Comcast Center known as the Comcast Tower, is a skyscraper in Center City, Pennsylvania, United States. The 58-story, 297-meter tower is the second-tallest building in Philadelphia and the state of Pennsylvania, as well as the twenty-third tallest building in the United States. Called One Pennsylvania Plaza when the building was first announced in 2001, the Comcast Center went through two redesigns before construction began in 2005. Comcast Center was designed by Robert A. M. Stern Architects for Liberty Property Trust. At the beginning of 2005, the final redesign and its new name—the Comcast Center—was unveiled; the building is named after its lead tenant, cable company Comcast, which makes the skyscraper its corporate headquarters. Leasing 1,094,212 square feet, Comcast takes up 89 percent of the building; the building features retail and restaurant space and a connection to the nearby Suburban Station. In Comcast Center's lobby is the Comcast Experience, a 2,000-square-foot high-definition LED screen that has become a tourist attraction.
Designed to be environmentally friendly, the skyscraper is the tallest Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design certified building in Philadelphia. In 1999, class-A office vacancy in the city was at 6.6%, leading developer Willard Rouse to envision a new tower. The developer settled on the location where he constructed this building, a 2-acre, $288 per square-foot parcel owned by Equitable Life Assurance Co. In 2000, the architect and Driehaus Prize winner Robert A. M. Stern began working on a design for a skyscraper being planned by Liberty Property Trust in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In 2001, Liberty Property Trust announced its plan to build the 52-story One Pennsylvania Plaza in Center City. Anticipated US$400 million, One Pennsylvania Plaza was to be 750 ft and made of kasota stone similar to the Philadelphia Museum of Art; the site for the future skyscraper was at 17th Street and John F. Kennedy Boulevard, a site occupied by a building that housed the Defender Association of Philadelphia and a parking lot.
Demolition of the building began in 2002 and ended in 2003. Cable company Comcast had been looking for possible new headquarters space in anticipation of the end of its lease in Centre Square in 2006. Comcast was looking for more than 400,000 square feet of office space and developers were courting the company for their developments. Comcast was the only employer in the city with major expansion plans at the time. Comcast was considering staying in Centre Square, while contemplating moving their headquarters to the new Cira Centre building or One Pennsylvania Plaza. Comcast was spread out over 10 floors in two buildings at Centre Square and wanted space on contiguous floors. In January 2004, Liberty Property Trust unveiled a redesign for the building; the redesign turned One Pennsylvania Plaza into a 60-story, 962 feet tower, making it the tallest building in the city at the time. In the redesign, the kasota stone was changed to a lighter granite and a short pyramidal roof was added; the redesign was a result of discussions that had begun in 2003 with Comcast about moving into the tower.
On January 3, 2004, Liberty Property Trust signed a 15½-year lease with Comcast and a construction contract with L. F. Driscoll Co. Liberty Property Trust unveiled another redesign of the building and its new name, the Comcast Center; the now 975-foot, 58-story Comcast Center would no longer have a pyramid top and would have a complete glass facade. The architectural model was created by Richard Tenguerian. Liberty Property Trust hoped to get the One Pennsylvania Plaza site designated a Keystone Opportunity Improvement Zone. KOZ designation was intended to encourage development in poor, blighted areas by exempting the tenants of the building from all state and local taxes. Designating One Pennsylvania Plaza a KOZ was supported by Pennsylvania Governor Ed Rendell, who said it was important to keep corporations within the city. At the time, many of Philadelphia's big employers' leases, including Comcast's, were due to expire, the employers were considering the possibility of moving out of the city and state.
Rendell said allowing Comcast to enlarge its headquarters by moving into One Pennsylvania Plaza could attract other corporate headquarters to the city. However, other Center City building owners, including Comcast's landlord at Centre Square, HRPT Properties Trust, were opposed to the plan, they said giving the tower the KOZ designation would give it an unfair advantage because Liberty Property Trust could charge above-market rents since the tax breaks would offset the cost for tenants. The group believed tenants attracted to One Pennsylvania Plaza because of the tax breaks would cause more vacancies in other Center City skyscrapers, rather than attracting more business to blighted areas as intended under the law. In early 2004, Center City had a vacancy rate of 12.8%. Both sides of the issue hired law firms and business associates to promote their positions to city and state officials. A report by the Center City District said if both One Pennsylvania Plaza and the Cira Centre, another skyscraper in the KOZ controversy, were filled by corporations moving from other Center City office towers, the city could lose US$153 million by 2018.
