University of California, Berkeley
The University of California, Berkeley is a public research university in Berkeley, California. It was founded in 1868 and serves as the flagship institution of the ten research universities affiliated with the University of California system. Berkeley has since grown to instruct over 40,000 students in 350 undergraduate and graduate degree programs covering numerous disciplines. Berkeley is one of the 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities, with $789 million in R&D expenditures in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2015. Today, Berkeley maintains close relationships with three United States Department of Energy National Laboratories—Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory—and is home to many institutes, including the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and the Space Sciences Laboratory. Through its partner institution University of California, San Francisco, Berkeley offers a joint medical program at the UCSF Medical Center.
As of October 2018, Berkeley alumni, faculty members and researchers include 107 Nobel laureates, 25 Turing Award winners, 14 Fields Medalists. They have won 9 Wolf Prizes, 45 MacArthur Fellowships, 20 Academy Awards, 14 Pulitzer Prizes and 207 Olympic medals. In 1930, Ernest Lawrence invented the cyclotron at Berkeley, based on which UC Berkeley researchers along with Berkeley Lab have discovered or co-discovered 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. During the 1940s, Berkeley physicist J. R. Oppenheimer, the "Father of the Atomic Bomb," led the Manhattan project to create the first atomic bomb. In the 1960s, Berkeley was noted for the Free Speech Movement as well as the Anti-Vietnam War Movement led by its students. In the 21st century, Berkeley has become one of the leading universities in producing entrepreneurs and its alumni have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Berkeley is ranked among the top 20 universities in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, the U.
S. News & World Report Global University Rankings, it is considered one of the "Public Ivies", meaning that it is a public university thought to offer a quality of education comparable to that of the Ivy League. In 1866, the private College of California purchased the land comprising the current Berkeley campus in order to re-sell it in subdivided lots to raise funds; the effort failed to raise the necessary funds, so the private college merged with the state-run Agricultural and Mechanical Arts College to form the University of California, the first full-curriculum public university in the state. Upon its founding, The Dwinelle Bill stated that the "University shall have for its design, to provide instruction and thorough and complete education in all departments of science and art, industrial and professional pursuits, general education, special courses of instruction in preparation for the professions". Ten faculty members and 40 students made up the new University of California when it opened in Oakland in 1869.
Frederick H. Billings was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the new site for the college north of Oakland be named in honor of the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley. In 1870, Henry Durant, the founder of the College of California, became the first president. With the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 22 female students where it held its first classes. Beginning in 1891, Phoebe Apperson Hearst made several large gifts to Berkeley, funding a number of programs and new buildings and sponsoring, in 1898, an international competition in Antwerp, where French architect Émile Bénard submitted the winning design for a campus master plan. In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramento becoming the University of California, Davis. In 1919, Los Angeles State Normal School became the southern branch of the University, which became University of California, Los Angeles. By 1920s, the number of campus buildings had grown and included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard.
Robert Gordon Sproul served as president from 1930 to 1958. In the 1930s, Ernest Lawrence helped establish the Radiation Laboratory and invented the cyclotron, which won him the Nobel physics prize in 1939. Based on the cyclotron, UC Berkeley scientists and researchers, along with Berkeley Lab, went on to discover 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. In particular, during World War II and following Glenn Seaborg's then-secret discovery of plutonium, Ernest Orlando Lawrence's Radiation Laboratory began to contract with the U. S. Army to develop the atomic bomb. UC Berkeley physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942. Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley was a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. By 1942, the American Council on Education ranked Berkeley second only to Harvard in the number of distinguished departments.
