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Colwyn Bay

Colwyn Bay is a town and seaside resort in Conwy County Borough on the north coast of Wales overlooking the Irish Sea. Eight neighbouring communities are incorporated within its postal district. Established as its own separate parish in 1844 with just a small grouping of homes and farms where the community of Old Colwyn stands today, Colwyn Bay has expanded to become the second-largest community and business centre in the north of Wales as well as the 15th largest in the whole of Wales with the urban statistical area—including Old Colwyn, Rhos-on-Sea, Mochdre and Penrhyn Bay. Having a population of 34,284 at the 2011 census The western side of Colwyn Bay, Rhos-on-Sea, includes a number of historic sites associated with St Trillo and Ednyfed Fychan, the 13th century general and councillor to Llywelyn the Great; the name'Colwyn' may be named after'Collwyn ap Tangno', Lord of Eifionnydd and part of the Llŷn peninsula, or the River Colwyn in Old Colwyn. Bay of Colwyn Town Council is a statutory body.

The mayor for 2019 to 2020 is Councillor Neil Bastow. The town is situated about halfway along the north coast of Wales, between the sea and the Pwllycrochan Woods on the towering hillside. Groes yn Eirias was once a separate hamlet centred on the Glyn farmhouse but the area is now occupied by the Glyn estate and Eirias Park; as with the rest of the British Isles, Colwyn Bay experiences a maritime climate with cool summers and mild winters, high winds. The local climate is well known for the prevalence of Foehn winds - where winds from the South pass over the nearby mountains and warm and dry on their descent, leading to far higher temperatures than otherwise might be expected. Prior to local government reorganisation on 1 April 1974 Colwyn Bay was a municipal borough with a population of around 25,000, but in 1974 this designation disappeared leaving five separate parishes, known as communities in Wales, of which the one bearing the name Colwyn Bay encompassed just the central part of the overall town and in the 2001 Census contained just 9,742 people, with the others as follows: Mochdre, Rhos-on-Sea, Glan Conwy, Old Colwyn and Llysfaen.

This gives a total figure for the six communities of 31,382 referred to as the population of Colwyn Bay, making it the 16th largest urban area in Wales and the second largest settlement in North Wales. Bringing 2011 figures into account that figure is now 33,549; the area is sometimes referred to by the name Bay of Colwyn. According to the 2011 Census, 17.9% of the population aged three and above noted that they could speak Welsh. The Census noted that 29.9% of the population who were born in Wales could speak Welsh. The town is dominated by the tourist trade, because of its famous beaches. Colwyn Bay is a Fairtrade Town as certified by the Fairtrade Foundation as part of the Fairtrade Towns scheme. Colwyn Bay hosted the National Eisteddfod in 1910 and 1947; the Victoria Pier hosted many dances and shows during the 20th century and became popular with touring bands and artistes through the 1960s up until the final gig there in August 2008. The town has a number of natural amenities such as Eirias Park.

Colwyn Bay has received a gold award 8 times in the Wales in Bloom competition. In 2009 and 2010 the town has been invited to enter Britain in Bloom and has been awarded silver gilt in both years; the Welsh Mountain Zoo is nearby. The Porth Eirias Watersports Centre offers tuition in sailing and power boating as well as kayak and canoe hire. In 2013 it was nominated for Building Design's Carbuncle Cup; the Victoria Pier was closed to the public in 2009, when a dispute between Conwy County Borough Council and the pier's owner led to him being declared bankrupt. The fate of the pier was uncertain. In January 2017, the lower end of the pier collapsed into the sea and Conwy Council subsequently announced plans to dismantle and store the pier, with a view of restoring it at a date; the pier was demolished in May 2018. Llety'r Dryw is a Grade II listed house in Abergele Road, built for the uncle of Anthony Eden and now used as the training centre for North Wales Police. Llys Euryn is a medieval manor house on Bryn Euryn, now in ruins.

