1st arrondissement of Paris
The 1st arrondissement of Paris is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France. Situated principally on the bank of the River Seine, it includes the west end of the Île de la Cité. It is the least populated of the arrondissements and one of the smallest by area, a significant part of which is occupied by the Louvre Museum. Much of the remainder of the arrondissement is dedicated to business, the 1st arrondissement is very small, with a land area of only 1,83 km2. The area now occupied by the first arrondissement attained its peak population in the preceding the re-organization of Paris in 1860. In 1999, the population was 16,888, while the arrondissement hosted 63,056 jobs, making it one of the most active for business after the 2nd, 8th, and 9th. ¹The peak of population actually occurred before 1861, but the arrondissement was created in 1860, each of the 20 Paris arrondissements is divided into four quarters. The table below lists the four quarters of the 1st arrondissement, at one time Air Inters head office was located in the first arrondissement.
When Minerve, an airline, its office was in the first arrondissement. In terms of state-operated schools, the first arrondissement has two schools, two primary schools, one école polyvalente, one high school, and one sixth form college. The state-operated nursery schools are École Maternelle Auxerrois and École Maternelle Sourdiere, the state-operated primary schools are École Élémentaire Arbre Sec and École Élémentaire DArgenteuil. The arrondissement has one école polyvalente, École Polyvalente Cambon, collège Jean-Baptiste Poquelin is the sole state-operated high school in the arrondissement. Lycée Professionnel Commercial Pierre Lescot is the sole state-operated sixth form college in the first arrondissement
Charles de Wailly
Charles de Wailly was a French architect and urbanist, and furniture designer, one of the principals in the Neoclassical revival of the Antique. His major work was the Théâtre de lOdéon for the Comédie-Française, in his designs, de Wailly showed a predilection for the perfect figure, the circle. De Wailly was born in Paris, after having obtained the Prix de Rome for architecture in 1752 he went to the French Academy in Rome for three years until 1755, sharing his prize with his friend Pierre-Louis Moreau-Desproux. Both participated in the excavations at the Baths of Diocletian. In Rome, de Wailly founded a friendship with the sculptor Augustin Pajou, who was to carve his bust, henceforth de Wailly regularly exhibited at the Paris Salons his renderings and models. He gained wider publicity when two of his designs were engraved for the Encyclopédie and two more for the monumental Description de la france of the 1780s, catherine the Great offered him a high post in the Imperial Academy of Arts, St Petersburg, which he refused.
In 1772, he was named architect of the Château de Fontainebleau. He was to return on several occasions to work in Italy, in 1779, de Wailly and Peyre built their most famous work, the theatre of Odéon in Paris. De Wailly designed a project for the Opéra-Comique, in 1795, he was elected to the Académie des Beaux-Arts – 3rd section, fauteuil V. With his death, Jean Chalgrin succeeded to his seat and he became conservator of the museum of painting in 1795 and was sent to the Netherlands and Belgium to select works of art after the annexation of these countries. He married Adélaïde Flore Belleville who, after his death, remarried in 1800 to the chemist Antoine François and he was the brother of lexicographer Noël François de Wailly. De Wailly died in Paris in 1798, hôtel dArgenson, near the Palais Royal in Paris, interior installations carried out for the Comte d Argenson. Transformation of the Château des Ormes in Les Ormes for the comte dArgenson, Château de Montmusard near Dijon, main architectural work of the Goût Grec in France, unfortunately mainly destroyed as of 1795.
Maison 57 rue La Boétie in Paris, constructed by de Wailly for himself, maison 87 rue de la Pépinière, today rue La Boétie, for the sculptor Augustin Pajou. Decoration of the chapel of the Virgin in Saint-Sulpice, Temple des Arts at the Château de Menars for the marquis de Marigny. De Wailly provided and project for a Temple du Repos for the park at Ménars, Théâtre de lOdéon, From 1767, on commission from Marigny, Directeur des Bâtiments du Roi, Marie-Joseph Peyre and de Wailly designed the new theatre of the Comédie-Française. De Wailly was the protégé of Marigny and Peyre the architect of the Condé, in the outcome, and thanks to the protection of Monsieur, brother of the King, the plans of Peyre and de Wailly finally won the day in the autumn of 1778. Peyre would be responsible for the exterior and de Wailly for the interiors
Jean Racine, baptismal name Jean-Baptiste Racine, was a French dramatist, one of the three great playwrights of 17th-century France, and an important literary figure in the Western tradition. The latest attempt to translate Racines plays into English earned a 2011 American Book Award for the poet Geoffrey Argent, Racines dramaturgy is marked by his psychological insight, the prevailing passion of his characters, and the nakedness of both the plot and stage. Racine was born on 22 December 1639 in La Ferté-Milon, in the province of Picardy in northern France, orphaned by the age of four, he came into the care of his grandparents. At the death of his grandfather in 1649, his grandmother, Marie des Moulins, went to live in the convent of Port-Royal and he received a classical education at the Petites écoles de Port-Royal, a religious institution which would greatly influence other contemporary figures including Blaise Pascal. Port-Royal was run by followers of Jansenism, a theology condemned as heretical by the French bishops, Racines interactions with the Jansenists in his years at this academy would have great influence over him for the rest of his life.
