Columbus, Georgia

Columbus is a consolidated city-county located on the west-central border of the U. S. state of Georgia. Located on the Chattahoochee River directly across from Phenix City, Columbus is the county seat of Muscogee County, with which it merged in 1970. Columbus is the third-largest city in the fourth-largest metropolitan area. According to the 2017 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, Columbus has a population of 194,058 residents, with 303,811 in the Columbus metropolitan area; the metro area joins the nearby Alabama cities of Auburn and Opelika to form the Columbus–Auburn–Opelika Combined Statistical Area, which has a 2017 estimated population of 499,128. Columbus lies 100 miles southwest of Atlanta. Fort Benning, the United States Army's Maneuver Center of Excellence and a major employer, is located south of the city in Chattahoochee County. Columbus is home to museums and tourism sites, including the National Infantry Museum, dedicated to the United States Army's Infantry Branch, it has the longest urban whitewater rafting course in the world constructed on the Chattahoochee River.

This was for centuries and more the traditional territory of the Creek Indians, who became known as one of the Five Civilized Tribes of the Southeast after European contact. Those who lived closest to white-occupied areas conducted considerable trading and adopted some European-American ways. Founded in 1828 by an act of the Georgia Legislature, Columbus was situated at the beginning of the navigable portion of the Chattahoochee River and on the last stretch of the Federal Road before entering Alabama; the city was named for Christopher Columbus. The plan for the city was drawn up by Dr. Edwin L. DeGraffenried, who placed the town on a bluff overlooking the river. Across the river to the west, where Phenix City, Alabama, is now located, Creeks still lived until they were forcibly removed in 1836 by the federal government to make way for European-American settlers; the river served as Columbus's connection to the world enabling it to ship its commodity cotton crops from the plantations to the international cotton market via New Orleans and Liverpool, England.

The city's commercial importance increased in the 1850s with the arrival of the railroad. In addition, textile mills were developed along the river, bringing industry to an area reliant upon agriculture. By 1860, the city was one of the more important industrial centers of the South, earning it the nickname "the Lowell of the South", referring to an important textile mill town in Massachusetts; when the Civil War broke out in 1861, the industries of Columbus expanded their production. During the war, Columbus ranked second to Richmond in the manufacture of supplies for the Confederate army; the Eagle Manufacturing Company made textiles of various sorts, but woolens for Confederate uniforms. The Columbus Iron Works manufactured cannons and machinery and Gray made firearms, Louis and Elias Haimon produced swords and bayonets. Smaller firms provided additional sundries; as the war turned negative, each faced exponentially growing struggled shortages of raw materials and skilled labor, as well as worsenting financial opportunities.

In addition to textiles, the city had an ironworks, a sword factory, a shipyard for the Confederate Navy. Unaware of Lee's surrender to Grant and the assassination of Abraham Lincoln and Confederates clashed in the Battle of Columbus, Georgia, on Easter Sunday, April 16, 1865, when a Union detachment of two cavalry divisions under Maj. Gen. James H. Wilson attacked the defended city and burned many of the industrial buildings. John Stith Pemberton, who developed Coca-Cola in Columbus, was wounded in this battle. Col. Charles Augustus Lafayette Lamar, owner of the last slave ship in America, was killed here. A historic marker erected in Columbus notes that this was the site of the "Last Land Battle in the War from 1861 to 1865." Reconstruction began immediately and prosperity followed. Factories such as the Eagle and Phenix Mills were revived and the industrialization of the town led to rapid growth; the Springer Opera House was built on 10th Street, attracting such notables as Irish writer Oscar Wilde.

The Springer is now the official State Theater of Georgia. By the time of the Spanish–American War, the city's modernization included the addition of trolleys extending to outlying neighborhoods such as Rose Hill and Lakebottom, a new water works. Mayor Lucius Chappell brought a training camp for soldiers to the area; this training camp named Camp Benning grew into present-day Fort Benning, named for General Henry L. Benning, a native of the city. In the spring of 1866, the Ladies Memorial Association of Columbus passed a resolution to set aside one day annually to memorialize the Confederate dead; the secretary of the association, Mrs. Charles J. Williams, was directed to write a letter inviting the ladies of every Southern state to join them in the observance; the letter was written in March 1866 and sent to representatives of all of the principal cities in the South, including Atlanta, Montgomery, Richmond, St. Louis, Alexandria and New Orleans; this was the beginning of the influential work by ladies' organizations to honor the war dead.