A report released by the group of building owners opposed to KOZ says the two buildings could cost the city US$91 million a year. In contrast, a report issued by a consulting company hired by Liberty Property Trust said that a KOZ designation for the skyscraper could generate US$27 million for the city. Critics of the KOZ designation claimed that close relationships between Liberty Property Trust and Comcast and the Rendell admini
The Rochester Industrial and Rapid Transit Railway, more known as the Rochester Subway was a light rail rapid transit line in the city of Rochester, New York, from 1927 to 1956. The subway was constructed in the bed of the old Erie Canal, which allowed the route to be grade-separated for its entire length. Two miles of the route through downtown were constructed in a cut-and-cover tunnel that became Broad Street, the only underground portion of the subway; the Rochester Subway was designed to reduce interurban traffic on city streets, to facilitate freight interchange between the railroads. The line was operated on a contract basis by New York State Railways until Rochester Transit Corporation took over in 1938; the last day of passenger service was June 30, 1956. Portions of the right-of-way were used for expressway construction, while the rest was abandoned and filled in over the years; the largest remaining section is a stretch of tunnel under Broad Street from Exchange Street to the intersection of Court Street and South Avenue.
In 1918, the Erie Canal was re-routed to bypass downtown Rochester, in 1919 the abandoned portion of the canal was bought to serve as the route of the subway. The subway was built below, Broad Street above. Only 2 miles were in the rest of the route in open cut; the term "subway" did not refer to the tunnel, but to the route being grade-separated and operated as rapid transit. Interurban lines were run through the subway and off city streets, easing growing congestion; the segment over the Genesee River utilized the former Erie Canal: Second Genesee Aqueduct. Construction was completed and operations began in 1927, under contract with New York State Railways. Ten former Utica and Mohawk Valley Railway 2000-series cars were transferred from the Utica Lines to provide dedicated service in the Rochester Subway. New York State Railways entered receivership in 1929, but continued to operate the subway on a contract basis with the city of Rochester. Interurban railways began using the new subway immediately.
Starting in 1927, the Rochester and Eastern Rapid Railway connected at Rowlands and terminated at City Hall station. The Rochester and Syracuse Railroad began using the subway in 1928, using a new connection established just east of Winton Road station; the Rochester and Buffalo Railroad entered from the west side starting in 1928 using a ramp constructed at Lyell Avenue. In 1929, a special subway-surface operation began using a ramp at Emerson station to connect with the Dewey Avenue line to provide rush-hour service to Kodak Park, a major employer in the city. On June 1, 1929, local service on the Rochester Subway was extended from Winton Road to Rowlands loop; when the remainder of the Utica & Mohawk Valley Railway was abandoned, New York State Railways transferred the new and faster steel cars to Rochester to replace the older 2000-series center-door cars, in service since the opening of the subway. They were brought to Rochester and reconditioned in 1937. In the aftermath of the Great Depression, New York State Railways fell into bankruptcy along with other railroads that operated interurban lines in the area.
By 1931, all of the connecting interurban railways had ceased operation leaving the subway as an east-west line with no rail connections outside the line. The former Rochester Lines of New York State Railways were reorganized as the Rochester Transit Corporation on August 2, 1938, operation of the subway was transferred to the new company. In an effort to cut costs, weekday service was reduced and Sunday service was eliminated in 1952; the service contract was awarded on a month-to-month basis until the city council voted in 1955 to end all subway service on June 30, 1956. Freight service was operated by RTC until 1957, when the remaining rail operations were turned over to the connecting New York Central and Baltimore and Ohio railroads; the former Utica cars ran until the end of passenger service. Car 60 was set aside for preservation in 1956, was donated to the Rochester Chapter of the National Railway Historical Society; the trolley car was loaned to other organizations and returned to the Rochester & Genesee Valley Railroad Museum in 1998 where it is undergoing an evaluation for restoration.
