Temple of Hadrian
It was once erroneously known as the Temple of Neptune. One wall of the cella survives, together with eleven of the 15-metre-high Corinthian columns from the external colonnade, the fixing holes for its original marble covering can still be seen. This facade, along with the architrave, was incorporated into a 17th-century papal palace by Carlo Fontana, the building was octastyle and had 15 columns on each long side. Inside the bank the remains of the non-apsidal naos can be seen, the base of the columns had reliefs of personifications of the provinces of the empire, demonstrating Hadrians less warlike policy than his predecessor Trajan. The temple had a large square surrounded by columns in giallo antico. Despite having fallen into ruin and been demolished, the arch still gave its name in the 18th century to the Via dellArchetto
The Palazzo Montecitorio is a palace in Rome and the seat of the Italian Chamber of Deputies. The palaces name derives from the hill on which it is built, which was claimed to be the Mons Citatorius. The building was designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini for the young Cardinal Ludovico Ludovisi. The building was designated for public and social functions only, due to Innocent XIIs firm antinepotism policies which were in contrast to his predecessors, in 1696 the Curia apostolica was installed there. Later it was home to the Governatorato di Roma and the police headquarters, the excavated obelisk of the Solarium Augusti, now known as the Obelisk of Montecitorio, was installed in front of the palace by Pius VI in 1789. The former internal courtyard was roofed over and converted into an assembly room by Paolo Comotto. The Chamber was inaugurated on 21 November 1871, but the building proved wholly inadequate, the acoustics were terrible, it was very cold in winter and very hot in summer. As a result of damage from water seepage, the palace was condemned in 1900.
An attempt to build a new palace for the Chamber of Deputies on the Via Nazionale failed, only in 1918 was the Chamber definitively returned to the Palazzo Montecitorio. The return of the Chamber of Deputies to the palace followed extensive renovations, the architect, Ernesto Basile, was an exponent of Art nouveau, known in Italy as the Liberty style. He reduced the courtyard, demolished the wings and rear of the palace, constructing a new structure dominated by four red-brick, Basile added the so-called Transatlantico, the long and impressive salon which surrounds the debating chamber and now acts as the informal centre of Italian politics
Carnuntum was a Roman Legionary Fortress or castrum legionarium and headquarters of the Pannonian fleet from 50 AD. After the 1st century it was capital of the Pannonia Superior province and it became a large city of 50,000 inhabitants. Carnuntum first occurs in history during the reign of Augustus, when Tiberius made it his base of operations as a Roman fort in the campaigns against Maroboduus, significant Romanisation occurred when the town was selected as the garrison of the Legio XV Apollinaris before 14 AD. A few years later, it became the centre of the Roman fortifications along the Danube from Vindobona to Brigetio, to this period belongs the auxiliary castrum of a cavalry ala 1.5 km south-west of the legionary fortress. The legion was sent to Syria and possibly Armenia by Nero in 62 or 63, in 71 AD, after several campaigns, the Legio XV Apollinaris returned to Carnuntum and rebuilt its fortress. The legion fought in the Trajans Dacian Wars the main body of the legion remained in Pannonia, in 115 war with Parthia broke out and the legion was sent to the east.
Legio X Gemina was sent to Carnuntum for a few years from about 63 AD, during the brief reign of Galba, it was transferred back to Hispania. Legio VII Gemina, newly founded by Galba in 68 AD, was allocated to Carnuntum until about 71 AD after his defeat by Vespasian, in 117/8 AD, Carnuntum became the permanent quarters of Legio XIV Gemina where it stayed for three centuries until the frontier collapsed in 430. In Roman times Carnuntum had a history as a trading centre for amber, brought from the north to traders who sold it in Italy. As the capital of Pannonia Superior it was made a municipium by Hadrian and its importance is indicated by the fact that Marcus Aurelius resided there for three years during the war against the Marcomanni, and wrote part of his Meditations there. Also Septimius Severus, at the governor of Pannonia, was proclaimed emperor there by his soldiers, to replace Emperor Pertinax. In the Severan dynasty Carnuntum experienced a boom, the canabae reaching its maximum size.