During the McCarthy era in 1949, the Board of Regents adopted an anti-communist loyalty oath. A number of faculty members led by Edward C. Tolman were dismissed. In 1952, the University of California became; each campus was give
The sarrusophones are a family of transposing woodwind musical instruments patented and placed into production by Pierre-Louis Gautrot in 1856. Designed as double-reed instruments, single-reed mouthpieces were developed, at least for some of the larger sizes, it was named after the French bandmaster Pierre-Auguste Sarrus, credited with the concept of the instrument, though it is not clear whether Sarrus benefited financially from this association. The instrument was intended to serve as a replacement in wind bands for the oboe and bassoon which, at that time, lacked the carrying power required for outdoor band music; the sarrusophone was manufactured in the following sizes and had the following theoretical ranges: E-flat Sopranino B♭-G B-flat Soprano B♭-G E-flat Alto B♭-G B-flat Tenor B♭-G E-flat Baritone A-G B-flat Bass B♭-G EE-flat Contrabass B♭-G CC Contrabass B♭-G BB-flat Contrabass B♭-G The non-transposed range of the sarrusophone is nearly identical to that of the saxophone. The traditional conventional range of the saxophone is written B♭-F.
Gautrot advertised the range of the sarrusophone to high F as well, but fingering charts indicated a range to high G. Sometime after 1868, Gautrot released a fingering chart indicating fingerings higher still up to a top B-flat, giving a range of three full octaves. All members of the sarrusophone family are made of metal, with a conical bore, the larger members of the family resemble the ophicleide in shape. Like the oboe and bassoon, all sizes of sarrusophone were designed to be played with a double reed. Single reed mouthpieces were developed which resemble alto or soprano saxophone mouthpieces, it is unclear if these were available for all sizes of the sarrusophone family, the most common examples being for the E♭ contrabass. Approximate reed measurements for certain sarrusophones, expressed as, are as follows: Soprano Alto Tenor Baritone Bass Contrabass in Eb or C The fingering of the sarrusophone is nearly identical to that of the saxophone; this similarity caused Adolphe Sax to file and lose at least one lawsuit against Gautrot, claiming infringement upon his patent for the saxophone.
Sax lost on the grounds that the tone produced by the two families of instruments is markedly different, despite their mechanical similarities. However, because the sarrusophone never gained wide acceptance, makers were not inclined to develop its mechanism to the same extent as that of the saxophone. Features of the sarrusophone's mechanism include: Non-automatic octave keys. From sopranino through bass, 2 octave keys; the contra basses have 3, the 3rd key being used for the notes D and E♭ directly above the octave break, only No articulated G♯, bis B♭, F♯ trill keys or 1/1 and 1/2 B♭ as found on the saxophone. The top and bottom key stacks are not linked. Though, a B to C trill key as found on the saxophone did more or less become standard The key for low B♭ is activated by the left thumb as opposed to the left little finger as on the saxophone A key for rapid alternation across the C-D break; this key can be used to play high D as well. This may be taken to be an equivalent of the high D palm key of a saxophone, although on the sarrusophone the location of the touchpiece varied.
No palm keys for playing the top range. Using the non-automatic register keys, 3rd harmonics are available, rendering palm keys unnecessary; the narrow bore of the sarrusophone aids in the rendering of these 3rd harmonicsOn earlier instruments, the use of rollers on the low E♭ and C natural keys seems to have been more common than having them on the G♯, low C♯ and B natural keys. Additionally on some instruments made by Buffet in the early 20th century, the G♯ key is "semi-articulated" so that a G natural to G♯ trill can be made by an additional touchpiece for the right hand. Saxophones of this time period have this mechanism. Additionally, there is no connection from G♯ to low C♯ or low B natural, identical to how saxophones were constructed at that time; the sarrusophone is called for in orchestral music. However, around the turn of the 20th century, the contrabass sarrusophones in EE♭ and CC enjoyed a vogue, the latter as a substitute for the contrabassoon so that it is called for in, for example, Jules Massenet's Esclarmonde and Suite parnassienne.