Locomotive L-2 was rescued from a Rochester scrap yard in the 1970s, has been set aside for a potential future restoration by the New York Museum of Transportation. The subway bed from Court Street to Winton Road was used for the construction of a portion of the Eastern Expressway in 1959, with the section from Winton Road to Rowlands used for I-590. Limited freight service operated by connecting railroads lasted on the western portion of the subway route from Court Street to General Motors until 1976, when the city of Rochester elected to fill the cut to eliminate maintenance on the numerous bridges. Rail freight deliveries in the subway tunnel continued until 1996, when Gannett Newspapers moved its printing operations from the Gannett Building which the subway ran under to another location. Capelli Sport Stadium was constructed on a portion of the filled-in cut in 2006. In 1976, after the announcement of the fill, the City of Rochester allowed the New York Museum of Transportation to collect the rail from the portion of the line being filled.
The former rail is still in use by the museum. In 2010, when the city decided to fill the portion of the tunnel between Brown and the B&O ramp, the museum was allowed to collect the remaining rail, surviving switches and other railroad fixtures from the tunnel. Rochester Subway Car 60 is at the Rochester and Genesee Valley Railroad Museum where it is undergoing a formal evaluation for cosmetic restoration. Built in 1916 for Utica Railways and moved to Rochester
The M-84AS is a modernized version of the M-84 main battle tank produced by Yugoimport SDPR in Serbia. M-84AS is sometimes referred to as M-84AB1 and M-2001; the modernization gives an improved fire-control system with integrated day/night sight. The M84A1 gun is replaced with a similar but improved gun which, along with better control characteristics, enables easy and fast field replacement of the barrel; the M-84AS tank is able to fire anti-tank guided missiles with laser guidance through the barrel, which enables accurate engagement of enemy tanks up to 5 km. The M-84AS is equipped with non-explosive and non-energetic reactive armour which offers protection against modern tandem charge warheads on missiles, it is equipped with the modern Shtora electro-optical system for defense against wire and laser guided anti-tank missiles. The new turret will provide protection against Kinetic Energy anti-tank guided missiles, its new 9M119 Refleks is a laser beam riding guided anti-tank missile designed to penetrate 900 mm of RHA.
No serial production has been undertaken yet. Apart from external differences to the M-84, it has different internal structure and equipment, far surpassing the M-84AB in both capability and durability. Developed from the M-84, the M-84AS is more than just a quick tweak to bring it up to standard. Many improvements were adopted from what can be argued to be its sister tank, the T-90S. With slight differences in armour and maneuverability. Considering the speed perspective, the M-84AS moves at 75 km/h on road while the T-90S moves at 60 km/h on road with off-road speeds varying according to terrain; the armor on the T-90S is somewhat superior with thicker composites, NBC protection as well as having the option of Active Protection System and KMT mine sweeping systems. Aside from the propulsion and armor, the targeting system is equivalent. M-84 T-84 PT-91 T-90 Article on the M84-AB1, published in "Odbrana" Article on M-84 published by UK parliament commons Forecast international on tank engine Canadian assessment of ordnance
The Church of Scientology Flag Service Organization known as Flag or FSO, is an American 501 non-profit corporation. Within the worldwide network of Scientology corporations and entities, the FSO is referred to as the "spiritual headquarters" of the Church of Scientology; the organization is located in Florida. According to the official website of the Church of Scientology, "the Flag Service Organization is a religious retreat which serves as the spiritual headquarters for Scientologists from all over the world, it is the hub of the Scientology worldwide community, a dynamic, multilingual organization and is the largest single Church of Scientology in the world with well over 1,000 staff members." Additionally, the FSO "delivers Dianetics and Scientology services from the bottom of The Bridge to the top, as well as certain specialized auditing services only available here." In a memorandum provided to the Internal Revenue Service, the Church of Scientology International explained the role and the functions of the FSO as follows: "'Flag' in CSFSO's name originates from the Flag Service Organization's earliest ecclesiastical beginnings in 1967 aboard the Flag Ship Apollo and the name was maintained as tradition when the land-based organization was established.
CSFSO ministers the highest levels of auditor training through Class XII and auditing through New OT VII. It serves as the spiritual headquarters for Scientologists from all over the world who travel there to participate in religious services. " In another 1993 memorandum by the Church of Scientology International, the following information was provided to the Internal Revenue Service with regards to FSO's personnel and its income: " CSFSO ministers high levels of religious services to parishioners from around the world from facilities in Clearwater, Florida. This church has a staff of 449 individuals and an annual budget of $81.3 million, based on its annual disbursements for the most recent year for which financial statements are available. " The FSO was incorporated in Florida on May 19, 1981. On September 21, 1993 the following individuals held corporate positions at the organization: The Board of Trustees was composed of Sue Price, Pam Hubbert and Richard Reiss; the members of the Board of Directors at that time were Catherine Probst, Allen Hubbert and Debbie Cook.
