A bollock dagger or ballock knife is a type of dagger with a distinctively shaped shaft, with two oval swellings at the guard resembling male testes. The guard is in one piece with the wooden grip, reinforced on top with a shaped metal washer; the dagger was popular in Scandinavia, Wales and England between the 13th and 18th centuries, in particular the Tudor period. Within Britain the bollock dagger was carried, including by Border Reivers, as a backup for the lance and the sword. A large number of such weapons were found aboard the wreck of the Mary Rose; the bollock dagger is the predecessor to the Scottish dirk. In the Victorian period weapon historians introduced the term kidney dagger, due to the two lobes at the guard, which could be seen as kidney-shaped, in order to avoid any sexual connotation.. The hilt was constructed of box root in the 16th and 17th centuries, the dagger was sometimes called a dudgeon dagger or dudgeonhafted dagger in this period. Blair, C.. European and American Arms c.
1100—1800. B. T. Batsford, London. Spotlight: The Ballock Dagger Mary Rose Trust
A bolo is a large cutting tool of Filipino origin similar to the machete. It is used in the Philippines, the jungles of Indonesia, in the sugar fields of Cuba; the primary use for the bolo is clearing vegetation, whether for agriculture or during trail blazing. The bolo is used in Filipino martial arts or Arnis as part of training; the bolo knife is common in the countryside due to its use. As such, it was used extensively during Spanish colonial rule as a manual alternative to ploughing with a carabao. Used for cutting coconuts, it was a common harvesting tool for narrow row crops found on terraces such as rice, mungbeans and peanuts; because of its availability, the bolo became a common choice of improvised weaponry to the everyday peasant. Bolos are characterized by having a native hardwood or animal horn handle, a full tang, by a steel blade that both curves and widens considerably so, at its tip; this moves the centre of gravity as far forward as possible, giving the knife extra momentum for chopping.
So-called "jungle bolos", intended for combat rather than agricultural work, tend to be longer and less wide at the tip. Bolos for gardening have rounded tips. Various types of bolos are employed for different purposes: The all-purpose bolo: Used for all sorts of odd jobs, such as breaking open coconuts; the haras: Similar to a small scythe, it is used for cutting tall grass. It is called "Lampas" by people from Mindanao; the kutsilyo: The term comes from the Spanish word cuchillo. Used to kill and bleed pigs during slaughter. A smaller bolo; the bolo-guna: A bolo shaped for digging out roots and weeding. The garab: Used to harvest rice. A large pinuti: Traditionally it is tipped in snake, spider, or scorpion venom and used for self-defence; the sundang: Supposedly used to open coconuts, the sundang was a popular weapon of choice in the Philippine Revolution against the Spanish Empire and during the subsequent Philippine–American War. The bolo was the primary weapon used by the Katipunan during the Philippine Revolution.
It was used by the Filipino guerrillas and bolomen during the Philippine-American War. During World War I, United States Army soldier Henry Johnson gained international fame repelling a German raid in hand-to-hand combat using a Bolo knife. During World War II, the 1st Filipino Regiment was called the Bolo Battalion and used bolos for close quarters combat. On 7 December 1972, would-be assassin Carlito Dimahilig used a bolo to attack former First Lady Imelda Marcos as she appeared onstage at a live televised awards ceremony. Dimahilig stabbed Marcos in the abdomen several times, she parried the blows with her arms, he was shot dead by security forces. The bolo serves as a symbol for the Katipunan and the Philippine Revolution the Cry of Pugad Lawin. Several monuments of Andres Bonifacio, as with other notable Katipuneros, depict him holding a bolo in one hand and the Katipunan flag in the other. In the United States Military, the slang term "to bolo" – to fail a test, exam or evaluation, originated from the combined Philippine-American military forces including recognized guerrillas during the Spanish–American War and the Philippine–American War.
