columbia was established as King's College by royal charter of George II of Great Britain in reaction to the founding of Princeton University in New Jersey, it was renamed Columbia College in 1784 following the American Revolution, in 1787 was placed under a private board of trustees headed by former students Alexander Hamilton and John Jay. In 1896, the campus was moved to its current location in Morningside Heights and renamed Columbia University. Columbia scientists and scholars have played an important role in the development of notable scientific fields and breakthroughs including: brain-computer interface.
The Columbia University Physics Department has been affiliated with 33 Nobel Prize winners as alumni, faculty or research staff, the third most of any American institution behind MIT and Harvard. In addition, 22 Nobel Prize winners in Physiology or Medicine have been affiliated with Columbia, the third most of any American institution; the university's research efforts include the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Goddard Institute for Space Studies and accelerator laboratories with major technology firms such as IBM. Columbia is one of the fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities and was the first school in the United States to grant the M. D. degree. The university administers the Pulitzer Prize annually. Columbia is organized into twenty schools, including three undergraduate schools and numerous graduate schools, it maintains research centers outside of the United States known as Columbia Global Centers. In 2019, Columbia's undergraduate acceptance rate was 5.1%, making it one of the most selective colleges in the United States, the second most selective in the Ivy League after Harvard.
Columbia is ranked as the 3rd best university in the United States by U. S. News & World Report behind Princeton and Harvard. In athletics, the Lions field varsity teams in 29 sports as a member of the NCAA Division I Ivy League conference; the university's endowment stood at $10.9 billion in 2019, among the largest of any academic institution. As of 2018, Columbia's alumni and affiliates include: five Founding Fathers of the United States—among them an author of the United States Constitution and a co-author of the Declaration of Independence. S. presidents. Discussions regarding the founding of a college in the Province of New York began as early as 1704, at which time Colonel Lewis Morris wrote to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, the missionary arm of the Church of England, persuading the society that New York City was an ideal community in which to establish a college. However, it was not until the founding of the College of New Jersey across the Hudson River in New Jersey that the City of New York considered founding a college.
In 1746, an act was passed by the general assembly of New York to raise funds for the foundation of a new college. In 1751, the assembly appointed a commission of ten New York residents, seven of whom were members of the Church of England, to direct the funds accrued by the state lottery towards the foundation of a college. Classes were held in July 1754 and were presided over by the college's first president, Dr. Samuel Johnson. Dr. Johnson was the only instructor of the college's first class, which consisted of a mere eight students. Instruction was held in a new schoolhouse adjoining Trinity Church, located on what is now lower Broadway in Manhattan; the college was founded on October 31, 1754, as King's College by royal charter of King George II, making it the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York and the fifth oldest in the United States. In 1763, Dr. Johnson was succeeded in the presidency by Myles Cooper, a graduate of The Queen's College, an ardent Tory. In the charged political climate of the American Revolution, his chief opponent in discussions at the college was an undergraduate of the class of 1777, Alexander Hamilton.
The American Revolutionary War broke out in 1776, was catastrophic for the operation of King's College, which suspended instruction for eight years beginning in 1776 with the arrival of the Continental Army. The suspension continued through the military occupation of New York City by British troops until their departure in 1783; the college's library was looted and its sole building requisitioned for use as a military hospital first by American and British forces. Loyalists were forced to abandon their King's College in New York, but some led by Bishop Charles Inglis fled to Windsor, Nova Scotia, where they founded King's Collegiate School
Modest Urgell i Inglada known by the nickname Katúfol was a Spanish landscape painter and comic playwright. He used his nickname for illustrations, he was born to a wealthy family. In his youth, he was interested in the theater and participated in several amateur companies, but his family did not want him to associate with actors, so he agreed to study painting instead, he studied at the Escola de la Llotja with Claudi Lorenzale and Lluís Rigalt. During the 1860s, he attempted to show his works in exhibitions at the Escola, but they were rejected, he exhibited in Madrid, but with little success. In 1868, he made a trip to Paris where he spent some time with Gustave Courbet and was influenced by the Barbizon school. In 1870, there was a yellow fever outbreak in Barcelona, so he went to Olot, where he joined with Antoni Caba and a friend from the Escola, Joaquim Vayreda, to create landscapes en plein air. While there, he decided to devote himself to that genre. After the creation of the Sala Parés in 1877, he exhibited there regularly.
His works received positive critical attention at the National Exhibitions in 1876, 1892 and 1895, when he won first prize. He won major awards at expositions in Barcelona and Philadelphia. In 1894, following the death of Rigalt, he was appointed Professor of perspective and landscape at the Escola de Belles Arts de Barcelona. In 1900, together with Lluís Graner and Enric Galwey, he helped create the "Sociedad Artística y Literaria de Cataluña". In the late 1890s, he returned to his early interest in the theater, he wrote several plays. Most of his plays have rural settings. None of them were successful, his works consist entirely of landscapes and maritime scenes set in isolated places such as cemeteries and monasteries, but he created illustrations depicting the Tragic Week of 1909 and the Rif War as well. His son, Ricardo Urgell Carreras, was a painter. Xavier Triadó Subirana, Grans Genis de l'Art a Catalunya, Editorial Ciro, 2008 ISBN 978-84-96878-31-0. Modest Urgell 1839-1919, Centre Cultural de la Fundació "La Caixa", 1992 ISBN 84-7664-338-1.