Colwyn Bay Community Hospital was completed in 1925. The town is served by Colwyn Bay railway station located in the town centre on the North Wales Coast Line with trains run by Transport for Wales and Avanti West Coast; the A55 road passes through the town. The Llandudno and Colwyn Bay Electric Railway operated an electric tramway service between Llandudno and Rhos-on-Sea from 1907 and extended to Colwyn Bay in 1908; the service closed in 1956. Colwyn Bay has two state. Eirias High School is in Eirias Park and Ysgol Bryn Elian is in Old Colwyn. Ysgol Bryn Elian serves Old Colwyn and Eirias High School serves Colwyn Bay, Rhos on Sea and Penrhyn Bay. Rydal Penrhos School is a Methodist public school, on multiple sites in the town; the town's primary schools are Ysgol Nant y Groes, Ysgol Pen-y-Bryn, Ysgol T Gwynn Jones, Ysgol Hen Golwyn, Saint Joseph's R. C. Primary and the Welsh-language Ysgol Bod Alaw. Churches in and around the town include the parish church St Paul's Church, St David's Welsh Church, St John the Baptist's Church, St Joseph's Roman Catholic Church and Christ Church, Bryn-y-Maen to t

Liu Yan (Xin dynasty)

Liu Yan, courtesy name Bosheng, was a general of one of the major uprisings against the Xin Dynasty and its emperor, Wang Mang. Although he was militarily successful, he died early as a victim of political intrigue, his younger brother Liu Xiu, would found the Eastern Han Dynasty. Liu Yan was the sixth generation descendant of Emperor Jing of the Former Han, he was the son of magistrate of Nandun county. Liu Qin was the son of vice governor in charge of military affairs for Julu Commandery. Liu Hui was the son of governor of Yulin commandery. Liu Wai was the son of Liu Mai, known posthumously as Marquess Jie of Chongling. Liu Mai was the son of Liu Fa, known posthumously as Prince Ding of Changsha; the prince of Changsha was a brother of Emperor Wu, a famous emperor of the Former Han, he was the son of Emperor Jing. Liu Qin was married to the daughter of one Fan Chong, he and his wife had three sons—Liu Yan, Liu Zhong, Liu Xiu. Liu Qin died early, the brothers were raised by their uncle Liu Liang.

Liu Yan was ambitious, since Wang Mang usurped the Han throne in 8 and established Xin Dynasty, Liu Yan was considering starting a rebellion to restore the Han Dynasty. Liu Xiu, in contrast, was a careful man, content to be a farmer. In 22, with the entire empire rebelling against Wang Mang's incompetent rule, Liu Yan prepared his rebellion, he planned, along with his brothers, Li Tong and his cousin Li Yi, to kidnap the governor for Nanyang Commandery and call for the people of the commandery to join him. When the young men of their home territory of Chongling saw the rebellion, they were all scared to join—until they saw that Liu Xiu was part of the place as well, figuring that if a careful man like Liu Xiu was part of the rebellion, the rebellion was foretold. However, the news of the plan leaked out, Li Tong and Li Yi escaped with their lives. Liu Yan changed his plan and persuaded two branches of the Lülin—the Xinshi Force and Pinglin Force to join forces with him, they had some military success.

Encouraged, Liu Yan made a frontal assault against Wancheng, the capital of Nanyang Commandery—and suffered a major loss. Liu Yan and Liu Xiu, along with their sister Liu Boji, but their brother Liu Zhong and sister Liu Yuan died in the battle. Liu Yan's allies, seeing his defeat, considered leaving him, but Liu Yan was able to persuade them, along with another branch of the Lülin, the Xiajiang Force, to join him. In 23, they had a major victory against Xin forces, killing Zhen Fu, the governor of Nanyang Commandery. By this point, many other rebel leaders had become jealous of Liu Yan's capabilities, while a good number of their men admired Liu Yan and wanted him to become a newly declared Han Dynasty, so they could live, they found another local rebel leader, Liu Xuan, a third cousin of Liu Yan, claiming the title of General Gengshi at the time and, considered a weak personality, requested that he be made emperor. Liu Yan opposed this move and instead suggested that Liu Xuan carry the title "Prince of Han" first.