Igor Stravinsky included a part for contrabass sarrusophone in Threni. The composer Paul Dukas used the contrabass sarrusophone to great effect in 1897 in his The Sorcerer's Apprentice, where the instrument begins the bassoon's macabre dance motif; these parts are nowadays all played on the contrabassoon, though recordings of at least some of these pieces using sarrusophones are extant. In general when the term "sarrusophone" is used, it refers to t
Late Show with David Letterman
Late Show with David Letterman is an American late-night talk show hosted by David Letterman on CBS, the first iteration of the Late Show franchise. The show debuted on August 30, 1993, was produced by Letterman's production company, Worldwide Pants, CBS Television Studios; the show's music director and leader of the house band, the CBS Orchestra, was Paul Shaffer. The head writer was Matt Roberts and the announcer was Bill Wendell Alan Kalter. Of the major U. S. late-night programs, Late Show ranked second in cumulative average viewers over time and third in number of episodes over time. In most U. S. markets. Eastern and Pacific Time, recorded Monday through Wednesdays at 4:30 p.m. and Thursdays at 3:30 p.m. and 6:00 p.m. Eastern Time; the second Thursday episode aired on Friday of that week. In 2002, Late Show with David Letterman was ranked No. 7 on TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time. As host of both Late Night and Late Show for more than 30 years, Letterman surpassed Johnny Carson as the longest running late-night talk show host in 2013.
That same year, Late Night and Late Show were ranked at #41 on TV Guide's 60 Best Series of All Time. In 2014, Letterman announced his retirement and the final episode of Late Show aired on May 20, 2015. After Letterman's final Late Show, instead of airing reruns of the show or having guest host episodes of Late Show, CBS opted to put the show on hiatus in between Letterman and Colbert and instead aired reruns of scripted dramas in the 11:35 pm time slot over the summer with the branding CBS Summer Showcase; the show was succeeded by The Late Show with Stephen Colbert, hosted by Stephen Colbert, which premiered on September 8, 2015. CBS had attempted late-night talk shows with The Merv Griffin Show and The Pat Sajak Show, but these were unable to compete with NBC's The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson and were canceled due to poor ratings. For most of the 20 years preceding Late Show, CBS's late night fare consisted of movies and specialty programming packaged under the title CBS Late Night and broadcast to middling ratings.
When David Letterman became available following a conflict with NBC, CBS was eager to lure him and offered him a three-year, $14 million per year contract, doubling his Late Night salary. According to their agreement, the show would spend a month in Hollywood at least once a year. CBS purchased the Ed Sullivan Theater for $4 million; the renovation was supervised by architect James Polshek. CBS' total cost for acquiring the show including renovations, negotiation rights paid to NBC, signing Letterman, announcer Bill Wendell, the writers and the band was over $140 million. A significant issue regarding Letterman's move to CBS was the ownership of long-running comedy bits used on Late Night, as well as the title of the CBS show itself. NBC claimed. Letterman and his attorneys countered that some segments pre-dated Late Night and had first aired on The David Letterman Show, owned by Letterman's production company rather than NBC, others, such as the Top Ten List, were common property and not owned by either Letterman or NBC.
A compromise was reached in key areas: the "Viewer Mail" segment would be called the "CBS Mailbag". NBC gave Letterman the choice of at least two options to name his new show, Late Show with David Letterman or Nightly with David Letterman. On this matter CBS executives stepped in, rejecting Nightly in part because of potential confusion with Nightline on ABC. Thus, Late Show with David Letterman became the official title. After Letterman was introduced on Late Show's first episode, NBC Nightly News anchor Tom Brokaw accompanied him on stage and wished him "reasonably well"; as part of a pre-arranged act, Brokaw proceeded to retrieve a pair of cue cards while stating that "These last two jokes are the intellectual property of NBC!" After he carried them off stage, Letterman responded, "Who would have thought you would hear the words'intellectual property' and'NBC' in the same sentence?" In his opening monologue, Letterman said "Legally, I can continue to call myself Dave" but joked that he woke up that morning and next to him in bed was the head of a peacock.