At Port-Royal, he excelled in his studies of the Classics and he was expected to study law at the Collège dHarcourt in Paris, but instead found himself drawn to a more artistic lifestyle. Racine eventually took up residence in Paris where he involved in theatrical circles. His first play, never reached the stage, on 20 June 1664, Racines tragedy La Thébaïde ou les frères ennemis was produced by Molières troupe at the Théâtre du Palais-Royal, in Paris. The following year, Molière put on Racines second play, Alexandre premiered for the second time, by a different acting troupe, eleven days after its first showing. From this point on the Hôtel de Bourgogne troupe performed all of Racines secular plays and he broke all ties with Port-Royal, and proceeded with Andromaque, which told the story of Andromache, widow of Hector, and her fate following the Trojan War. Amongst his rivals were Pierre Corneille and his brother, Thomas Corneille, tragedians often competed with alternative versions of the same plot, for example, Michel le Clerc produced an Iphigénie in the same year as Racine, and Jacques Pradon wrote a play about Phèdre.
Others, including the historian Warren Lewis, attribute his retirement from the theater to qualms of conscience, one major incident which seems to have contributed to Racines departure from public life was his implication in a court scandal of 1679. He got married at about time to the pious Catherine de Romanet. He and his wife eventually had two sons and five daughters, around the time of his marriage and departure from the theater, Racine accepted a position as a royal historiographer in the court of King Louis XIV, alongside his friend Boileau. He kept this position in spite of the scandals he was involved in. In 1672, he was elected to the Académie française, eventually gaining much power over this organization. Two years later, he was bestowed the title of treasurer of France, and he was distinguished as an ordinary gentleman of the king. Because of Racines flourishing career in the court, Louis XIV provided for his widow, Jean Racine died in 1699 from cancer of the liver
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
Committee of Public Safety
The Committee of Public Safety succeeded the previous Committee of General Defence and assumed its role of protecting the newly established republic against foreign attacks and internal rebellion. As a wartime measure, the Committee—composed at first of nine, and of twelve, members—was given broad powers over military, judicial. It was formed as a body to supervise and expedite the work of the executive bodies of the Convention. As the Committee tried to meet the dangers of a coalition of European nations and counter-revolutionary forces within the country, in July 1793, following the defeat at the Convention of the Girondins, the prominent leaders of the radical Jacobins—Maximilien Robespierre and Saint-Just —were added to the Committee. The power of the Committee peaked between August 1793 and July 1794, in December 1793, the Convention formally conferred executive power upon the Committee. The execution of Robespierre in July 1794 represented a period against the Committee of Public Safety.
This is known as the Thermidorian Reaction, as Robespierres fall from power occurred during the Revolutionary month of Thermidor, the Committees influence diminished, and it was disestablished in 1795. News of his defection caused alarm in Paris, where imminent defeat by the Austrians, the betrayal of the revolutionary government by Dumouriez lent greater credence to this belief. In light of this threat, the Girondin leader Maximin Isnard proposed the creation of a nine-member Committee of Public Safety. Isnard was supported in this effort by Georges Danton, who declared, This Committee is precisely what we want, the Committee was formally created on 6 April 1793. Closely associated with the leadership of Danton, it was known as the Danton Committee. Danton steered the Committee through the 31 May and 2 June 1793 journées that resulted in the fall of the Girondins, when the Committee was recomposed on 10 July, Danton was not included. Nevertheless, he continued to support the centralization of power by the Committee, on 27 July 1793, Maximilien Robespierre was elected to the Committee.