Caracalla elevated it to status as Septimia Colonia Aurelia Antoniana. During the reign of Gallienus, the Pannonians rebelled by electing the usurper Regalianus who established a mint whose coins depicted him and he was killed shortly afterwards by his own soldiers probably at Carnuntum. It brought about freedom of religion for the Roman Empire, in 374 it was destroyed by Germanic invaders the Quadi and Iazyges. Although partly restored by Valentinian I, it never regained its former importance, during the Barbarian Invasions, Carnuntum was eventually abandoned and used as a cemetery and source of building material for building projects elsewhere. Eventually, its remains became buried and forgotten, there are several places to see in the city, Roman city quarter in the open-air museum, palace ruins and Heidentor. The Roman city ruins are exposed in the museum directly in the present village
The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period. The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history, often when a given Roman is described as becoming emperor in English, it reflects his taking of the title Augustus or Caesar. Another title often used was imperator, originally a military honorific, early Emperors used the title princeps. Emperors frequently amassed republican titles, notably Princeps Senatus, the first emperors reigned alone, emperors would sometimes rule with co-Emperors and divide administration of the Empire between them. The Romans considered the office of emperor to be distinct from that of a king, the first emperor, resolutely refused recognition as a monarch. Although Augustus could claim that his power was authentically republican, his successor, nonetheless, for the first three hundred years of Roman Emperors, from Augustus until Diocletian, a great effort was made to emphasize that the Emperors were the leaders of a Republic.
Elements of the Republican institutional framework were preserved until the end of the Western Empire. The Eastern emperors ultimately adopted the title of Basileus, which had meant king in Greek, but became a title reserved solely for the Roman emperor, other kings were referred to as rēgas. In addition to their office, some emperors were given divine status after death. The Western Roman Empire collapsed in the late 5th century, Romulus Augustulus is often considered to be the last emperor of the west after his forced abdication in 476, although Julius Nepos maintained a claim to the title until his death in 480. Constantine XI was the last Byzantine Roman emperor in Constantinople, dying in the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453, a Byzantine group of claimant Roman Emperors existed in the Empire of Trebizond until its conquest by the Ottomans in 1461. In western Europe the title of Roman Emperor was revived by Germanic rulers, the Holy Roman Emperors, in 800, at the end of the Roman Republic no new, and certainly no single, title indicated the individual who held supreme power.
Insofar as emperor could be seen as the English translation of imperator, Julius Caesar had been an emperor, Julius Caesar, unlike those after him, did so without the Senates vote and approval. Julius Caesar held the Republican offices of four times and dictator five times, was appointed dictator in perpetuity in 45 BC and had been pontifex maximus for a long period. He gained these positions by senatorial consent, by the time of his assassination, he was the most powerful man in the Roman world. In his will, Caesar appointed his adopted son Octavian as his heir, a decade after Caesars death, Octavians victory over his erstwhile ally Mark Antony at Actium put an end to any effective opposition and confirmed Octavians supremacy. His restoration of powers to the Senate and the people of Rome was a demonstration of his auctoritas, some historians such as Tacitus would say that even at Augustus death, the true restoration of the Republic might have been possible. Instead, Augustus actively prepared his adopted son Tiberius to be his successor, the Senate disputed the issue but eventually confirmed Tiberius as princeps
Trajans Column is a Roman triumphal column in Rome, that commemorates Roman emperor Trajans victory in the Dacian Wars. It was probably constructed under the supervision of the architect Apollodorus of Damascus at the order of the Roman Senate and it is located in Trajans Forum, built near the Quirinal Hill, north of the Roman Forum. Completed in AD113, the column is most famous for its spiral bas relief. Its design has inspired numerous victory columns, both ancient and modern, the structure is about 30 metres in height,35 metres including its large pedestal. The shaft is made from a series of 20 colossal Carrara marble drums, each weighing about 32 tons, the 190-metre frieze winds around the shaft 23 times. Inside the shaft, a staircase of 185 steps provides access to a viewing platform at the top. The capital block of Trajans Column weighs 53.3 tons, on December 4,1587, the top was crowned by Pope Sixtus V with a bronze figure of St. Peter, which remains to this day. The column was originally flanked by two libraries, which may have contained Trajans scroll-written despatches from his Roman-Dacian Wars, filippo Coarelli suggests that such scrolls are the basis both of the columns design and its spiraling, sculpted narrative.