During the Vietnam War, 8th Tactical Fighter Wing commander Col Robin Olds, USAF devised "Operation: BOLO" to lure North Vietnamese MiG-21 Fishbed fighters into the air against US Air Force F-4 Phantom II fighters. It was a deception-based plan that had the F-4s behave like the inagile F-105 Thunderchief fighter-bombers; the operations name came from the bolo. To date, Operation Bolo is considered one of the most successful ruses in aerial combat
A dirk is a long thrusting dagger. It was a personal weapon of officers engaged in naval hand-to-hand combat during the Age of Sail as well as the personal sidearm of Highlanders, it was used by the officers and drummers of Scottish Highland regiments around 1800 and by Japanese naval officers. The term is associated with Scotland in the Early Modern Era, being attested from about 1600; the term was spelled dork or dirk during the 17th century from the Dutch and Danish dolk, German dolch, tolch from a West Slavic Tillich. The exact etymology is unclear; the modern spelling dirk is due to Samuel Johnson's 1755 Dictionary. The term is used for "dagger" generically in the context of prehistoric daggers such as the Oxborough dirk. A thrusting weapon, the naval dirk was used as a boarding weapon and functional fighting dagger, it was worn by midshipmen and officers during the days of sail evolving into a ceremonial weapon and badge of office. In the Royal Navy, the naval dirk is still presented to junior officers.
The naval dirk became part of the uniform of naval officers and civilian officials in the Navy Department of the Russian Empire and in the Soviet navy an element of the dress uniform of officers. It became an element of other uniforms as well, e.g. of officers in the Russian and Polish army and air force and of the police forces in some countries. The Scottish dirk, as a symbolic traditional and ceremonial weapon of the Highland Cathairean, is worn by officers and drummers of Scottish Highland regiments; the development of the Scottish dirk as a weapon is unrelated to that of the naval dirk. The traditional Scottish dirk is a probable development from the 16th century but like all medieval societies, the Highlander needed a knife for everyday use; the dirk became symbolic of a Highland man’s honour and oaths were sworn on the steel, believed to be holy. The perceived holiness of the steel is to have originated in folk superstitions about the magic in the forging of Germanic steel, hence the reverence of Highlanders towards Solingen steel.
The following highlights the importance of the dirk in Highland culture: "The dirk occupies a unique niche in Highland culture and history. Many Highland Scots were too cash-poor to buy a sword, but every male carried a dirk - and carried it everywhere! If in Japan the katana was the soul of the Samurai, in Scotland the dirk was the heart of the Highlander. In many warrior cultures oaths were sworn on one's sword. Among the Gael, binding oaths with the force of a geas were sworn on one's dirk; the English, aware of this, used the custom against the Highlanders after Culloden: When Highland dress was prohibited in 1747 those Gael who could not read or sign an oath were required to swear a verbal oath, "in the Irish tongue and upon the holy iron of their dirks", not to possess any gun, sword, or pistol, or to use tartan: "... and if I do so may I be cursed in my undertakings and property, may I be killed in battle as a coward, lie without burial in a strange land, far from the graves of my forefathers and kindred.
During the period of proscription, only service in a British regiment permitted Highlanders to bear their traditional arms and dress. The 78th Fraser Highlanders, raised in 1757, wore full highland dress uniform; the shape of the grip developed from the historical more cylindrical form to a shape intended to represent the thistle. Fancier fittings of silver, became popular shortly after 1800; the hilts of modern Scottish dirks are carved from dark colored wood such as bog oak or ebony. Hilts and scabbards are lavishly decorated with silver mounts and have pommels set with cairngorm stones; the blades measure 12" in length and are single edged with decorative file work known as "jimping" on the unsharpened back edge of the blade. When worn, the dirk hangs by a leather strap known as a "frog" from a dirk belt, a wide leather belt having a large ornate buckle, worn around the waist with a kilt. Many Scottish dirks carry a smaller knife and fork which fit into compartments on the front of the sheath, a smaller knife known as a sgian dubh is worn tucked into the top of the hose when wearing a kilt.
Kindjal Knife fight List of blade materials Spotlight: The Scottish Dirk
Randall Made Knives
Randall Made Knives referred to as Randall, is an American custom handcrafted knife manufacturer founded by Walter Doane "Bo" Randall, Jr. in the U. S; the factory and showroom is located in Florida. Randall began making knives as a hobby in 1937, his son and grandson continue the family trade along with 20 craftsmen producing about 8,000 knives per year out of a shop on South Orange Blossom Trail. Randall offers 28 models of knives for different applications, each customizable at the factory based on customer specification. Randall hand forges nearly all models of knives instead of using factory stamping or stock removal, one of few manufacturers to do so. Randall uses a 17-step process for making knives, which takes over 8 hours to complete; the waiting list for obtaining a Randall from the factory is five years. Two examples of Randall's Model 17 "Astro", designed for the use of astronauts, are on display in the Smithsonian Institution; the company operates its own museum containing more than 7,000 knives and other edged weapons, including one of the world's largest collections of pocket knives.