ArtNet: More works by Urgell
The Royal Canadian Mint has made coins with various themes. Most ice hockey has been used for many numismatic releases; the first known ice hockey coin was for the 1988 Winter Olympics. Issued on February 25, 1986, the coin featured a goalie on the coin. Edge lettering was used for the coin, the first time that it was used on silver coins. In the 1990s, the theme would be used more frequently; the first issue was in 1991 and was on a coin with a denomination of $200. The coin was titled A National Passion and it was issued as a tribute to the spirit and vitality of Canadian youth and the national game of hockey; the most noticeable example was for two of the Silver Dollar series. The Silver Dollar for 1993 and 1997 would feature hockey as its theme. Logos from the Canadian National Hockey League franchises would start to appear on Canadian coinage; this would start in 2005 as part of various gift sets. The sets were similar to the O Canada set in terms of packaging, but the one difference is that the twenty-five cent coin had a team logo in colour.
The first sets were issued for the 2005-2006 NHL regular season and the sets were issued for the Montreal Canadiens, Ottawa Senators, the Toronto Maple Leafs. The following season, offerings included all six Canadian franchises; the sets would feature "vintage" logos, including the Vancouver Canucks first logo and the Senators logo from the 1920s. To commemorate the 1988 Winter Olympics, held in Calgary, Canada, the Royal Canadian Mint issued five series of Olympic coins; each series had the coin honouring hockey was featured in Series Two. The coins were issued to help with the financing of the event. Edge lettering was used for the first time on Canadian coins. “XV OLYMPIC WINTER GAMES – JEUX OLYMPIQUES D’HIVER” appeared on all ten silver coins. There are existing varieties. All circulation coins had a face value of twenty five cents Specifications Each Mascot sport pose coin features each of the Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic mascots: Miga and Sumi, but no coin features a "sidekick" of these mascots.
All coins had a face value of 50 cents, were packaged in a plastic sleeve, the issue price was $9.95. NOTE: All legends sets consisted of four coins with images provided courtesy of the Hockey Hall of FameNOTE: All coins featured a partial image of an athlete of the respective team on the coin. In October 2008, the RCM issued six sterling silver coins with a $20 Face Value; each coin had the goalie mask of one of the six Canadian hockey teams. In the case of the Toronto Maple Leafs and Montreal Canadiens Goalie Mask coins, it is believed that the surviving mintage is less than 50. Canadiens executive Ray Lalonde confirmed that in March 2009, more than 10 million copies of the Canadian one dollar coin will adorn the legendary Montreal Canadiens logo. On an additional note, Canada Post will issue four million stamps honouring the Canadiens anniversary. Four unique gold coins were produced by the RCM to honour the 100th Anniversary of the Montreal Canadiens; the coins are on permanent display at the Centennial Plaza at the Bell Centre in Montreal.
The coins have the Canadiens centennial logo on the reverse. The coins are featured on memorial plaques dedicated to four legends: Howie Morenz, Maurice Richard, Jean Beliveau, Guy Lafleur; the obverse is the Susanna Blunt effigy of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II. Each plaque has tow circulation five cent coins marking the start and end of each player's career; the coins were gold-plated versions of the nickel aureate dollar used for circulating $1 coins. A special edition proof silver dollar was issued with two different types of packaging. Starting in the autumn of 2008, the Royal Canadian Mint created six fifty cent coins embedded in a plastic sports card; the coins were double dated 2008 to commemorate the Canadiens centennial. All the coins were distributed through the Jean Coutu Pharmacy chain in Quebec. All coins had a retail price of $9.95 each. Two key moments in Hockey history have been commemorated on Canada's silver dollar series; the first of these coins was the Centennial of the Stanley Cup.
The Cup was first presented in 1893 to the Montreal Amateur Athletic Association team by Lord Stanley. The RCM issued the coin in 1993, the proof coin was in a black leatherette case, with a maroon insert and a Certificate of Authenticity; the Brilliant Uncirculated version was in a clear plastic outer case, with a black plastic insert and a silver sleeve. To commemorate the 25th Anniversary of Paul Henderson's series clinching goal against Russia, the RCM placed Henderson on its Silver Dollar for 1997; the RCM offered two gift packages: a sterling silver pin and Uncirculated dollar, a numbered colour reproduction print and an Uncirculated Dollar. Starting in 1997, the Royal Canadian Mint started to sell hockey medallions to the public. To commemorate the induction of Mario Lemieux in the Hockey Hall of Fame, a set was issued honouring all three inductees. One set was issued in Sterling Silver; the success of the release led to future issues. As a way of commemorating the retirement of Wayne Gretzky, a medallion was issued with a mintage of over 50,000.
The medallions were $9.95 each and they were packaged in a blue sleeve with the number 99 in red on the packaging. Starting in 2000, a series of stamps was issued to commemorate the All-Star Game in Toronto; the success of the series led to future stamp releases. Starting in 2001, the stamps were issued in a special collectors set; the stamps were packaged with a hockey puck and corresponding medallions. These medallions were struck by the Royal Canadian Mint; the Royal Canadian Mint has