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Columbus County, North Carolina

Columbus County is a county located in the U. S. state of North Carolina, on its southeastern border. As of the 2010 census, the population was 58,098, its county seat is Whiteville. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 954 square miles, of which 937 square miles is land and 16 square miles is water, it is the third-largest county in North Carolina by land area. There are several large lakes including Lake Tabor and Lake Waccamaw. One of the most significant geographic features is the Green Swamp, a 15,907-acre area in the north-eastern portion of the county. Highway 211 passes alongside it; the swamp contains several endangered species, such as the venus flytrap. The area contains the Brown Marsh Swamp, has a remnant of the giant longleaf pine forest that once stretched across the Southeast from Virginia to Texas; the third largest county in North Carolina was formed in 1808 in the early federal period from parts of Bladen and Brunswick counties. Named for Christopher Columbus, the county was formed by an Act of the General Assembly because of the difficulties of the inhabitants getting to a county seat to transact legal business.

The area comprising the county was once part of Bath precinct, organized under the English Crown in 1696. It was at least 50 years after that before the area began to achieve more than meager settlement by European settlers; until it was the land of the Waccamaw Siouan Indians. The Waccamaw Siouan Indians are one of eight state-recognized tribes, their homeland territory is at the edge of Green Swamp in present-day Columbus County. The "eastern Siouans" had territories extending through the area of Columbus County prior to any European exploration or settlement in the 16th century. English colonial settlement in what was known as Carolina did not increase until the late 17th and early 18th centuries. Following epidemics of infectious disease, the indigenous peoples suffered disruption and fatalities during the colonial Tuscarora and Yamasee wars. Afterward most of the Tuscarora people migrated north, joining other Iroquoian-speaking peoples of the Iroquois Confederacy in New York State by 1722, when they declared their migration ended and the tribe relocated to that area.

The Waccamaw Siouan ancestors retreated for safety to an area of Green Swamp near Lake Waccamaw. Throughout the 19th century, the Waccamaw Siouan were mentioned in the historical record. Toward the end of the century, the U. S. Census recorded common Waccamaw surnames among individuals in the small isolated communities of this area. In 1910, the earliest-known governmental body of the Waccamaw Indians was created, named the Council of Wide Awake Indians. At a time of racial segregation in North Carolina schools, Native American children were grouped with African American children as students; the Council sought to gain public funding for Indian schools, as the Lumbee had achieved in the late 19th century. They hoped to gain federal recognition as a tribe; this was rare for landless Indians. Federal recognition had been associated with the treaty making, related to land cessions and removal of Indians to reservations; the Council opened its first publicly funded school in 1933, founded others soon after.

They continued to have difficulty in getting state funding for schools. Minorities had been disenfranchised in North Carolina since passage of a suffrage amendment in 1900 that created barriers to voter registration; the Council campaigned for federal recognition in 1940 during the President Franklin D. Roosevelt administration, believing it sympathetic to Native Americans, it had passed the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, which encouraged tribes to re-establish self-government. The name Waccamaw Siouan was first used in US government documents in 1949, when a bill intended to grant the tribe federal recognition was introduced in Congress by the representative of this district; the bill was defeated in committee the following year. But changes in federal policy following Native American activism in the 1960s and 1970s enabled the Waccamaw Indians to obtain more public funding and economic assistance without federal recognition; the Waccamaw Siouan tribe gained recognition in 1971 by the North Carolina Commission of Indian Affairs as one of eight state-recognized tribes.

The tribe organized as the Waccamaw Siouan Development Association, a nonprofit group founded in 1972. The group is headed by a nine-member board of directors, elected by secret ballot in elections open to all enrolled tribal members over the age of 18. In addition, the board includes a chief, whose role is symbolic; some settlers came from Barbados up the Cape Fear River in search of land. Their home island was becoming overcrowded and these people came in search of new opportunities in a new frontier. Other early settlers came from Britain, but a number of other nationalities were represented. Not to be overlooked are the number of freedmen from Virginia and northeastern North Carolina who settled in the area. Most of the free African Americans of Virginia and North Carolina originated in Virginia where they became free in the seventeenth and eighteenth century before chattel slavery and racism developed in the colonies. In his book Free African Americans of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Delaware, author Paul Heinegg said, "When they arrived in Virginia, Africans joined a society, divided between master and white servant - a society with such contempt for white servants that masters were not punished for beating them to death in 1624.