The other rebel leaders refused, in early 23, Liu Xuan was proclaimed emperor. Liu Yan became prime minister. After Gengshi Emperor's forces decisively defeated Wang Mang's last major force—which had sought to crush the rebels with overwhelming force—at the Battle of Kunyang, Gengshi Emperor became at least nominally acknowledged by most of the empire as the legitimate Han emperor. However, Gengshi Emperor remained fearful of Liu Yan's capabilities and keenly aware that many of Liu Yan's followers were angry that he was not made emperor. One, Liu Ji, was critical of Gengshi Emperor. Gengshi Emperor arrested Liu Ji and wanted to execute him. Gengshi Emperor, encouraged by Li Yi and Zhu Wei, took this opportunity to execute Liu Yan as well. Liu Xiu survived after Gengshi Emperor became ashamed of what he had done to Liu Yan. After Liu Yan's death, Liu Xiu raised them. After Liu Xiu proclaimed himself emperor, founding the Eastern Han Dynasty, in 25, he took steps to honor Liu Yan's sons Liu Zhang and Liu Xing.

In 26, he created Liu Xing Prince of Lu. In 39, he posthumously honored Liu Yan with the title Prince Wu of Qi


The Rotliegend, Rotliegend Group or Rotliegendes is a lithostratigraphic unit of latest Carboniferous to Guadalupian age, found in the subsurface of large areas in western and central Europe. The Rotliegend consists of sandstone layers, it is covered by the Zechstein and lies on top of regionally different formations of late Carboniferous age. The name Rotliegend has in the past not only been used to address the rock strata themselves, but the time span in which they were formed; this time span corresponds with the length of the Cisuralian epoch. In large parts of Pangaea, the last phases of the Hercynian orogeny were still ongoing during the start of the Permian. At the same time local crustal extension formed intramontane basins such as the large Permian Basin which covered parts of present-day Germany, Denmark, the North Sea, the Baltic Sea and the Netherlands; the early development of the basin went hand in hand with volcanism. Apart from these volcanic deposits the basin was filled by the erosional products of the Hercynian mountains to the south: sands and gravels deposited under an arid and warm climate.

In the north of Germany and in the Netherlands, the Rotliegend is subdivided into two groups: a Lower Rotliegend Group and an Upper Rotliegend Group. During the formation of the lower group the basin was still small and the deposition was restricted to the centre of the basin in the southeastern North Sea and northern Germany, this group is limited in thickness in the Dutch subsurface; the upper group has a larger arial distribution. In Dutch lithostratigraphy, the Rotliegend lies on top of the late Carboniferous Limburg Group and below the Zechstein Group; the Upper Rotliegend Group is divided in the Silverpit Formation and Slochteren Formation, the last is an important reservoir for hydrocarbons. The German Bentheim Sandstone, which crops out in the Münsterland, is part of the Slochteren Formation; the Rotliegend of northern Germany is continuous with that of the Netherlands. In other parts of Germany contemporaneous basins exist, such as the Saar-Nahe Basin, the Wetterau or the Saale Basin.

The Rotliegend of these different intramontane basins is not easy to correlate and the lithostratigraphy of each basin has its own divisions. Gradstein, F. M.. G. & Smith, A. G.. A..


Snakecharm is the second book in The Kiesha'ra Series by Amelia Atwater-Rhodes. It is narrated by Zane Cobriana, Diente of the serpiente people and alistair to Danica Shardae, Tuuli Thea of the avians; this book relates what happens after Danica's marriage ends the avian-serpiente war. Danica has begun to fit into serpiente society more and more, but other people do not have her courage or motivation; the avians and the serpiente, in spite of the royal union, are hardly warming up to each other. Neither of the sides is willing to try to join the other. Stirring things up is Syfka, a powerful aplomado falcon who has just arrived to drag a falcon criminal back to the island of Ahnmik. Syfka has no respect for the reunification of the two cultures and with her falcon magic, she has no problem with trying to destroy the fragile peace. There is little that Zane and Danica can do to try to stop her, considering her ability to use powerful magics casually and the fact that she is several thousands of years old.