In ratings, Letterman's Late Show dominated Jay Leno's Tonight Show for its first two years. Leno pulled ahead on July 10, 1995, starting with a Hugh Grant interview, after Grant's much-publicized arrest for picking up a Los Angeles prostitute. Leno benefited from the lead-in provided by NBC's popular Must See TV prime time programs of the mid-to-late 1990s; the CBS network was hindered by a weak prime time lineup, along with several large- and major-market network affiliation switches in late 1994 relating to Fox's acquisition of CBS's National Football League rights, stunting the Late Show just as it was beginning to gain traction. Announcer Bill Wendell retired with Alan Kalter taking his place. At times Late Show came in third in its time slot, once prompting Letterman to arrange for a Manhattan billboard proudly declaring himself and his show to be No. 3 in Late Night, aping an older, nearby billboard which promoted Leno and The Tonight Show as No. 1. Letterman attempted to respond by making his show more political, aping the approach taken by The Daily Sho
William & Mary Pep Band
The William & Mary Pep Band is the scramble band of the College of William and Mary. It is a student-run ensemble that performs at home football games in the fall sports season and basketball games in the winter sports season. Membership is open to anyone enrolled at the college; the early history of the William and Mary Marching Band is unknown. Throughout the 1920s, 1930s, 1940s, there were various efforts to organize a marching band, each of which lasted for a few years at the most, collapsed, it wasn't until the early 1950s, with the coming of Charles R. Varner, that a marching band at William and Mary came to be. Mr. Varner came to the College in the fall of 1953, as the new director of bands, started a reorganization of the way that the marching band was conceived. Now that it had a stable leader, the band began to flourish. In the'50s,'60s, and'70s, the Summer Band program, staffed by members of the William and Mary Marching band, provided an opportunity for high school students to get better with their instruments and better at marching.
However, when Chuck Varner left the College, the marching band began to hit troubled times. Diagnosed with cancer in the early 1980s, Varner was forced to retire after 33 years of service. A scholarship in his name was established by the Alumni Band Organization at William and Mary in 1989 and is awarded to an outstanding band student from any band ensembles. Varner died in January 2002, after suffering from Alzheimer's. After Varner retired, the Marching Band was re-created as a free-form "explosion style" band; this proved to be unsatisfactory to the College administration, who hired a new director of bands, Laura Rexroth. In addition to conducting the College's Concert Band and Jazz Ensemble, Rexroth was instructed to start up a traditional marching band once more. Membership rose from 17 the first year to 50 in the following years. Rexroth was able to acquire College support to purchase new marching percussion instruments in 1990, new marching band uniforms for the 1993 Tercentenary celebration of the founding of the College.
Although many at the College were in favor of the idea of a marching band, financial support for the ensemble was continually reduced from 1990 to 1998. The administration agreed that a Pep Band would require less financial support and decided to change the Marching Band to a non-marching Pep Band that performed from the stands. In the fall of 1996, the history of the William and Mary Pep Band began, it began as a similar institution to the Marching Band, in that it was a one credit class run by the Department of Music. In the fall of 1998, the Athletic department took over the management of the Pep Band. Under the leadership of Jason Maga, the Pep Band sat down with Athletics, the Student Government, the Administration to work out a new direction for the Pep Band. With the support of these groups, the Pep Band started a flyering and mailing drive across campus and to all incoming freshmen. In the Fall of 1999, the Pep Band was reformed as student-run organization, under the Directorship of Jason Maga.
William and Mary Pep Band 19 February 2011 Tribe basketball game against Radford University 29 September 2007 Tribe football game against Towson University 18 November 2006 Tribe football game against University of Richmond Flat Hat Article on the pep band, August 2005
The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson
The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson is an American talk show hosted by Johnny Carson under the Tonight Show franchise from October 1, 1962 through May 22, 1992. It aired during late-night. For its first decade, Johnny Carson's The Tonight Show was based at 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York City, with some episodes recorded at NBC-TV's West Coast studios in Burbank, California. In 2002, The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson was ranked No. 12 on TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time, in 2013 it was ranked No. 22 on their list of 60 Best Series. Johnny Carson's Tonight Show established the modern format of the late-night talk show: a monologue sprinkled with a rapid-fire series of 16 to 22 one-liners was followed by sketch comedy moving on to guest interviews and performances by musicians and stand-up comedians. During the early years of Carson's tenure, his guests included politicians such as former U. S. Vice President Richard M. Nixon, former U. S. Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, Vice President Hubert Humphrey, but by 1970, Carson interviewed as guests people that had a book, television show, or stage performance to promote.