Bo Randall first became interested in making knives after he purchased a Bill Scagel knife, being used to scrape paint off of a boat without showing any signs of wear or damage. He made his first knife in his garage at Florida using an auto spring, he founded the company in 1938. Although Randall designed his knives for outdoorsmen and sold them at sporting goods stores, demand from military customers provided his biggest boost in business, launched his company nationally. In the early 1940s, Randall knives increased in popularity after receiving good publicity during World War II. Several noted war heroes and GIs on all fronts carried Randall knives with them into major battles, including top American Ace Richard Bong, Lieutenant General James M. Gavin, commander of the 82nd Airborne Division during the Normandy invasion. Army Air Force Captain Ronald Reagan, future U. S. President, owned a Randall knife in World War II. Randalls were so popular that GIs from overseas ordered through the mail by addressing letters to the "Knife Man, Orlando".
Shortly after the war, the popularity of Randall knives increased among non-military users, Randall developed additional models for expanding markets. In 1956, Randall received a United States design patent for models 14 and 15. In 1957, bestselling author James Jones mentioned Randall knives in his book Some Came Running, subsequently helped Randall to design a diver's knife. In the Vietnam War, General William Westmoreland, Commander of American military operations in Vietnam, was photographed with a Randall. Pilot Gary Powers of the 1960 U-2 incident, herpetologist Ross Allen, carried Randalls. In 1982, Randall was inducted into the Blade Magazine Cutlery Hall of Fame at the Blade Show in Atlanta, Georgia. Bo Randall died in 1989 in Florida, at 80 years of age, his son, Gary Randall oversees production at Randall made Knives. Bo Randall was inducted into the Blade magazine Cutlery Hall of Fame at the 1983 Blade Show as an inauguree. In 1997, Randall was inducted into the American Bladesmith Society Hall of Fame.
In 2001, Randall's knives were listed as "Best Sheath Knife" as part of Forbes "50 Best List". As the U. S. began its space program, NASA needed a survival knife for its astronauts, Major Gordon Cooper worked with Randall on the design of the Model 17 "Astro". These first astronauts carried their Randalls into space. In 1999, the Liberty Bell 7 Mercury space capsule was recovered from the ocean with astronaut Gus Grissom's Randall knife inside. Despite having spent 40 years at a depth of 15,000 feet underwater, the knife was still serviceable after a good cleaning; the Smithsonian Institution has two Astros on display. Texas musician Guy Clark wrote and sang the original song "The Randall Knife" as an elegy for his father. Vince Gill, who sang and played guitar on Clark's original recording, mentions a Randall knife in an elegy for his own father, "The Key to Life," from the 1998 album The Key. Steve Earle, a friend and contemporary of Guy Clark, mentions a Randall knife in his song "Taneytown", from the 1997 album "El Corazon".
In 2019 Mr Earle released a song entitled "The Randall Knife" on his album "Guy". The Randall Made Knives Museum is located at the shop facility in Orlando, contains more than 7,000 knives and other edged weapons, it has one of the largest collection of pocket knives in the world and home to the world's largest collection of Bill Scagel's knives. The museum contains many historical documents related to Randall knives. Randall plans to move the museum to a larger facility. Randall Made Knives “The Randall Story”, Knife World, April 1999 by Jim Williamson
United States Army Special Forces selection and training
The Special Forces Qualification Course or, the Q Course is the initial formal training program for entry into the United States Army Special Forces. Phase I of the Q Course is Selection. Getting "Selected" at SFAS will enable a candidate to continue to the next of the four phases. If a candidate completes all phases he or she will graduate as a Special Forces qualified soldier and generally, be assigned to a 12-man Operational Detachment "A" known as an "A team." The length of the Q Course changes depending on the applicant's primary job field within Special Forces and their assigned foreign language capability but will last between 56 and 95 weeks. This 19-day performance-oriented course includes physical conditioning, map reading and land navigation instruction; the goal is to prepare and condition 18X and REP-63 soldiers to attend Special Forces Assessment and Selection course and the follow-on Special Forces Qualification Course. A version of SFAS was first introduced as a selection mechanism in the mid-1980s by the Commanding General of the John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School at the time, Brigadier General James Guest.