On top of that the avians and serpiente are nowhere near capable of defending themselves against the falcon empire. It seems best to make sure she feels no need to come back, but Rei, the leader of the Royal Flight and the man who Danica loved before she met Zane, becomes agitated during Syfka's search and the question arises of what would happen if the "criminal" turned out to be someone loyal to Zane and Danica. After hearing a young woman's stories about her experiences on the falcon island and Danica are forced to wonder whether they can hand someone over to the falcons with a healthy conscience. Complicating things is the fact. Neither the serpiente nor the avians are crazy about the idea of a mixed-blood child taking the throne. A child of a cobra and another serpent is always a cobra, a child of a hawk and another avian is always a hawk, but a cobra-hawk child has co-dominant genes and as a mixture between the two, it would end both royal lines. Both sides are worried about being dominated by the other and both are putting enormous pressure on Zane and Danica to raise the child their way.

The sequel to Snakecharm is Falcondance, released in 2005

Operation Moonwatch

Operation Moonwatch was an amateur science program formally initiated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in 1956. The SAO organized Moonwatch as part of the International Geophysical Year, the largest single scientific undertaking in history, its initial goal was to enlist the aid of amateur astronomers and other citizens who would help professional scientists spot the first artificial satellites. Until professionally manned optical tracking stations came on-line in 1958, this network of amateur scientists and other interested citizens played a critical role in providing crucial information regarding the world's first satellites. Moonwatch's origins can be traced to two sources. In the United States, there was a thriving culture of amateur scientists including thousands of citizens who did astronomy for an avocation. During the Cold War, the United States encouraged thousands of citizens to take part in the Ground Observer Corps, a nationwide program to spot Soviet bombers. Moonwatch brought together these two activities and attitudes, melding curiosity and vigilance into a thriving activity for citizens.

Moonwatch, in other words, was an expression of 1950s popular culture and fixed properly within the context of the Cold War. Moonwatch was the brainchild of Harvard astronomer Fred L. Whipple. In 1955, as the appointed director of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Whipple proposed that amateurs could play a vital role in efforts to track the first satellites, he overcame the objections of colleagues who doubted ordinary citizens could do the job or who wanted the task for their own institutions. Whipple carved out a place for amateurs in the IGY. In the late 1950s, thousands of teenagers, amateur astronomers, school teachers, other citizens served on Moonwatch teams around the globe. Conceived as a way for citizens to participate in science and as a supplement to professionally manned optical and radio tracking stations, Moonwatchers around the world found themselves an essential component of the professional scientists’ research program. Using specially designed telescopes, hand-built or purchased from vendors like Radio Shack, scores of Moonwatchers nightly monitored the skies.

Their prompt response was aided by the extensive training they had done by spotting pebbles tossed in the air, registering the flight of moths, participating in national alerts organized by the Civil Air Patrol. Once professional scientists had accepted the idea that ordinary citizens could spot satellites and contribute to legitimate scientific research and his colleagues organized amateurs around the world. Citizens formed Operation Moonwatch teams in towns and cities all around the globe, built their own equipment, courted sponsors. In many cases, Moonwatch was not just a fad but an expression of real interest in science. By October 1957, Operation Moonwatch had some 200 teams ready to go into action, including observers in Hawaii and Australia Whipple envisioned a global network of specially designed instruments that could track and photograph satellites; this network, aided by a corps of volunteer satellite spotters and a computer at the MIT Computation Center, would establish ephemerides – predictions of where a satellite will be at particular times.

The instruments at these stations were designed by Dr. James G. Baker and Joseph Nunn and hence known as Baker-Nunn cameras. Based on a series of super-Schmidt wide-angle telescopes and strategically placed around the globe at 12 locations, the innovative cameras could track moving targets while viewing large swaths of the sky. From the start, Whipple planned that the professionally manned Baker-Nunn stations would be complemented by teams of dedicated amateurs. Amateur satellite spotters would inform the Baker-Nunn stations as to where to look, an important task given that scientists working on the Vanguard program likened finding a satellite in the sky to finding a golf ball tossed out of a jet plane. Amateur teams would relay the information back to the SAO in Cambridge where professional scientists would use it to generate accurate satellite orbits. At this point, professionals at the Baker-Nunn stations would take over the full-time task of photographing them. Sputnik 1's sudden launch was followed less than a month with the Soviets orbiting Sputnik 2 and the dog Laika.