Other regulars were selected for their entertainment or information value, in contrast to those who offered more cerebral conversation. Carson's preference for access to Hollywood stars caused the show's move to the West Coast on May 1, 1972; when asked about intellectual conversation on The Tonight Show and his staff invariably cited "Carl Sagan, Paul Ehrlich, Margaret Mead, Gore Vidal, Shana Alexander, Madalyn Murray O'Hair" as guests. Family therapist Carlfred Broderick appeared on the show ten times, psychologist Joyce Brothers was one of Carson's most frequent guests. Carson, in general, did not feature prop comedy acts. Carson never socialized with guests before or after the show. Unlike his avuncular counterparts Merv Griffin, Mike Douglas, Dick Cavett, Carson was a comparatively "cool" host who only laughed when genuinely amused and abruptly cut short monotonous or embarrassingly inept interviewees. Mort Sahl recalled, "The producer crouches just off camera and holds up a card that says,'Go to commercial.'
So Carson goes to a commercial and the whole team rushes up to his desk to discuss what had gone wrong, like a pit stop at Le Mans." Actor Robert Blake once compared being interviewed by Carson to "facing the death squad" or "Broadway on opening night." The publicity value of appearing on The Tonight Show was so great, that most guests were willing to subject themselves to the risk. The show's announcer and Carson's sidekick was Ed McMahon, who from the first show would introduce Carson with a drawn-out "Heeeeeeeeere's Johnny!". The catchphrase was heard nightly for 30 years, ranked top of the TV Land poll of U. S. TV catchphrases and quotes in 2006. McMahon, who held the same role in Carson's ABC game show Who Do You Trust? for five years would remain standing to the side as Carson did his monologue, laughing at his jokes join him at the guest chair when Carson moved to his desk. The two would interact in a comic spot for a short while before the first guest was introduced. McMahon stated in a 1978 profile of Carson in The New Yorker that "the'Tonight Show' is my staple diet, my meat and potatoes—I'm realistic enough to know that everything else stems from that".
After a 1965 incident in which he ruined Carson's joke on the air McMahon was careful to, as he said, "never to go where's going". He wrote in his 1998 autobiography: My role on the show never was defined. I did. I was there when he needed me, when he didn't I moved down the couch and kept quiet.... I did the audience warm-up, I did commercials, for a brief period I co-hosted the first fifteen minutes of the show... and I performed in many sketches. On our thirteenth-anniversary show Johnny and I were talking at his desk and he said, "Thirteen years is a long time." He paused long enough for me to recognize my cue, so I asked, "How long is it?" "That's why you're here," he said summing up my primary role on the show perfectly... I had to support him, I had to help him get to the punch line, but while doing it I had to make it look as if I wasn't doing anything at all; the better I did it, the less it appeared as if I was doing it.... If I was going to play second fiddle, I wanted to be the Heifetz of second fiddlers....
The most difficult thing for me to learn how to do was just sit there with my mouth closed. Many nights I'd be listening to Johnny and in my mind I'd reach the same ad lib. I'd have to bite my tongue not to say it out loud. I had to m
College of the Holy Cross
The College of the Holy Cross or better known as Holy Cross is a private Jesuit liberal arts college in Worcester, Massachusetts. Founded in 1843, Holy Cross is the oldest Catholic college in New England and one of the oldest in the United States. Opened as a school for boys under the auspices of the Society of Jesus, it was the first Jesuit college in New England. Today, Holy Cross is one of 28 member institutions of the Association of Jesuit Colleges and Universities and is part of the Colleges of Worcester Consortium. Holy Cross sports teams are called the Crusaders, their sole color is purple. Holy Cross was founded by Benedict Joseph Fenwick, S. J. Second Bishop of Boston, after his efforts to found a Catholic college in Boston were thwarted by the city's Protestant civic leaders. From the beginning of his tenure as bishop, Fenwick intended to establish a Catholic college within the boundaries of his diocese. Relations with Boston's civic leaders worsened such that, when a Jesuit faculty was secured in 1843, Fenwick decided to leave the Boston school and instead opened the College of the Holy Cross 45 miles west of the city in central Massachusetts, where he felt the Jesuits could operate with greater autonomy.
