Columbia Law School
Columbia Law School is a professional graduate school of Columbia University, a member of the Ivy League. It has always been ranked in the top five law schools in the United States by U. S. News and World Report. Columbia is well known for its strength in corporate law and its placement power in the nation's elite law firms. Columbia Law School was founded in 1858 as the Columbia College Law School, was known for its legal scholarship dating back to the 18th century. Graduates of the university's colonial predecessor, King's College, include such notable early-American legal figures as John Jay, the first chief justice of the United States, Alexander Hamilton, the first Secretary of the Treasury, who were both co-authors of The Federalist Papers. Columbia has produced a large number of distinguished alumni, including US presidents Teddy Roosevelt and Franklin Delano Roosevelt. S. Cabinet members and presidential advisers. According to Columbia Law School's 2013 ABA-required disclosures; the law school was ranked #1 of all law schools nationwide by the National Law Journal in terms of sending the highest percentage of 2015 graduates to the largest 100 law firms in the US.
The teaching of law at Columbia reaches back to the 18th century. Graduates of the university's colonial predecessor, King's College, included such notable early American judicial figures as John Jay, who would become the first Chief Justice of the United States. Columbia College appointed its first professor of law, James Kent, in 1793; the lectures of Chancellor Kent in the course of four years had developed into the first two volumes of his Commentaries, the second volume being published November 1827. Kent did not, succeed in establishing a law school or department in the College. Thus, the formal instruction of law as a course of study did not commence until the middle of the 19th century; the Columbia College Law School, as it was officially called, was founded in 1858. The first law school building was a Gothic Revival structure located on Columbia's Madison Avenue campus. Thereafter, the college became Columbia University and moved north to the neighborhood of Morningside Heights; as Columbia Law Professor Theodore Dwight observed, at its founding the demand for a formal course of study in law was still speculative: It was considered at that time as an experiment.
No institution resembling a law school had existed in New York. Most of the leading lawyers had obtained their training in offices or by private reading, were skeptical as to the possibility of securing competent legal knowledge by means of professional schools. Legal education was, however, at a low ebb; the clerks in the law offices were left wholly to themselves. They were not acquainted with the lawyers with whom, by a convenient fiction, they were supposed to be studying. Examinations for admission to the bar were held by committees appointed by the courts, where they inquired at all, sought for the most part to ascertain the knowledge of the candidate of petty details of practice. In general, the examinations were purely perfunctory. A politician of influence was not turned away. Few studied law as a science. Indeed, Columbia Law School was one of the few law schools established in the United States before the Civil War. During the 18th and 19th centuries, most legal education took place in law offices, where young men, serving as apprentices or clerks, were set to copying documents and filling out legal forms under the supervision of an established attorney.
For example, in New York John Jay, revolutionary founding father and first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, read law with Benjamin Kissam, whose busy practice kept his clerks occupied in transcribing records and opinions. Jay was fortunate to have attentive supervision because the quality and time of learning the law varied within the profession. Theodore Dwight, head of the law department of Hamilton College in Clinton, New York, believed formal legal education, conducted in the classroom with regular lectures, was far superior to casual law office instruction. At its founding, four distinct courses of lectures of this class were established: one on Philology, offered by distinguished scholar and statesman, George P. Marsh; the original course of study to obtain a degree consisted of just two years, rather than the modern standard of three. The first lecture in the law school was delivered on Monday, Nov 1, 1858, by Mr. Dwight, at the rooms of the Historical Society.
It was an introductory lecture, afterwards printed. The audience consisted of lawyers, it was plain. The result was an immediate attendance of thirty-five students, who showed their
New York State Psychiatric Institute
The New York State Psychiatric Institute, located in the Columbia University Medical Center in the Washington Heights neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City, was established in 1895 as one of the first institutions in the United States to integrate teaching and therapeutic approaches to the care of patients with mental illnesses. In 1925, the Institute affiliated with Presbyterian Hospital, now New York-Presbyterian Hospital, adding general hospital facilities to the Institute's psychiatric services and research laboratories. Through the years, distinguished figures in American psychiatry have served as directors of the Psychiatric Institute, including Drs. Ira Van Gieson, Adolph Meyer, August Hoch, Lawrence Kolb, Edward Sachar and Herbert Pardes; the current director is Dr. Jeffrey Lieberman; the institute was established in 1895 by the New York State Hospital Commission as the Pathological Institute of the New York State Hospitals. In 1907, its name changed to Psychiatric Institute of the State Hospitals.