The column shows 2,662 figures, and 155 scenes, the continuous helical frieze winds twenty-three times from base to capital, and was in its time an architectural innovation. The design was adopted by emperors such as Marcus Aurelius, the narrative band expands from about 1 metre at the base of the column to 1.2 metres at the top. Often a variety of different perspectives are used in the same scene, the relief portrays Trajans two victorious military campaigns against the Dacians, the lower half illustrating the first, and the top half illustrating the second. These campaigns were contemporary to the time of the Columns building, the frieze repeats standardized scenes of imperial address and the army setting out on campaign. Scenes of battle are much an minority on the column, instead it emphasizes images of orderly soldiers carrying out ceremony. The war against Dacia was one of conquest and expansion, wartime violence in general seems to have been downplayed. The two sections are separated by a personification of Victory writing on a shield flanked on either side by Trophies, great care is taken to distinguish the men and women from both sides of the campaign as well as the ranks within these distinct groups.
The scenes are crowded with sailors, soldiers and priests and it exists as a valuable source of information on Roman and barbaric arms and methods of warfare and costume. The relief shows details such as a ballista or catapult, the precise details of the depictions creates a reality effect for the viewer in which designers hope is that these images are taken for objective historical truth. The emperor Trajan is depicted realistically in the Veristic style, the focus on Trajan as the heroic protagonist is central
It leaves Rome, goes up the Val Tevere, strikes into the mountains at Castello delle Formiche, ascends to Gualdo Tadino, goes over the divide at Scheggia Pass,575 m, to Cagli. From there it descends the eastern slope waterways between the Tuscan-Emilian Apennines and the Umbrian Apennines to Fano on the coast and goes north parallel to Highway A1 to Rimini. This route, convenient to ancients, is now far from it due to modern traffic between north Italy and the capital. It was constructed by Gaius Flaminius during his censorship, sources mention frequent improvements being made to it during the imperial period. Triumphal arches were erected in his honour on the bridge and at Ariminum. Vespasian constructed a new tunnel through the pass of Intercisa, in 77, in the Middle Ages it was known as the Ravenna road, as it led to the more important city of Ravenna. As the SS3 it remains one of the highways from Rome to the Adriatic. A number of battles were therefore fought on or near the Via Flaminia, for example at Sentinum.
In the early Middle Ages, the road, controlled by the Eastern Empire, was a civilizing influence, and accounted for much of what historians call the Byzantine corridor. The Via Flaminia starts at Porta del Popolo in the Aurelian Walls of Rome, Via del Corso, from there it descended to Cales, where it turned north-east following the gorges of the Burano. The narrowest pass was crossed by means of a tunnel chiseled out of solid rock and this is the modern Gola del Furlo, the ancient name of which, means cut through with reference to these tunnels. The modern 2‑lane road, the SS3 Flaminia, still uses Vespasians tunnel, the Flaminia emerged from the gorges of the Apennines at Forum Sempronii and reached the coast of the Adriatic at Fanum Fortunae. Thence, it ran north-west through Pisaurum to Ariminum, the total distance from Rome was 210 Roman miles by the older road and 222 by the newer. For an overview of the location of Roman bridges, see List of Roman bridges, giovanni de Butris Ponte del Diavolo at Cavallara near Bastardo Along the eastern branch, Ponte Sanguinaro in Spoleto scant remains of a bridge at Pontebari After the branches rejoin at S.
A small stretch of the remains in the ruins of Carsulae where it passes through the impressive Arco di Traiano. The road was used as part of the road race cycling event for the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome. In Rome it runs past and gives its name to the Stadio Flaminio sports stadium, Roman road Roman bridge Roman engineering Via del Corso Piazza del Popolo 1960 Summer Olympics official report. The Via Flaminia at LacusCurtius Omnes Viae, Via Flaminia on the Peutinger Map This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh
The Marcomannic Wars were a series of wars lasting over a dozen years from about 166 until 180 AD. During the years succeeding the rule of Antoninus Pius, the Roman Empire began to be attacked on all sides, a war with Parthia lasted from 161 to 166 and, although it ended successfully, its unforeseen consequences for the Empire were great. The returning troops brought with them a plague, which would kill an estimated 5 million people. As a result, Germanic tribes and other nomadic peoples launched raids south and west across Romes northern border, particularly into Gaul, beginning in 162 and continuing until 165, an invasion of Chatti and Chauci in the provinces of Raetia and Germania Superior was repulsed. In late 166 or early 167, a force of 6,000 Langobardi and this invasion was defeated by local forces with relative ease, but they marked the beginning of what was to come. In their aftermath, the governor of Pannonia, Marcus Iallius Bassus. In these negotiations, the Marcomannic king Ballomar, a Roman client, in the event, a truce was agreed upon and the tribes withdrew from Roman territory, but no permanent agreement was reached.