They joined the same households with white servants - working, sleeping, getting drunk, running

Jim Gotts

James Atkinson Gotts was an English footballer who played in the Football League as a winger for Brentford and Brighton & Hove Albion. Born in Seaton Delaval, Gotts began his career at Ashington prior to joining Brentford during the war years, he made two first-team appearances for Brentford, both of -- 46 FA Cup. His debut came on 31 January 1946, a 5–0 victory over Bristol City, his final game came on 9 February 1946 in a 3–1 away victory over Queens Park Rangers in the following round. While registered with Brentford, Gotts signed on loan to Southern League club Colchester United for a single Southern League Cup match on 13 April 1946, resulting in a 5–2 away victory over Guildford City; the following season, Gotts joined Brighton & Hove Albion, where he would make his Football League debut. He made two league appearances for Brighton in total, his career was cut short and was forced to retire due to cartilage problems in both legs. Jim Gotts died on 18th December 1998, leaving his wife Maisie, his two sons and Alan.

More information on Jim Gotts, along with some photographs, can be found on the'Gotts Surname Family History' web site

Maynard, Minnesota

Maynard is a city in Chippewa County, United States. The population was 366 at the 2010 census. Maynard was platted in 1887, it was named for the brother-in-law of a railroad official. A post office has been in operation in Maynard since 1889. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.65 square miles, all of it land. Minnesota State Highway 23 serves as a main route in the community; as of the census of 2010, there were 366 people, 158 households, 99 families living in the city. The population density was 563.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 175 housing units at an average density of 269.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.6% White, 1.1% African American, 0.3% Native American, 1.1% Asian, 4.9% from other races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.5% of the population. There were 158 households of which 27.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.9% were married couples living together, 6.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 37.3% were non-families.

32.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 19% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.95. The median age in the city was 43.3 years. 23.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.5% male and 52.5% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 388 people, 163 households, 110 families living in the city; the population density was 597.6 people per square mile. There were 181 housing units at an average density of 278.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 0.52 % Asian, 1.80 % from other races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.80% of the population. There were 163 households out of which 32.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.3% were married couples living together, 6.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.5% were non-families. 30.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.98. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.3% under the age of 18, 6.7% from 18 to 24, 25.8% from 25 to 44, 22.9% from 45 to 64, 18.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $28,571, the median income for a family was $39,583. Males had a median income of $26,250 versus $21,071 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,285. About 6.4% of families and 7.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.3% of those under age 18 and 8.2% of those age 65 or over

Garance Genicot

Garance Genicot is a Belgian-American economist and Associate Professor of Economics at Georgetown University. She is a member of the Core Group at Theoretical Research in Development Economics, a Research Associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research Development Economics Program, a Fellow at the Bureau for Research and Economic Analysis of Development and a Research Fellow at the IZA Institute. Since 2013, she has been an External Member of the World Bank Research Management Committee. A more detailed overview of her work can be found on RePEc. Research Papers in Economics. Genicot's research focuses on risk sharing, intra-household bargaining, informal credit markets, social networks and inequality, her cited work on group formation and networks focuses on how the interplay of personal incentives and group or network incentives impact economic outcomes, has applications in a variety of fields within economics, such as economic development and labor economics. She studied the relationship between improved property rights for women in India and the incidence of suicide among both men and women.