The site of the college, Mount Saint James, was occupied by a Roman Catholic boarding school run by the Rev. James Fitton, with his lay collaborator Joseph Brigden, since 1832. On February 2, 1843, Fr. Fitton sold the land to Bishop Fenwick and the Diocese of Boston to be used to found the Roman Catholic college that the bishop had wanted in Boston. Fenwick gave the college the Cathedral of the Holy Cross; the Bishop's letters record his enthusiasm for the project as well as for its location: Next May I shall lay the foundation of a splendid College in Worcester... It is calculated to contain 100 boys and I shall take them for $125 per an. & supply them with everything but clothes. Will not this be a bold undertaking? I will try it, it will stand on a beautiful eminence. The school opened in October 1843 with the Rev. Thomas F. Mulledy, S. J. former president of Georgetown University, as its first president, on the second day of November, with six students aged 9 to 19, the first classes were held.
Within three years, the enrollment had increased to 100 students. The education was more at the elementary and high school level. Since its founding, Holy Cross has produced the fifth most members of the Catholic clergy out of all American Catholic colleges; the first class graduated in 1849, led by the valedictorian James Augustine Healy, the mixed-race son of an Irish planter in Georgia and his common-law wife, a mulatto former slave. Healy is now recognized as the first African-American bishop in the United States, but at the time he identified as white Irish Catholic and was accepted as such, without denying his African ancestry, his father sent all his sons north for their education at Holy Cross College. Healy graduated with his close friend Colby Kane, who would go on to join the clergy, was influential in many of Healy's early writings on Eucharistic transubstantiation. Fenwick Hall, the school's main building, was destroyed by fire in 1852. Funds were raised to rebuild the college, in 1853 it opened for the second time.
Petitions to secure a charter for the college from the state legislature were denied in 1847 for a variety of reasons, including anti-Catholicism on the part of some legislators. The increased rate of immigration from Ireland during the famine years roused resistance from some residents of Massachusetts. Holy Cross diplomas were signed by the president of Georgetown University. After repeated denials, a charter was granted on March 24, 1865, by Governor John Albion Andrew. During World War II, College of the Holy Cross was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. In 1998, Holy Cross initiated an eight-year capital campaign, "Lift High the Cross," with a three-year quiet period; the campaign for Holy Cross ended in fiscal 2006 with $216.3 million raised, surpassing its original goal of $175 million. The funds allowed Holy Cross to establish an additional 12 new faculty positions, along with more than 75 newly endowed scholarships for students.
The campaign provided support for the renovation of the Mary Chapel as well as construction of new facilities on campus, including Smith Hall which houses the new Michael C. McFarland Center for Religion and Culture. During the campaign, the college's endowment grew to more than $544 million. On July 1, 2000, Rev. Michael C. McFarland, S. J. became the president of the college. On February 3, 2011, Fr. McFarland announced his resignation as President of the College, a national search, led by the Board of Trustees, was conducted to find his successor. On May 7, 2011, Rev. Philip L. Boroughs, S. J. the Vice President for Mission and Ministry at Georgetown University, was named as McFarland's successor. In early 2018, the college began publicly exploring the possibility of changing its "Crusader" nickname and associated imagery; the college's leadership decided to keep the nickname, distinguishing its use of the nickname from the historical associations with the crusades. In line with this, the college's leadership decided to retire the used imagery of an armed medie
Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon Baines Johnson referred to as LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th president of the United States from 1963 to 1969. The 37th vice president of the United States from 1961 to 1963, he assumed the presidency following the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. A Democrat from Texas, Johnson served as a United States Representative and as the Majority Leader in the United States Senate. Johnson is one of only four people. Born in a farmhouse in Stonewall, Johnson was a high school teacher and worked as a congressional aide before winning election to the House of Representatives in 1937, he won election to the Senate in 1948 and was appointed to the position of Senate Majority Whip in 1951. He became the Senate Minority Leader in 1953 and the Senate Majority Leader in 1955, he became known for his domineering personality and the "Johnson treatment", his aggressive coercion of powerful politicians to advance legislation. Johnson ran for the Democratic nomination in the 1960 presidential election.