At this time, the Committee was entering a powerful and active phase, which would see it become a de facto dictatorship alongside its powerful partner. The broad and centralized powers of the Committee were codified by the Law of 14 Frimaire on 4 December 1793, Hérault de Séchelles—a friend and ally of Danton—was expelled from the Committee of Public Safety and tried alongside them. On 5 April 1794, the Dantonists went to the guillotine, certainly the strength of the committees had been made evident, as had their ability to control and silence opposition. The Law of 14 Frimaire was enacted in December 1793 to centralize, the law enumerated various forms of public enemies, made mandatory their denunciation, and severely limited the legal recourse available to those accused. The punishment for all crimes under the Law of 22 Prairal was death, from the initiation of this law to the fall of Robespierre on 27 July, more people were condemned to death than in the entire previous history of the Revolutionary Tribunal
A theater, theatre or playhouse, is a structure where theatrical works or plays are performed, or other performances such as musical concerts may be produced. While a theater is not required for performance, a theater serves to define the performance and audience spaces, the facility is traditionally organized to provide support areas for performers, the technical crew and the audience members. There are as many types of theaters as there are types of performance, theaters may be built specifically for a certain types of productions, they may serve for more general performance needs or they may be adapted or converted for use as a theater. They may range from open-air amphitheaters to ornate, cathedral-like structures to simple, some theaters may have a fixed acting area, while some theaters, such as black box theaters, may not, allowing the director and designers to construct an acting area suitable for the production. The most important of these areas is the acting space generally known as the stage, in some theaters, specifically proscenium theaters, arena theaters and amphitheaters, this area is permanent part of the structure.
In a blackbox theater the area is undefined so that each theater may adapt specifically to a production. In addition to these spaces, there may be offstage spaces as well. These include wings on either side of a stage where props, sets. A Prompters box may be found backstage, in an amphitheater, an area behind the stage may be designated for such uses while a blackbox theater may have spaces outside of the actual theater designated for such uses. Often a theater will incorporate other spaces intended for the performers, a booth facing the stage may be incorporated into the house where lighting and sound personnel may view the show and run their respective instruments. Other rooms in the building may be used for dressing rooms, rehearsal rooms, spaces for constructing sets and costumes, as well as storage. There are usually two main entrances, one at the front, used by the audience, that leads into the back of the audience, the second is called the stage door, and it is accessible from backstage.
This is the means by which the cast and crew enter and exit the theater and this term can be used to refer to going to a lot of shows or living in a big theater city, such as New York or Chicago. All theaters provide a space for an audience, the audience is usually separated from the performers by the proscenium arch. In proscenium theaters and amphitheaters, the arch, like the stage, is a permanent feature of the structure. This area is known as the auditorium or the house, the word parterre is sometimes used to refer to a particular subset of this area. In North American usage this is usually the rear seating block beneath the gallery whereas in Britain it can mean either the area in front near the orchestra pit, the term can refer to the side stalls in some usages. Derived from the gardening term parterre, the usage refers to the pattern of both the seats of an auditorium and of the planted beds seen in garden construction
The Palais-Royal, originally called the Palais-Cardinal, is a palace located in the 1st arrondissement of Paris. The screened entrance court faces the Place du Palais-Royal, opposite the Louvre, the larger inner courtyard, the Cour dHonneur, has since 1986 contained Daniel Burens site-specific art piece Les Deux Plateaux, known as Les Colonnes de Buren. In 1830 the Cour dHonneur was enclosed to the north by what was probably the most famous of Pariss covered arcades, demolished in the 1930s, its flanking rows of columns still stand between the Cour dHonneur and the popular Palais-Royal Gardens. Originally called the Palais-Cardinal, the palace was the residence of Cardinal Richelieu. The architect Jacques Lemercier began his design in 1629, construction commenced in 1633 and was completed in 1639, upon Richelieus death in 1642 the palace became the property of the King and acquired the new name Palais-Royal. After Louis XIII died the year, it became the home of the Queen Mother Anne of Austria and her young sons Louis XIV and Philippe, duc dAnjou.
From 1649, the palace was the residence of the exiled Henrietta Maria and Henrietta Anne Stuart, the two had escaped England in the midst of the English Civil War and were sheltered by Henrietta Marias nephew, King Louis XIV. Henrietta Anne was married to Louis younger brother, Philippe de France, the following year the new duchesse dOrléans gave birth to a daughter, Marie Louise dOrléans, inside the palace. After their marriage, the became the main residence of the House of Orléans. The Duchess created the gardens of the palace, which were said to be among the most beautiful in Paris. Under the new couple, the Palais-Royal would become the social center of the capital. The court gatherings at the Palais-Royal were famed all around the capital as well as all of France and it was at these parties that the crème de la crème of French society came to see and be seen. Guests included the members of the royal family like the Queen Mother, Anne of Austria, the duchesse de Montpensier, the Princes de Condé.