Her work with her PhD advisor, Kaushik Basu and Nobel-winning economist Joseph Stiglitz studies the responsiveness of labor supply to wages, an idea, central to the classical theory of economics. They argue that at low wage levels, households are financially insecure and would therefore be willing to supply more labor to hedge themselves against economic shocks; this is called the “added labor effect” and has important implications to the ongoing minimum wage debate. Her work on aspirations and inequality with Debraj Ray shows the discouraging impact of aspirations that are too far from a person's situation; this study has wide implications in developing policy in terms of education investments. Garance Genicot serves as an Associate Editor for the Journal of Development Economics and as an Associate Editor for the Berkeley Electronic Journal for Theoretical Economics, she serves as a referee for a number of academic journals in economics. Born in Huy, Garance Genicot completed her undergraduate studies in Economics at the Université de Liège, Belgium, in 1995.

She received her Ph. D. in Economics from Cornell University, New York, USA. Genicot has held positions at the University of Irvine, she has held Visiting Assistant Professor positions at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Princeton University, New York University, London School of Economics and University College of London. She was a Visiting Faculty member at the World Bank in 2011, she has received research fellowships at the Russell Sage Foundation and the John D. & Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Page 21 In 2016, Genicot was a visiting professor at GREQAM, at Aix-Marseille University. Genicot and Debraj Ray. "Inequality and Aspirations." Econometrica 85, 489-519, 2017. Genicot and Debraj Ray. "Group formation in risk-sharing arrangements." The Review of Economic Studies 70.1: 87-113. Bloch, Garance Genicot, Debraj Ray. "Informal insurance in social networks." Journal of Economic Theory 143.1: 36-58. Sahn, David E. Stephen D. Younger, Garance Genicot. "The demand for health care services in rural Tanzania."

Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 65.2: 241-260. Attanasio, O. Barr, A. Cardenas, J. C. Genicot, G. & Meghir, C.. Risk pooling, risk preferences, social network. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 4, 134-167. Garance Genicot's webpage

Prideaux Place

Prideaux Place is a grade I listed Elizabethan country house in the parish of Padstow, England. It has been the home of the Prideaux family for over 400 years; the house was built in 1592 by Sir Nicholas Prideaux, a distinguished lawyer, was enlarged and modified by successive generations, most notably by his great-great-grandson Edmund Prideaux and by the latter's grandson Rev. Charles Prideaux-Brune; the present building, containing 81 rooms, combines the traditional E-shape of Elizabethan architecture with the 18th-century exuberance of Horace Walpole’s Strawberry Hill Gothic. The house contains a fine collection of works of art, including royal and family portraits, fine furniture and the Prideaux Porcelain Collection; the uncovered ceiling in the Great Chamber is a masterpiece of the art of the Elizabethan plasterer. In 1968 the estate comprised about 3,500 acres, excluding the St Breock estate situated about ten miles away in the family's ownership, inherited from the Viell family in the 17th century.

The deer park is one of the most ancient in England, containing in 1968 about 100 fallow deer, increased from only about six in 1946 following World War II.. Until the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the 16th century, the manor of Padstow, within, established the manor of Prideaux Place, was held by Bodmin Priory. Having foreseen King Henry VIII's intention to dissolve religious houses, Prior Thomas Mundey, a son of Sir John Mundy Lord Mayor of London in 1522, made plans to place the assets of his priory beyond the king's reach, which he did by granting to his friends and relations at nominal ground-rents long leases of the priory's possessions; the manor of Padstow he leased for 99 years at an annual rent of £10 to his niece Johanna Munday and her husband, William Prideaux of Trevose, St Merryn, Cornwall, a younger son of Humphrey Prideaux of Theuborough, the latter who together with his lawyer brother Nicholas Prideaux, had acted as business adviser to the prior. Bodmin Priory was surrendered to the crown by the prior in 1539.

The freehold of Padstow was obtained by Nicholas Prideaux, by the artificial transaction of William Prideaux conveying the lease to a third party, John Pope of London, for the sum of £1,550, who obtained a royal licence to alienate it to Nicholas Prideaux, for sum unstated in the deed of sale. By tradition it is said that the Prideaux family viewed their obtaining of the estate at a favourable price as compensation for "an unpleasant wife", namely the prior's niece; the Prideaux family is believed to be of Norman origin and to have first settled in England at some time after the Norman Conquest of 1066 at Prideaux Castle, near Fowey, in Cornwall. It abandoned that seat and moved to Devon, where it spread out in various branches, earliest at Orcheton, Modbury, it was one of the most widespread and successful of all the gentry families of Devon, as remarked upon by Swete, exceptionally most of the expansion was performed by younger sons, who by the custom of primogeniture were expected to make their own fortunes.