The date for the holiday was selected by Elizabeth "Lizzie" Rutherford Ellis. She chose April 26, the first anniversary of Confederate General Johnston's final surrender to Union General Sherman at Bennett Place, North Carolina. For many in the South, that act marked the official end of the Civil War. In 1868, General John A. Logan, commander in chief of the Union Civil War Veterans Fraternity c

Klara Izabella Pacowa

Klara Izabella Pacowa, born Claire Isabelle Eugenie de Mailly-Lespine, was a Polish court official. She was a lady-in-waiting and confidante of two of the queens of Poland, Marie Louise Gonzaga and Eleanor of Austria, Queen of Poland, came to play an important part in Polish political life, she was the daughter of the French count Antoine de Mailly-Lespine and Genevieve d’Ufre, widow of prince de Croy. As a poor distant relation to Marie Louise Gonzaga, she arrived in Poland as a maid-of-honour in service to the queen, she served as maid-of-honour to the queen from 1646 to 1654. She attracted attention by her beauty in the court ballet The Fours Seasons, was named as one of the nymphs of the queen's court in the poem "Psyche" by Jan Andrzej Morsztyn; the politically active queen Marie Louise used her ladies-in-waiting to form connections and alliances which could be of use to her in state affairs, on 28 June 1654 she arranged for Klara Izabella to marry Krzysztof Zygmunt Pac. The marriage are believed to have affected Pac's career, as he was benefited by the court and known for his loyalty to the king.

After marriage, she continued as a close companion to the queen. During the Deluge, Klara Izabella accompanied the queen to Silesia and the royal court around Poland during the war with Sweden, being present with the queen in Gdansk in January 1657, Silesia in April; as most ladies-in-waiting of the politically active queen, Klara Izabella followed the queen's example and engaged in state affairs. She is believed to have persuaded her spouse to support the French candidate in the following election of 1661, she herself raised a sum of 3000 livres to benefit French interests during the election. Being the lady-in-waiting to the queen and present at court, she formed valuable connections, protected the interests of her spouse and benefited him in the eyes of the royal couple, soothing any conflicts between them and him, maintained connections with foreign rulers through their diplomats, whom she received as guests in the Belvedere Palace her husband had built for her as her residence in Warszaw in 1663.

During the 1660s, P. de Bonzy referred to her and Maria Kazimiera Sobieska, her rival as favorite, as one of the two most important and influential women at the Polish court after the queen. During the reign of king Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki and her husband where the leaders of the Pro-French Pac-Party and suggested a marriage between the king and the French candidate for the position of queen consort in alliance with the French envoy Hugo de Lionne; when this ended in failure in 1669, they made an alliance with Austria instead, she was appointed lady-in-waiting to the king's new queen, Eleanor of Austria. Klara Izabella Pacowa swiftly managed to gain the confidence of queen Eleanor: she helped the newly arrived queen to accustom to Poland and navigate in the political system, in return became her most influential lady-in-waiting. After the death of king Michał, she supported the candidacy of Charles of Lorraine in the next election as king of Poland, as he was due to marry the queen dowager, meaning a continuation of Klara's influential role as court favorite.

The victory of Sobieski in the election of 1674 was a disappointment: he was married to her former colleague as lady-in-waiting to queen Marie Louise, Maria Kazimiera Sobieska, of whom she had always been a rival and to whom she had a bad relationship and was not willing to employ her as lady-in-waiting. In 1676, she opposed the wedding between Michał Kazimierz Pac and the queen's sister Maria Anna d'Arquien de la Grange. In 1677, she promised the Brandenburg envoy Johannes von Hoverbeck that she would persuade her husband to influence the king to make peace with Brandenburg, but the relationship between her and her spouse had deteriorated because of his adultery with Zofia Leszczyńska. Widowed in 1684, she died of cancer one year later. "Polski Słownik Biograficzny" Biogram został opublikowany w 1979 r. W XXIV tomie Polskiego Słownika Biograficznego

2006–07 Scottish Third Division

The 2006–07 Scottish Football League Third Division was the 12th season in the format of ten teams in the fourth-tier of Scottish football. The season started on 4 August 2006 and ended on 28 April 2007. Berwick Rangers were promoted alongside Queen's Park as play-off winners. East Stirlingshire finished bottom of the table for the fifth consecutive season. Despite finishing bottom again, East Stirlingshire won their battle to retain full member status of the Scottish Football League, though were warned that they would lose their status if they finished bottom in the following season. Cowdenbeath as champions of the 2005–06 season were directly promoted to the 2006–07 Scottish Second Division, they were replaced by Dumbarton. A second promotion place was available via a play-off tournament between the ninth-placed team of the 2005–06 Scottish Second Division, Alloa Athletic, the sides ranked second and fourth in the 2005–06 Scottish Third Division, Berwick Rangers and Arbroath respectively; the play off was won by Alloa Athletic.

Alloa Athletic therefore retained their Second Division status. Relegated from Second Division to Third Division DumbartonPromoted from Third Division to Second Division Cowdenbeath Teams play each other four times in this league. In the first half of the season each team plays every other team twice and do the same in the second half of the season. A. ^ Stenhousemuir 5–0 Montrose.