There are now two ways for soldiers to volunteer to attend SFAS: As an existing soldier in the US Army with the Enlisted rank of E-3 or higher, for Officers the rank of O-2 promotable to O-3, or existing O-3s. Initial Accession or IA, where an individual who has no prior military service or who has separated from military service first attends Infantry One Station Unit Training, Airborne School, a preparation course to help prepare them for SFAS; this program is referred to as the "X-Ray Program", derived from "18X". The candidates in this program are known as "X-Rays". Both the Active Duty and National Guard components offer Special Forces Initial Accession programs; the Active Duty program is referred to as the "18X Program" because of the Initial Entry Code that appears on the assignment orders. The first phase of the Special Forces Qualification Course is Special Forces Assessment and Selection, consisting of 24 days of training held at Camp Mackall. Events in SFAS include numerous long distance land navigation courses.
All land navigation courses are conducted day and night under heavy loads of equipment, in varied weather conditions, in rough, hilly terrain. Land navigation work is done individually with no assistance from instructors or fellow students and is always done on a time limit; each land navigation course has its maximum time limit reduced as course moves along and are upwards of 12 miles each. Instructors evaluate candidates by using obstacle course runs, team events including moving heavy loads such as telephone poles and old jeep trucks through sand as a 12-man team, the Army Physical Fitness Test, a swim assessment, numerous psychological exams such as IQ tests and the Defense Language Aptitude Battery test; the final event, discontinued in early 2009 and reintroduced sometime before December 2013, is a road march of up to 32 miles known as "the Trek" or Long Range Individual Movement. Selection outcomes: Those who quit are Voluntarily Withdrawn by the course cadre and are designated NTR or Not-to-Return.
This ends any opportunity a candidate may have to become a Special Forces soldier. Active Duty military candidates will be returned to their previous units, IA 18X candidates will be retrained into a new MOS based upon the needs of the Army. Candidates who are "medically dropped," and who are not medically discharged from the military due to serious injury, are permitted to "recycle," and to attempt the course again as soon as they are physically able to do so. Candidates who complete the course but who are "Boarded" and not selected are given the opportunity to attend selection again in 12 or 24 months. Upon selection at SFAS, all Active Duty enlisted and IA 18X candidates will be briefed on: The five Special Forces Active Duty Groups The four Special Forces Military Occupational Specialties open to them The languages spoken in each Special Forces GroupCandidates will complete what is referred to as a'"wish list." Enlisted candidates rank the available MOS in order of preference. Officer candidates will attend the 18A course.
Both enlisted and officer candidates will list in order of preference the SF Groups in which they prefer to serve and the languages in which they prefer to be trained. Language selection is dependent on the Defense Language Aptitude Battery test scores of the candidate, as well as the SF Group to which they are assigned. Different SF Groups focus on different areas of responsibility. A board assigns each enlisted and officer candidate their MOS, Group placement, language; the MOS, language that a selected candidate is assigned is not guaranteed, is contingent upon the needs of the Special Forces community. 80% of selected candidates are awarded their primary choices. Successful Active Duty candidates return to their previous units to await a slot in the Special Forces Qualification Course; because an Initial Accession 18X candidate lacks a previous unit, they will enter the Q Course immediately. All SF trainees must have completed the United States Army Airborne School before beginning Phase 2 of the Q-Course.
Course Description: Phase 1 of the SFQC is the SF Orientation
The Middle East is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia and Egypt. Saudi Arabia is geographically the largest Middle Eastern nation; the corresponding adjective is Middle Eastern and the derived noun is Middle Easterner. The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term Near East beginning in the early 20th century. Arabs, Persians and Azeris constitute the largest ethnic groups in the region by population. Arabs constitute the largest ethnic group in the region by a clear margin. Indigenous minorities of the Middle East include Jews, Assyrians, Copts, Lurs, Samaritans, Shabaks and Zazas. European ethnic groups that form a diaspora in the region include Albanians, Circassians, Crimean Tatars, Franco-Levantines, Italo-Levantines. Among other migrant populations are Chinese, Indians, Pakistanis, Pashtuns and sub-Saharan Africans; the history of the Middle East dates back to ancient times, with the importance of the region being recognized for millennia. Several major religions have their origins in the Middle East, including Judaism and Islam.
The Middle East has a hot, arid climate, with several major rivers providing irrigation to support agriculture in limited areas such as the Nile Delta in Egypt, the Tigris and Euphrates watersheds of Mesopotamia, most of what is known as the Fertile Crescent. Most of the countries that border the Persian Gulf have vast reserves of crude oil, with monarchs of the Arabian Peninsula in particular benefiting economically from petroleum exports; the term "Middle East" may have originated in the 1850s in the British India Office. However, it became more known when American naval strategist Alfred Thayer Mahan used the term in 1902 to "designate the area between Arabia and India". During this time the British and Russian Empires were vying for influence in Central Asia, a rivalry which would become known as The Great Game. Mahan realized not only the strategic importance of the region, but of its center, the Persian Gulf, he labeled the area surrounding the Persian Gulf as the Middle East, said that after Egypt's Suez Canal, it was the most important passage for Britain to control in order to keep the Russians from advancing towards British India.