The corporation's President was its Secretary and Treasurer Catherine Probst. As of April 28, 2009, FSO's corporative officers were Lena Lind, Harvey Jacques, Peter Mansell, Glen Stilo and Barbara Meador. FSO's registered agent is Robert V. Potter. On August 18, 1993, the FSO filed an application for tax exemption under section 501 of the Internal Revenue Code; the Internal Revenue Service granted FSO's request for exemption through an official recognition letter on October 1, 1993. The Religious Technology Center holds the trademarks and service marks of Scientology; as such, RTC entered an organizational covenant with the FSO on January 1, 1982, granting FSO the right to sell and deliver the "Advanced Technology" to its public members while guaranteeing weekly payments to the RTC of 6% of the monetary value of the "Advanced Technology"-services delivered by the FSO. The Church of Scientology International presents itself as the mother church of the Church of Scientology worldwide; as such, it has the right to sub-license various Scientology trademarks and service marks.
CSI has entered a number of agreements with other subordinate organizations in the Scientology hierarchy, such as the FSO: "License Agreement". This agreement from May 26, 1982 regulates the use of the service marks and trademarks by the FSO. "Ecclesiastical Support Agreement". This agreement from January 1, 1992 acknowledges CSI's dominant role and control over all the functions and activities of the FSO and guarantees a steady, weekly payment of 12.5% of the organizations' net income towards CSI. "Motion Picture Exhibition Agreement". It guarantees CSI the weekly payment of 11% of the revenue by the FSO for their use of Scientology training courses, it forces the organizations to use certain equipment, such as tape recorders, which CSI provides. According to its 1993 application for tax exemption, the corporation "Church of Scientology Flag Service Organization, Inc." consisted at that time of the following four different sub-organizations or sub-entities: " 1. Flag Service Org. Flag Service Org ministers religious services to CSFSO's parishioners.
This ecclesiastical body includes all of the auditors, case supervisors, course supervisors and other staff directly involved in ministering services, as well as executive and administrative staff that perform necessary support functions such as personnel, ethics and finances, administration and dissemination. The highest ecclesiastical position in the Flag Service Org is its Captain, together with her deputies and other top executives form its executive council, the highest ecclesiastical body in the organization. Beneath the executive council is an advisory council, comprising the heads of each of the Flag Service Org's divisions; these two bodies, subject to ecclesiastical management advice and direction from senior ecclesiastical organizations, direct the day-to-day and week-to-week activities of the Flag Service Org." "2. Flag Crew Org; the Flag Crew Org performs direct support functions for Flag Service Org and other ecclesiastical bodies within CSFSO. The Flag Crew Org maintains the buildings and property of CSFSO.
The Hannibal was an English slaver of the Atlantic slave trade. The wooden sailing ship was 450 tons and mounted thirty-six guns, which it was forced to use. Many slavers rigged shelves in the middle called a "slave deck," so that individuals could not sit upright during the entire voyage; the owners of the ship were paid 10.50 for every slave, but only for those brought to the "New World" alive. As a result, the slaves were fed twice a day a meal of corn meal and beans, given a litre of water per day, given exercise for an hour every evening to keep them fit. Despite these efforts, an average 47% of the slaves died from disease, physical injuries, or suicide on the Hannibal's voyages; the ship is most remembered for its disastrous voyage of 1694. Captain Thomas Phillips commanded the Hannibal, he was a member of the Royal African Company. To prevent the slaves from running away he was advised to cut off the arms and legs of some to terrify the rest as was the practice of many other slave ship captains, but he refused to do something so drastic.
Phillips, at the age of 29 years and on his second voyage, became the captain of the infamous slave ship the Hannibal. Under his command he was directly responsible for the tragic deaths of 328 of the 700 enslaved African women and children on board, along with 18 of his crew of 70. A large number of people died in the cruellest of ways; this voyage began as any other slave trade in 1694. The ship arrived in Ouidah, an African port located in modern-day Benin, purchased 692 slaves, about one-third of them women. Upon boarding the ship the slaves were handcuffed to one another in pairs by their wrists and legs, branded with a capital "H" to claim them for the Hannibal; the ship reached the New World with only 372 slaves remaining. Three hundred and twenty slaves were dumped overboard by the crew during the voyage, it is postulated that some slaves may have been thrown overboard so that their insurance value could be collected, but it appears the largest killer was an outbreak of dysentery. Others may have jumped overboard out of fear.