Although unsuccessful, he accepted the invitation of then-Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts to be his running mate, they went on to win a close election over the Republican ticket of Richard Nixon and Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. On November 22, 1963, Kennedy was assassinated and Johnson succeeded him as president; the following year, Johnson won in a landslide. With 61.1 percent of the popular vote, Johnson won the largest share of the popular vote of any candidate since the uncontested 1820 election. In domestic policy, Johnson designed the "Great Society" legislation to expand civil rights, public broadcasting, Medicaid, aid to education, the arts and rural development, public services and his "War on Poverty". Assisted in part by a growing economy, the War on Poverty helped millions of Americans rise above the poverty line during his administration. Civil rights bills that he signed into law banned racial discrimination in public facilities, interstate commerce, the workplace and housing.
With the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, the country's immigration system was reformed, encouraging greater emigration from regions other than Europe. Johnson's presidency marked the peak of modern liberalism after the New Deal era. In foreign policy, Johnson escalated American involvement in the Vietnam War. In 1964, Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which granted Johnson the power to use military force in Southeast Asia without having to ask for an official declaration of war; the number of American military personnel in Vietnam increased from 16,000 advisors in non-combat roles in 1963 to 525,000 in 1967, many in combat roles. American casualties soared and the peace process stagnated. Growing unease with the war stimulated a large, angry anti-war movement based chiefly among draft-age students on university campuses. Johnson faced further troubles when summer riots began in major cities in 1965 and crime rates soared, as his opponents raised demands for "law and order" policies.
While Johnson began his presidency with widespread approval, support for him declined as the public became frustrated with both the war and the growing violence at home. In 1968, the Democratic Party factionalized. Nixon was elected to succeed him, as the New Deal coalition that had dominated presidential politics for 36 years collapsed. After he left office in January 1969, Johnson returned to his Texas ranch, where he died of a heart attack at age 64, on January 22, 1973. Johnson is ranked favorably by many historians because of his domestic policies and the passage of many major laws that affected civil rights, gun control, wilderness preservation, Social Security, although he has drawn substantial criticism for his escalation of the Vietnam War. Lyndon Baines Johnson was born on August 27, 1908, near Stonewall, Texas, in a small farmhouse on the Pedernales River, he was the oldest of five children born to Samuel Ealy Johnson Rebekah Baines. Johnson had one brother, Sam Houston Johnson, three sisters.
The nearby small town of Johnson City, was named after LBJ's cousin, James Polk Johnson, whose forebears had moved west from Georgia. Johnson had English and Ulster Scots ancestry, he was maternally descended from pioneer Baptist clergyman George Washington Baines, who pastored eight churches in Texas, as well as others in Arkansas and Louisiana. Baines, the grandfather of Johnson's mother, was the president of Baylor University during the American Civil War. Johnson's grandfather, Samuel Ealy Johnson Sr. was raised as a Baptist and for a time was a member of the Christian Church. In his years the grandfather became a Christadelphian; as a politician, Johnson was influenced in his positive attitude toward Jews by the religious beliefs that his family his grandfather, had shared with him. Johnson's favorite Bible verse came from the King James Version of Isaiah 1:18. "Come now, let us reason together..." In school, Johnson was an awkward, talkative youth, elected president of his 11th-grade class.
He graduated in 1924 from Johnson City High School, where he participated in public speaking and baseball. At age 15, Johnson was the youngest member of his class. Pressured by his parents to attend college, he en