The 1927 Mental Hygiene Law designated it as the New York State Psychiatric Institute. In December 1929, the institute opened as a unit of the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center and operated by the state of New York under the supervision of the Department of Mental Hygiene, it is known by the following names: New York State Psychiatric Institute and Hospital NYSPI Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center. New York State Psychiatric Institute New York. New York State Psychiatric Institute New York. Psychiatric Institute New York. New York State Psychiatric Institute New York. State Psychiatric Institute The Institute has two buildings: the Herbert Pardes Building at 1051 Riverside Drive was built in 1998 and was designed by Peter Pran and Ellerbe Becket, it is connected by walkway bridges to the high-rise Lawrence G. Kolb Research Laboratory at 50 Haven Avenue at West 168th Street, built in 1983 and designed by Herbert W. Reimer, their original building at 722 West 168th Street became the Mailman's School of Public Health in 1999.
In 1953, Harold Blauer, a patient undergoing treatment for depression at the Institute, died following an injection of the amphetamine MDA given without his permission as part of a U. S. Army experiment; the United States and New York state governments and the Psychiatric Institute attempted to cover up the incident, a fact accidentally discovered in 1975 during a Congressional inquiry on an unrelated matter. In 1987 a federal judge ordered the government to pay US$700,000 in compensation to Blauer's surviving daughter. Notes Bibliography Levy, Eric, "The New York State Psychiatric Institute: Revolutionizing The Study of Mental Illness", P&S Journal, Fall 2003, Columbia University The New York State Psychiatric Institute History of NYSPI, Columbia Psychiatry Department website
Columbia University School of General Studies
The School of General Studies, Columbia University is a liberal arts college and one of the undergraduate colleges of Columbia University, situated on the university's main campus in Morningside Heights, New York City. GS is known for its traditional B. A. degree program for mature students. GS students make up 30% of the Columbia undergraduate population. GS is an Ivy League college that offers dual-degree programs with multiple leading universities around the world, it offers dual degree programs with Sciences Po in France, the City University of Hong Kong, Trinity College Dublin in Ireland, List College of the Jewish Theological Seminary. It offers dual degree programs with the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, the School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia Business School. GS is the historical home to dual-degree programs at Columbia University, the Post-baccalaureate Premedical Program, the oldest program of its kind. Notable alumni include Nobel Prize winners Simon Kuznets and Baruj Benacerraf, as well as Isaac Asimov, J.
D. Salinger, Amelia Earhart, Princess Firyal of Jordan. GS's evolutionary ancestor is the now-defunct, all-male Seth Low College, established in Downtown Brooklyn in 1928 to help alleviate the flood of Jewish applicants to Columbia College; the entrance requirements for Seth Low Junior College were the same as those enforced in Columbia College. Following completion of the two-year program, graduates could complete their undergraduate degrees at the University's professional schools, such as the School of Law, Business School, or School of Engineering and Applied Science or earn B. S. degrees in the liberal arts as University Undergraduates. Seth Low Junior College was closed in 1938 due to the adverse economic effects of the Great Depression and concomitant popularity of the tuition-free Brooklyn College in 1930. Henceforth, its remaining students were absorbed into the Morningside Heights campus as students in the University Undergraduate program, established by Nicholas Murray Butler in 1904.
University Extension was responsible for the founding of three schools at Columbia: the Graduate School of Business, the School of General Studies and the School of Dental and Oral Surgery. The School of Continuing Education, a separate school was established to reprise University Extension's former role. With an influx of students attending the University on the GI Bill following the resolution of World War II, in December 1946, the University Undergraduate program was reorganized as an official undergraduate college for "qualified students who, because of employment or for other reasons, are unable to attend other schools of the University." Columbia University pioneered the use of the term "General Studies" when naming the college, adapting the medieval term for universities, "Studium Generale." Thus, the School of General Studies bears no semblance to general studies or extension studies programs at other universities in the United States. In December 1968, the University Council permitted GS to grant the B.
A. degree instead of the B. S. degree, making it only one of two colleges at Columbia offering the B. A. degree. In 1991, the Columbia College, School of General Studies, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences faculties were merged into the Faculty of Arts & Sciences, which resulted in the complete academic integration between the School of General Studies and Columbia College; as a result, both GS and CC students receive B. A. degrees conferred by the Trustees of Columbia University through the Faculty of Art & Sciences, GS is recognized as an official liberal arts college at Columbia University. GS students make up 30% of the Columbia undergraduate population and in 2013 were reported as collectively earning the highest average GPA among undergraduates at Columbia University. 20% of GS students are part-time students who have significant, full-time work commitments in addition to their academic responsibilities. Numerous GS students have gone on to win prestigious fellowships, including the Rhodes Scholarship, the Gates Cambridge Scholarship, the Fulbright Scholarship.