It was Moonwatch teams, networked around the world, who provided tracking information needed by scientists in Western nations. For the opening months of the Space Age, members of Moonwatch were the only organized worldwide network, prepared to spot and help track satellites; the information they provided was complemented by the radio tracking program called Minitrack the United States Navy operated as well as some information from amateur radio buffs. In many cases, Moonwatch teams had the responsibility of communicating news of Sputnik and the first American satellites to the public; the public responded, in turn, with infectious enthusiasm as local radio stations aired times to spot satellites and local and national newspapers ran hundreds of articles that described the nighttime activities of Moonwatchers. Moonwatch caught the attention of those citizens interested in science or the Space Race during the late 1950s and much of the general public as well. Newspapers and popular magazines featured stories about Moonwatch regularly.

Meanwhile, in the U. S. local businesses sponsored teams with The Order of Lunartiks. Meanwhile, Moonwatch teams in Peru, Japan and the Arctic reg

Blackheart Man

Blackheart Man is the debut album by Bunny Wailer released on 8 September 1976, in Jamaica on Solomonic Records and internationally on Island Records. The songs on the album are regarded as the finest written by Bunny Wailer, explore themes such as repatriation, his arrest for marijuana possession. "This Train" is loosely based on the American gospel standard of the same name. The album features some of Jamaica's leading musicians and contributions from Bob Marley and Peter Tosh of The Wailers on backing vocals, the Wailers rhythm section of Carlton and Aston Barrett on some of the tracks; the origins of the album title goes back to Wailer's childhood in the Jamaican countryside, where he grew up in the same village as his friend Bob Marley. Wailer said: Bunny Wailer; as he told Jamaican newspaper The Daily Gleaner in June 2009: This is one of the three Wailers solo albums released in 1976, along with Peter Tosh's album Legalize It and Bob Marley's Rastaman Vibration. The album was listed in the 1999 book The Rough Guide: Reggae: 100 Essential CDs.

The original LP release of the album was released in two different mixes. The international mix is what is most available and has appeared on CD; the Jamaican mix has longer versions of different overdubs. In particular, the Jamaican mix of This Train lasts a full minute longer. Although the Jamaican mix has not appeared on CD, it remains a favorite amongst reggae aficionados; the album has been released on compact disc several times. A new remastering was released on iTunes in 2009, with some of the songs in newly extended and dub versions. All songs written by Bunny Wailer. "Blackheart Man" – 6:17 "Fighting Against Conviction" – 5:11 "The Oppressed Song" – 3:22 "Fig Tree" – 3:07 "Dream Land" – 2:47 "Rastaman" – 3:51 "Reincarnated Souls" – 3:43 "Amagideon" – 6:46 "Bide Up" – 2:33 "This Train" – 8:28 Bunny Wailer – lead vocals, backing vocals, acoustic guitar, jaw harp Carlton "Carly" Barrettdrums Aston "Family Man" Barrett – bass, lead guitar, rhythm guitar, keyboards Robbie Shakespeare – bass Tyrone "Organ D" Downie – keyboards Peter Tosh – rhythm guitar, lead guitar, backing vocals, harmonica Earl "Chinna" Smith – lead guitar Tommy McCookflute, saxophone "Dirty" Harry Hall – horns Bobby Ellis – horns Herman Marquis – horns Mark West – horns Harold Butler – keyboards Bernard "Touter" Harvey – keyboards Winston Wright – keyboards Karl Pitterson – acoustic guitar Michael Murray – rhythm guitar Eric Frater – lead guitar Bob Marley – backing vocals, rhythm guitar Franscisco Willie Pepcongas Larry McDonald – congas Neville Garrickpercussion Bunny Wailer – producer, cover design Karl Pitterson – sound engineer, mix engineer Chris Blackwell – mix engineer Neville Garrick – cover artwork, cover design, photography