Philippes favourites were frequent visitors, the palace was redecorated and new apartments were created for the maids and staff of the Duchess. After Henrietta Anne died in 1670 the Duke took a wife, the Princess Palatine. Saint-Cloud thus became the residence of her eldest son and the heir to the House of Orléans. For the convenience of the bride, new apartments were built and it was at this time that Philippe commissioned the gallery for his famous Orleans Collection of paintings, which was easily accessible to the public. The architect was Jules Hardouin-Mansart, and the cost of reconstruction was totaled to be 400,000 livres
Victor Louis was a French architect, disqualified on a technicality from winning the Prix de Rome in architecture in 1755. Louis masterpiece is the Grand Théâtre de Bordeaux of 1780 and he designed other theatres, including the theatre of the Comédie-Française on the rue de Richelieu and the Théâtre National de la rue de la Loi. Other buildings include the Intendance in Besançon, the galleries of the Palais-Royal in Paris. A full biography by Charles Marionneau was published in Bordeaux in 1881, in 1770 he married the pianist and composer Marie-Emmanuelle Bayon. The Architecture of the French Enlightenment, Victor in Turner 1998, vol. Le Grand-Théâtre de Bordeaux, ou L’Opéra des Vendanges, photographs by Dominique Thillard, Caisse nationale des monuments historiques et des sites. Victor Louis, Architecte du Théâtre de Bordeaux, Sa vie, Bordeaux, G. Gounouilhou View at Google Books. Les salles de spectacle construites par Victor Louis à Bordeaux, au Palais-Royal et à la place Louvois, Librairie de la construction moderne.
The Dictionary of Art, reprinted with corrections,34 volumes
Michel Baron was a French actor and playwright. His family name was originally Boyron and his father and mother were leading players. He was orphaned at age 9, and joined the child company Petits Comédiens Dauphins at age 12 and he came to the notice of Molière, joined his troupe, and eventually became his protégé. He left the troupe after a conflict with Molières wife, Armande Béjart and he played the role of Domitien in Pierre Corneilles Tite et Bérénice and played in Corneilles Psyché. He stayed with the troupe until Molières death in 1673, when he joined the troupe at the Hotel de Bourgogne and this troupe merged with another in 1680 to become the Comédie-Française. With Comédie-Française, Baron was the master of the French stage until his retirement in 1691. He created many of the roles in Racines plays, and in his own LHomme à bonnes fortunes, his most popular play. He wrote Les Enlèvements and Le Debauche, and translated and acted in two plays by Terence, after retiring in 1691, Baron re-appeared in 1720 at the Palais Royal, and was very active.
During his last years on stage, he performed with Adrienne Lecouvreur. He died on December 22,1729, baronss son Étienne Michel Baron was an actor. Etiennes son and two daughters all acted with the Comédie-Française, attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Baron, Michel. Works by Michel Baron at Project Gutenberg The Lucky Man by Michel Baron at Project Gutenberg - a translation of Lhomme à bonne fortune Works by or about Michel Baron in libraries
Encyclopedia Americana is one of the largest general encyclopedias in the English language. Following the acquisition of Grolier in 2000, the encyclopedia has been produced by Scholastic, the encyclopedia has more than 45,000 articles, most of them more than 500 words and many running to considerable length. The works coverage of American and Canadian geography and history has been a traditional strength, most articles are signed by their contributors. Long available as a 30-volume print set, the Encyclopedia Americana is now marketed as an online encyclopedia requiring a subscription, in March 2008, Scholastic said that print sales remained good but that the company was still deciding on the future of the print edition. The company did not produce an edition in 2007, a change from its previous approach of releasing a revised print edition each year, the most recent print edition of the Encyclopedia Americana was published in 2006. The online version of the Encyclopedia Americana, first introduced in 1997, continues to be updated and this work, like the print set from which it is derived, is designed for high school and first-year college students along with public library users.
Grolier Online is not available to individual subscribers, francis Lieber, a German political exile, who came to Boston, Massachusetts in 1827, began publication of Encyclopedia Americana in 1829. The 13 volumes of the first edition were completed in 1833, just before the beginning of the 20th century Richard S. Some of the old material was carried over into the new encyclopedia, the short article method of Brockhaus was continued. Thus in 1902 a new version in 16 volumes that carried some of the old material was published. The magazines editor, Frederick Converse Beach, was editor-in-chief, and was said to be assisted by hundreds of eminent scholars, the relationship with Scientific American was terminated in 1911. From 1907 to 1912, the work was published as The Americana, a major new edition appeared in 1918–20 in 30 volumes, with George Edwin Rines as editor-in-chief. An Annual or Yearbook was published each year beginning in 1923, the encyclopedia was purchased by Grolier in 1945. Sales during this period were accomplished primarily through mail-order and door-to-door operations and third-party distribution through their Lexicon division added to sales volumes in the 1970s.
By the late 1970s, Grolier had moved its operations to Danbury, in 1988 Grolier was purchased by the French media company Hachette, which owned a well-known French-language encyclopedia, the Hachette Encyclopedia. Hachette was absorbed by the French conglomerate the Lagardère Group, a CD-ROM version of the encyclopedia was published in 1995. Although the text and images were stored on separate disks, it was in keeping with current at the time. More importantly, the work had been digitized, allowing for release of a version in 1997