William Prideaux of Trevose, St Meryn, who on 20 October 1537 received a 99-year lease of the manor of Padstow from his father-in-law Thomas Munday, the last Prior of Bodmin. He was the 2nd son of Humphrey Prideaux of Theuborough in the parish of Sutcombe, about 4 3/4 miles north of Holsworthy, by his first wife Joane Fowell, daughter of Richard Fowell of Fowell's Combe, near Ugborough in Devon, his father had acquired for him the marriage of Johanna Munday, daughter of John Munday of Rialton, the niece of the last Prior of Bodmin, Thomas Mundey, he married Johanna Munday in 1537. The couple resided at Trevose for as yet no grand manor house existed at Padstow, his son John Prideaux received a lease in 1583 of premises in Padstow from Oliver Polwhele, his own son John Prideaux was buried in Padstow. The paternal estate of Theuborough was inherited by William's eldest brother Richard Prideaux, of Theuborough. Nicholas Prideaux, uncle of William Prideaux, obtained the freehold of the manor of Padstow, together with the remainder of the 99-year lease, which his nephew William had sold to a third party as a related transaction.

He acquired the estate of Soldon near Holsworthy in Devon. He died without progeny and selected as his heir his nephew Roger Prideaux of Soldon, the younger brother of William Prideaux, the former leaseholder of Padstow. Roger Prideaux of Soldon in the parish of Holsworthy, Devon, 3rd son of Humphrey Prideaux of Theuborough and heir of his childless uncle Nicholas Prideaux of Soldon and Padstow, he was Member of Parliament for Totnes in Devon in 1545 anmd 1547. He served as Escheator of Devon and Cornwall in 1550 and as Sheriff of Devon in 1577. In 1549 with his uncle Nicholas Prideaux he purchased lands in Devon and Dorset for £1,438, most of which they retained. In 1553 in partnership with Richard Chamond, MP, he purchased for £1,406 the manor of Launcells in Cornwall, other properties in Essex and Somerset, he married Phillippa Yorke, daughter of Richard Yorke, Serjeant-at-Law, widow of Richard Parker. Sir Nicholas Prideaux of Soldon, eldest son and heir, MP for Camelford 1571 and Sheriff of Cornwall in 1605.

He inherited from his father the manors of Padstow, the Devon manors of Holsworthy, Chesworthy, as well as his seat of Solde

Kronborg Glacier

Kronborg Glacier is a glacier on the east coast of the Greenland ice sheet. It is named after Kronborg Castle in Denmark. Administratively this glacier is part of the Sermersooq Municipality; the area surrounding the Kronborg Glacier is uninhabited. In 1962, a VP-5 Lockheed P-2 Neptune on a routine patrol mission crashed into the slope of the Kronborg Glacier in unknown circumstances, killing all twelve men aboard; the place where the plane had crashed was discovered in 1966 when four geologists found the remains, but it was not until 2004 that the US Navy recovered all the crew remains and memorialized the deceased at the crash site. The Kronborg Glacier is a non-surge type valley glacier that does not drain the Greenland ice sheet directly, but flows from it across mountainous areas in a north/south direction, it separates the Ejnar Mikkelsen Range in the west from the Borgtinderne in the east. Further south it separates the Watkins Range and the Lilloise Range in the west from the Wiedemann Range in the east, until its terminus at the head of the Ravn Fjord in the East Greenland coast.

A fast-flowing glacier, it is similar in structure to the neighbouring Christian IV Glacier. The Rosenborg Glacier is a smaller glacier flowing between both. List of glaciers in Greenland Spencer Apollonio, Lands That Hold One Spellbound: A Story of East Greenland, 2008 Media related to Kronborg Glacier at Wikimedia Commons VP-5 Memorial Current Recovery Attempt Forbidden Coast - Aurora Arktika