Mahan first used the term in his article "The Persian Gulf and International Relations", published in September 1902 in the National Review, a British journal. The Middle East, if I may adopt a term which I have not seen, will some day need its Malta, as well as its Gibraltar. Naval force has the quality of mobility; the British Navy should have the facility to concentrate in force if occasion arise, about Aden and the Persian Gulf. Mahan's article was reprinted in The Times and followed in October by a 20-article series entitled "The Middle Eastern Question," written by Sir Ignatius Valentine Chirol. During this series, Sir Ignatius expanded the definition of Middle East to include "those regions of Asia which extend to the borders of India or command the approaches to India." After the series ended in 1903, The Times removed quotation marks from subsequent uses of the term. Until World War II, it was customary to refer to areas centered around Turkey and the eastern shore of the Mediterranean as the "Near East", while the "Far East" centered on China, the Middle East meant the area from Mesopotamia to Burma, namely the area between the Near East and the Far East.
In the late 1930s, the British established the Middle East Command, based in Cairo, for its military forces in the region. After that time, the term "Middle East" gained broader usage in Europe and the United States, with the Middle East Institute founded in Washington, D. C. in 1946, among other usage. The description Middle has led to some confusion over changing definitions. Before the First World War, "Near East" was used in English to refer to the Balkans and the Ottoman Empire, while "Middle East" referred to Iran, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Turkestan. In contrast, "Far East" referred to the countries of East Asia With the disappearance of the Ottoman Empire in 1918, "Near East" fell out of common use in English, while "Middle East" came to be applied to the re-emerging countries of the Islamic world. However, the usage "Near East" was retained by a variety of academic disciplines, including archaeology and ancient history, where it describes an area identical to the term Middle East, not used by these disciplines.
The first official use of the term "Middle East" by the United States government was in the 1957 Eisenhower Doctrine, which pertained to the Suez Crisis. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles defined the Middle East as "the area lying between and including Libya on the west and Pakistan on the east and Iraq on the North and the Arabian peninsula to the south, plus the Sudan and Ethiopia." In 1958, the State Department explained that the terms "Near East" and "Middle East" were interchangeable, defined the region as including only Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Qatar. The Associated Press Styleboo
The Glock knife is a military field knife product line designed and produced by Glock Ges.m.b. H. Located in Deutsch-Wagram, Austria, it can be used as a bayonet, by engaging a socket in the pommel into a bayonet adapter that can be fitted to the Steyr AUG rifle. The knives were developed in close cooperation with the special forces Jagdkommando of the Austrian Army and are suitable for throwing. Both knives have clip point blades made of SAE 1095 spring steel with a hardness of 55 HRC and are phosphate-treated. Spring steel offers a high yield strength for good impact resistance and flexibility but low corrosion resistance; the grips and sheaths are made of Glock-polymer and are available in the colors olive, sand and black. The upper crossguard can be used as a bottle opener; the polymer sheath features a retention clip that secures the knife against loss, a belt clip for attaching the knife to an up to 60-millimetre wide belt and a drainage opening at the bottom. Glock manufactures two models of knives: The Field Knife 78, a classic field knife, with a 165-millimetre long and 5-millimetre thick blade, 290-millimetre overall length and weighs 206 g.
The Survival Knife 81, which has the same overall dimensions as the Field Knife 78 with the addition of saw-teeth on the back of the blade and weighs 202 g. Austria: Austrian Armed Forces Field knife 78 issued with the designation of FM 78 or FMsr 78 Denmark: Royal Danish Army Field knife 78 issued with the designation of Feltkniv M/96, NSN 1095-22-262-1779 Germany: GSG9 of the German Federal Police Field knife 78 issued with the designation of FM 78 India: National Security Guard Special Protection Group Malaysia: Pasukan Gerakan Khas of the Royal Malaysia Police Survival knife 81 issued with the designation of FM 81 69 Commando insignia carved at sheath and its blade Poland: Military Gendarmerie Field knife 78 and 81 Taiwan: Republic of China Armed Forces Field knife 78 and 81 South Korea: 707th Special Mission Battalion Field knife 78 Glock pistol Glock entrenching tool