The School of General Studies confers the degree of Bachelor of Arts in more than 70 majors. All GS students are required to complete the Core Curriculum, which includes University Writing, Literature/Humanities, Contemporary Civilization/Social Science, Art Humanities, Music Humanities, Global Core, Quantitative Reasoning and Foreign Language. GS offers dual degree programs with Sciences Po, the City University of Hong Kong, Trinity College Dublin in Ireland, List College of the Jewish Theological Seminary, it offers dual degree programs with the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, the School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia Business School. GS has the oldest program of its kind. Admission to Columbia GS is competitive. Admission requires an online application, official high school transcripts, SAT or ACT test scores within the past eight years or a score on the General Studies Admissions Examination, an essay of 1,500-2,000 words, two recommendation letters. Interviews are conducted over phone.
Prospective Columbia undergraduates who have had a break of a year or more in their education, have completed an undergraduate degree, or are pursuing dual undergraduate degrees are considered non-traditi
Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture. In the Renaissance, the term contrasted with divinity and referred to what is now called classics, the main area of secular study in universities at the time. Today, the humanities are more contrasted with natural, sometimes social, sciences as well as professional training; the humanities use methods that are critical, or speculative, have a significant historical element—as distinguished from the empirical approaches of the natural sciences, unlike the sciences, it has no central discipline. The humanities include ancient and modern languages, philosophy, human geography, politics and art. Scholars in the humanities are humanists; the term "humanist" describes the philosophical position of humanism, which some "antihumanist" scholars in the humanities reject. The Renaissance scholars and artists were called humanists; some secondary schools offer humanities classes consisting of literature, global studies and art.
Human disciplines like history and cultural anthropology study subject matters that the manipulative experimental method does not apply to—and instead use the comparative method and comparative research. Anthropology is a science of the totality of human existence; the discipline deals with the integration of different aspects of the social sciences and human biology. In the twentieth century, academic disciplines have been institutionally divided into three broad domains; the natural sciences seek to derive general laws through verifiable experiments. The humanities study local traditions, through their history, literature and arts, with an emphasis on understanding particular individuals, events, or eras; the social sciences have attempted to develop scientific methods to understand social phenomena in a generalizable way, though with methods distinct from those of the natural sciences. The anthropological social sciences develop nuanced descriptions rather than the general laws derived in physics or chemistry, or they may explain individual cases through more general principles, as in many fields of psychology.
Anthropology does not fit into one of these categories, different branches of anthropology draw on one or more of these domains. Within the United States, anthropology is divided into four sub-fields: archaeology, physical or biological anthropology, anthropological linguistics, cultural anthropology, it is an area, offered at most undergraduate institutions. The word anthropos is from the Greek for "human being" or "person". Eric Wolf described sociocultural anthropology as "the most scientific of the humanities, the most humanistic of the sciences"; the goal of anthropology is to provide a holistic account of human nature. This means that, though anthropologists specialize in only one sub-field, they always keep in mind the biological, linguistic and cultural aspects of any problem. Since anthropology arose as a science in Western societies that were complex and industrial, a major trend within anthropology has been a methodological drive to study peoples in societies with more simple social organization, sometimes called "primitive" in anthropological literature, but without any connotation of "inferior".
Today, anthropologists use terms such as "less complex" societies, or refer to specific modes of subsistence or production, such as "pastoralist" or "forager" or "horticulturalist", to discuss humans living in non-industrial, non-Western cultures, such people or folk remaining of great interest within anthropology. The quest for holism leads most anthropologists to study a people in detail, using biogenetic and linguistic data alongside direct observation of contemporary customs. In the 1990s and 2000s, calls for clarification of what constitutes a culture, of how an observer knows where his or her own culture ends and another begins, other crucial topics in writing anthropology were heard, it is possible to view all human cultures as part of one large. These dynamic relationships, between what can be observed on the ground, as opposed to what can be observed by compiling many local observations remain fundamental in any kind of anthropology, whether cultural, linguistic or archaeological.
Archaeology is the study of human activity through the analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, biofacts or ecofacts, cultural landscapes. Archaeology can be considered a branch of the humanities, it has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time. Archaeology is thought of as a branch of anthropology in the United States, while in Europe, it is viewed as a discipline in its own right, or grouped under other related disciplines such as history. Classics, in the Western academic tradition, refers to the studies of the cultures of classical antiquity, namely Ancient Greek and Latin and the Ancient Greek and Roman cultures. Classical studies is considered one of the cornerstones of the humanities; the influence of classical ideas on many humanities disciplines, such as philosophy and literature, remains strong. History is systematically collected information about the past.
When used as the name of a field of study, history refers to the study and interpretation of the record of humans, societies and any to
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Nevis Labs is a research center owned and operated by Columbia University. It is located in Irvington, New York, on the 60-acre property owned by Col. James Alexander Hamilton, the son of Alexander Hamilton, a graduate of Columbia College. James Hamilton built his mansion on this estate and named it Nevis in honor of the birthplace of his father; the land was donated to the university by the DuPont family of Delaware. Construction of the physics facilities began in 1947 and by the 1950s it was home to the world's most powerful cyclotron. University president Dwight D. Eisenhower inaugurated the accelerator, it was decommissioned in 1976. The laboratory specializes in the preparation and construction of high-energy particle and nuclear experiments and equipment; these are transported to major laboratories worldwide. The lab performs data analysis for these experiments; the laboratory is home to the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility a National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering biotechnology resource center specializing in microbeam technology.