In the same year and the Sarmatian Iazyges invaded Dacia, to counter them, Legio V Macedonica, a veteran of the Parthian campaign, was moved from Moesia Inferior to Dacia Superior, closer to the enemy. During that time, as plague was ravaging the empire, Marcus Aurelius was unable to do more, in the spring of that year, Marcus Aurelius, together with Lucius Verus set forth from Rome, and established their headquarters at Aquileia. The two emperors supervised a reorganization of the defences of Italy and the Illyricum, raised two new legions, Legio II Italica and Legio III Italica, and crossed the Alps into Pannonia. The two emperors returned to Aquileia for the winter, but on the way, in January 169, Marcus returned to Rome to oversee his co-emperors funeral. In the autumn of 169, Marcus set out from Rome, together with his son-in-law Claudius Pompeianus, the Romans had gathered their forces and intended to subdue the independent tribes, who lived between the Danube and the Roman province of Dacia.
The Iazyges defeated and killed Claudius Fronto, Roman governor of Lower Moesia, while the Roman army was entangled in this campaign, making little headway, several tribes used the opportunity to cross the frontier and raid Roman territory. To the east, the Costoboci crossed the Danube, ravaged Thrace and descended into the Balkans, reaching Eleusis, near Athens, the most important and dangerous invasion, was that of the Marcomanni in the west. Their leader, had formed a coalition of Germanic tribes and they crossed the Danube and won a decisive victory over a force of 20,000 Roman soldiers near Carnuntum. Ballomar led the larger part of his host southwards towards Italy, the Marcomanni razed Opitergium and besieged Aquileia. This was the first time hostile forces had entered Italy since 101 BC. The army of praetorian prefect Furius Victorinus tried to relieve the city, there is no consensus amongst scholars as to the year that the great Gemanic invasion towards Aquileia took place
The Danube is Europes second-longest river, after the Volga River, and the longest river in the European Union region. It is located in Central and Eastern Europe, the Danube was once a long-standing frontier of the Roman Empire, and today flows through 10 countries, more than any other river in the world. Its drainage basin extends into nine more countries, the Latin name Dānuvius is one of a number of Old European river names derived from a Proto-Indo-European *dānu. Other river names from the root include the Dunajec, Dzvina/Daugava, Donets, Dniestr. In Rigvedic Sanskrit, dānu means fluid, drop, in Avestan, in the Rigveda, Dānu once appears as the mother of Vrtra. Known to the ancient Greeks as the Istros a borrowing from a Daco-Thracian name meaning strong, in Latin, the Danube was variously known as Danubius, Danuvius or as Ister. The Dacian/Thracian name was Donaris for the upper Danube and Istros for the lower Danube, the Thraco-Phrygian name was Matoas, the bringer of luck. The Latin name is masculine, as are all its Slavic names, the German Donau is feminine, as it has been re-interpreted as containing the suffix -ouwe wetland.
Classified as a waterway, it originates in the town of Donaueschingen, in the Black Forest of Germany, at the confluence of the rivers Brigach. The Danube flows southeast for about 2,800 km, passing through four capital cities before emptying into the Black Sea via the Danube Delta in Romania and its drainage basin extends into nine more. The highest point of the basin is the summit of Piz Bernina at the Italy–Switzerland border. The land drained by the Danube extends into other countries. Many Danubian tributaries are important rivers in their own right, navigable by barges, from its source to its outlet into the Black Sea, its main tributaries are, The Danube flows through many cities, including four national capitals, more than any other river in the world. Danube remains a mountain river until Passau, with average bottom gradient 0. 0012%. Middle Section, From Devín Gate to Iron Gate, at the border of Serbia and Romania, the riverbed widens and the average bottom gradient becomes only 0. 00006%.