Phillips is reputed as stating that twelve slaves "willfully drowned themselves" during the trip and that several others persistently refused food starving themselves to death, "for it is their Belief that when they die they return to their own Country and Friends again." Phillips was involved in the slave trade, in which he had hoped to make a great deal of personal wealth by selling his human cargo. Phillips persisted in the slaving voyages despite his growing personal distaste for slavery. In his book published after the voyage he recalled: I have been inform’d that some commanders have cut off the legs or arms of the most wilful, to terrify the rest, for they believe if they lose a member, they cannot return home again: I was advis’d by some of my officers to do the same, but I could not be perswaded to entertain the least thoughts of it, much less to put in practice such barbarity and cruelty to poor creatures, excepting their want of christianity and true religion, are as much the works of God’s hands, no doubt as dear to him as our selves.
I can’t think there is any intrinsick value in one colour more than another, nor that white is better than black, only we think it so because we are so, are prone to judge favourably in our own case, as well as the blacks, who in odium of the colour, the devil is white, so paint him. The diseases which killed so many slaves during the voyage affected Phillips, leaving him permanently deaf, which caused him to retire to Wales, after which he never sailed again. A controversial plaque was erected during 2006 in the town of Brecon, along Captains Walk; the plaque is to memorialise the life of slave trader. Intro To Afro-American Studies Slave Ships The Slave Trade On Shore Hannibal Diary Should society memorialise a Slave Trader? A Journal of a Voyage Made in the Hannibal of Ann. 1693, 1694, From England, to Cape's Monseradoe, in Africa, And thence along the Coast of Guiney to Whidaw, the Island of St. Thomas, An so forward to Barbadoes The Earth and its Peoples: A Global History by Richard Bulliet, Pamela Crossley, Daniel Headrick, Steven Hirsch, Lyman Johnson, David Northrup, published by the Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005, ISBN 0-618-42770-8The Trans-Atlantic Slave Data Base.
Https://web.archive.org/web/20161211184555/http://www.slavevoyages.org/assessment/essays'Nautical Women. Women sailors and the women of Sailortowns. A forgotten diaspora c.1693-1902'. By Rosemary L Caldicott. Bristol. Radical Pamphleteer #43. Published by Bristol Radical History Group, 2019. ISBN 978-1-911522-46-1
Stanley Stuart Davis is emeritus professor of pharmacy at the University of Nottingham. Davis was born in England, he obtained his bachelor's degree in pharmacy from the School of Pharmacy at the University of London in 1964. He remained at the same university to study for a PhD in colloid science. In 1966 he was appointed assistant lecturer in pharmaceutics and to lecturer in 1967, he was awarded his Doctor of Science degree in 1982. In 1968 he was awarded a one-year Fulbright Scholarship to undertake postdoctoral studies with Takeru Higuchi at the University of Kansas, US, in the field of solution thermodynamics. In 1970 he moved to the University of Aston in Birmingham as senior lecturer and head of the pharmaceutics section. Here, he built up an active research group in drug delivery systems. Davis took the position of Lord Trent Professor of Pharmacy at the University of Nottingham in 1975, where he ran a large research group, studying novel drug delivery systems. Topics of research have included drug targeting, transmucosal delivery and parenteral systems for controlled release and product evaluation through gamma scintigraphy.
He became an emeritus professor in 2003. Awards received include The Science Medal, The Scheele Award, The Maurice-Marie Janot Award, The Eurand Career Achievement Award for Outstanding Research in Oral Drug Delivery; the Controlled Release Society, 2003. The Hoest Madsen Medal, he has acted as a consultant to various pharmaceutical companies and has worked as a visiting scientist at Syntex and Alza. He has served on numerous committees and panels, to include those of the British and European Pharmacopoeias, the United Kingdom Medicines Commission, The Science & Engineering Research Council, he is co-editor of 7 books. He is the named inventor on numerous patents dealing with drug delivery, he is the founder and chairman of Cosmas-Damian a consulting company that provides services to the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. This company is based on his extensive experience, he is the co-founder of three pharmaceutical companies. Professor Bob Davis, the Lord Trent Professor, becomes Head of School Stanley Davis at consulting site - for publications