The Nevis campus is crossed by the Croton Aqueduct, the first water tunnel supplying New York City and now a popular walking and cycling trail. Nevis Laboratories Homepage RARAF Homepage
Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health
Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health, is the public health graduate school of Columbia University. Located at 722 West 168th Street on the Columbia University Medical Center campus in the Washington Heights neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City, is a school of public health recognized by the Council on Education for Public Health; the Mailman School is considered a preeminent school of public health in the United States. The School of Public Health began in 1922 as the DeLamar Institute of Public Health, it became an official school within the university in 1945. In 1999, following a $33 million grant from the Joseph L. Mailman Foundation, the school was renamed the Joseph L. Mailman School of Public Health; as of 2015, the school is ranked in the top five in the nation by the U. S. News & World Report; the school enrolls over 1,400 students and is one of the largest recipients for sponsored research pertaining to public health. Linda P. Fried is DeLamar Professor of Public Health.
A researcher of healthy aging and longevity, her work helped define the syndrome of frailty. She designed Experience Corps, a program in 22 cities that puts older volunteers to work in public schools, yielding benefits to all generations. Fried has been recognized by Congress as “a living legend in medicine”.477 faculty members work in over 100 countries, as well as in the Northern Manhattan community. Their research areas include climate and health, HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention, healthy aging, maternal health, mental health, environmental toxins and children's environmental health and health, the human microbiome, the history and ethics of public health, healthcare reform and how to strengthen healthcare systems, among many other critical issues. Department Chairs Biostatistics - F. DuBois Bowman, PhD Epidemiology - Charles Branas, PhD Environmental Health Sciences - Andrea Baccarelli, MD, PhD, MPH Health Policy and Management - Michael S. Sparer, PhD, JD Population and Family Health - Terry McGovern, JD Sociomedical Sciences - James Colgrove, PhD 1,404 students 86% master's students 14% doctoral students 44 states represented 52 countries represented 23% non-U.
S. Citizens 46% ethnic/racial minorities According to the School's facts and figures webpage, the school offers MPH, MHA, MS, PhD, DrPH degrees; the School's educational offerings include 10 dual degree programs with other schools at Columbia University. Every year, students can access more than 300 classes at the Mailman School and can take classes at the other schools of Columbia University; the school has an excellent student-teacher ratio with a median class size of 24 participants. The School has reported excellent job placement results. Of the remaining 4% of graduates, half were not seeking a job by choice and only 2% of the respondents were still seeking; the overall average salary 6 months after graduation was $77,495 annually. In 2012, the School redesigned and implemented a new Master of Public Health that has since been indicated as a model at other schools in the United States and worldwide; the new MPH program is designed to meet the challenges of the times, such as globalization, population aging, health disparities.
To accomplish this, the programs gives students a global perspective on health. In the words of Georges C. Benjamin, executive director of the American Public Health Association, the revamped MPH curriculum has provided a new approach to "guide and improve public health education in the country, offered a guide for other public health programs worldwide". In addition to the 2-year Master of Public Health, the Mailman School offers a Master of Science degree, offered by the departments of Biostatistics, Environmental Health Sciences, Sociomedical Sciences, Population and Family Health. Compared to the 2-year Master of Public Health, the Master of Science is a fast track to public health education, as it includes several programs of 12 or 18 months. Organized in 1990 by Robert N. Butler, M. D. Professor of Geriatrics at Mount Sinai School of Medicine, The International Longevity Center is a not-for-profit, nonpartisan research and education organization whose mission is to help societies address the issues of population aging and longevity in positive and constructive ways and to highlight older people's productivity and contributions to their families and to society as a whole.
In 2011, honoring the wishes of the late Dr. Butler, the mission and the assets of the ILC became the foundation for an interdisciplinary center on aging at Columbia University, anchored at the Mailman School of Public Health; the Mailman School of Public Health is led by Dr. Jeff Shaman, it houses the Global Consortium on Climate and Health Education, a global network of 300+ Universities committed to educate their students on health impacts of climate change. The school houses the only Climate and Health training program funded by the National Institutes of Health for doctoral students and postdoctoral trainees and has a Master of Public Health certificate in Climate and Health. Climate and Health at Mailman is supported by scientists such as Jeff Shaman, Carlos Dora, Marianthi Kioumourtzoglou, Micaela Martinez, Darby Jack and many others. Recent and ongoing projects include investigations of changes in DNA methylation that may accumulate in children before they ar