Lower Section, From Iron Gate to Sulina, with average gradient as little as 0. 00003%, about 60 of its tributaries are navigable. In 1994 the Danube was declared one of ten Pan-European transport corridors, routes in Central, the amount of goods transported on the Danube increased to about 100 million tons in 1987. In 1999, transport on the river was difficult by the NATO bombing of three bridges in Serbia during the Kosovo War
The Doric order was one of the three orders of ancient Greek and Roman architecture, the other two canonical orders were the Ionic and the Corinthian. The Doric is most easily recognised by the simple circular capitals at the top of columns and it was the earliest and in its essence the simplest of the orders, though still with complex details in the entablature above. The Greek Doric column was fluted or smooth-surfaced, and had no base, the capital was a simple circular form, with some mouldings, under a square cushion that is very wide in early versions, but more restrained. In stone they are purely ornamental, the relatively uncommon Roman and Renaissance Doric retained these, and often introduced thin layers of moulding or further ornament, as well as often using plain columns. The Doric order was used in Greek Revival architecture from the 18th century onwards, often earlier Greek versions were used, with wider columns. Since at least Vitruvius it has been customary for writers to associate the Doric with masculine virtues and it is normally the cheapest of the orders to use.
In their original Greek version, Doric columns stood directly on the pavement of a temple without a base. The Parthenon has the Doric design columns and it was most popular in the Archaic Period in mainland Greece, and found in Magna Graecia, as in the three temples at Paestum. These are in the Archaic Doric, where the capitals spread wide from the column compared to Classical forms, pronounced features of both Greek and Roman versions of the Doric order are the alternating triglyphs and metopes. The triglyphs are decoratively grooved with two vertical grooves and represent the original wooden end-beams, which rest on the plain architrave that occupies the half of the entablature. Under each triglyph are peglike stagons or guttae that appear as if they were hammered in from below to stabilize the post-and-beam construction and they served to organize rainwater runoff from above. The spaces between the triglyphs are the metopes and they may be left plain, or they may be carved in low relief.
The spacing of the triglyphs caused problems which some time to resolve. The architecture followed rules of harmony, since the original design probably came from wooden temples and the triglyphs were real heads of wooden beams, every column had to bear a beam which lay across the centre of the column. Triglyphs were arranged regularly, the last triglyph was centred upon the last column and this was regarded as the ideal solution which had to be reached. Changing to stone instead of wooden beams required full support of the architrave load at the last column. At the first temples the final triglyph was moved, still terminating the sequence, even worse, the last triglyph was not centered with the corresponding column. That “archaic” manner was not regarded as a harmonious design, the resulting problem is called the doric corner conflict
Giovanni Paolo Panini
Giovanni Paolo Panini or Pannini was a painter and architect, who worked in Rome and is mainly known as one of the vedutisti. As a painter, Panini is best known for his vistas of Rome, among his most famous works are his view of the interior of the Pantheon, and his vedute—paintings of picture galleries containing views of Rome. Most of his works, specially those of ruins, have a fanciful, in this they resemble the capricci of Marco Ricci. Panini painted portraits, including one of Pope Benedict XIV, as a young man, Panini trained in his native town of Piacenza, under Giuseppe Natali and Andrea Galluzzi, and the stage designer Francesco Galli-Bibiena. In 1711, he moved to Rome, where he studied drawing with Benedetto Luti, in Rome, Panini became famous as a decorator of palaces, including the Villa Patrizi, the Palazzo de Carolis, and the Seminario Romano. In 1719, Panini was admitted to the Congregazione dei Virtuosi al Pantheon and he taught in Rome at the Accademia di San Luca and the Académie de France, where he influenced Jean-Honoré Fragonard.
In 1754, he served as the principal of the Accademia di San Luca, Panini died in Rome on 21 October 1765. Paninis studio included Hubert Robert and his son Francesco Panini, some British landscape painters, such as Marlow and Wright of Derby, imitated his capricci. In addition to being a painter and architect, Panini was a professor of perspective and his masterful use of perspective was the inspiration for the creation of the Panini Projection, which is instrumental in rendering panoramic views. Death Leap of Marcus Arisi, gian Paolo Panini e i fasti della Roma del 700. Arisi, Giovanni Paolo Panini 1691-1765, Milano,1993, Marco, Quellopera prima di Panini gemella del dipinto esposto al Lombardi di Parma, in LUrtiga - Quaderni di cultura Piacentina, Piacenza, n. Horak, Lopera prima del Panini in una collezione privata, in Panorama Musei, anno XVIII, n.3, dicembre 2013 Horak, Panini al Fine Art Museum di San Francisco, in Panorama Musei, anno XXI, n
Rome is a special comune and the capital of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region, with 2,873,598 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the countrys largest and most populated comune and fourth-most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the center of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4.3 million residents, the city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber. Romes history spans more than 2,500 years, while Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at only around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe. The citys early population originated from a mix of Latins, Etruscans and it was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, and the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the Caput Mundi, due to that, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, and the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism.
Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, in 1871 Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, and in 1946 that of the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city, Rome ranked in 2014 as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, and the most popular tourist attraction in Italy. Its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site and museums such as the Vatican Museums and the Colosseum are among the worlds most visited tourist destinations with both locations receiving millions of tourists a year. Rome hosted the 1960 Summer Olympics and is the seat of United Nations Food, however, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was actually derived from Rome itself. As early as the 4th century, there have been alternate theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. There is archaeological evidence of occupation of the Rome area from approximately 14,000 years ago. Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence, several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum.
Between the end of the age and the beginning of the Iron age. However, none of them had yet an urban quality, there is a wide consensus that the city was gradually born through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine. All these happenings, which according to the excavations took place more or less around the mid of the 8th century BC. Despite recent excavations at the Palatine hill, the view that Rome has been indeed founded with an act of will as the legend suggests in the middle of the 8th century BC remains a fringe hypothesis. Traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves explain the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and myth
Ancient Roman architecture
Ancient Roman architecture adopted the external language of classical Greek architecture for the purposes of the ancient Romans, but differed from Greek buildings, becoming a new architectural style. The two styles are considered one body of classical architecture. Roman architecture flourished in the Roman Republic and even more so under the Empire and it used new materials, particularly concrete, and newer technologies such as the arch and the dome to make buildings that were typically strong and well-engineered. Large numbers remain in some form across the empire, sometimes complete, Roman Architecture covers the period from the establishment of the Roman Republic in 509 BC to about the 4th century AD, after which it becomes reclassified as Late Antique or Byzantine architecture. Almost no substantial examples survive from before about 100 BC, and most of the major survivals are from the empire, after about 100 AD. They moved from trabeated construction mostly based on columns and lintels to one based on walls, punctuated by arches.
The classical orders now became largely decorative rather than structural, except in colonnades, they did not feel entirely restricted by Greek aesthetic concerns, and treated the orders with considerable freedom. Innovation started in the 3rd or 2nd century BC with the development of Roman concrete as a readily available adjunct to, or substitute for, more daring buildings soon followed, with great pillars supporting broad arches and domes. The freedom of concrete inspired the colonnade screen, a row of decorative columns in front of a load-bearing wall. In smaller-scale architecture, concretes strength freed the floor plan from rectangular cells to a more free-flowing environment, factors such as wealth and high population densities in cities forced the ancient Romans to discover new architectural solutions of their own. The use of vaults and arches, together with a knowledge of building materials. Examples include the aqueducts of Rome, the Baths of Diocletian and the Baths of Caracalla and these were reproduced at a smaller scale in most important towns and cities in the Empire.
Some surviving structures are almost complete, such as the walls of Lugo in Hispania Tarraconensis. The administrative structure and wealth of the empire made possible very large even in locations remote from the main centres, as did the use of slave labour. Especially under the empire, architecture often served a function, demonstrating the power of the Roman state in general. The influence is evident in many ways, for example, in the introduction and use of the Triclinium in Roman villas as a place, Roman builders employed Greeks in many capacities, especially in the great boom in construction in the early Empire. The Roman Architectural Revolution, known as the Concrete Revolution, was the use in Roman architecture of the previously little-used architectural forms of the arch, vault. For the first time in history, their potential was fully exploited in the construction of a range of civil engineering structures, public buildings