Logging is the cutting, skidding, on-site processing, loading of trees or logs onto trucks or skeleton cars. In forestry, the term logging is sometimes used narrowly to describe the logistics of moving wood from the stump to somewhere outside the forest a sawmill or a lumber yard. In common usage, the term may cover a range of forestry or silviculture activities. Illegal logging refers to, it can refer to the harvesting, purchase, or sale of timber in violation of laws. The harvesting procedure itself may be illegal, including using corrupt means to gain access to forests. Clearcut logging is not considered a type of logging but a harvesting or silviculture method, is called clearcutting or block cutting. In the forest products industry logging companies may be referred to as logging contractors, with the smaller, non-union crews referred to as "gyppo loggers". Cutting trees with the highest value and leaving those with lower value diseased or malformed trees, is referred to as high grading, it is sometimes called selective logging, confused with selection cutting, the practice of managing stands by harvesting a proportion of trees.
Logging refers to above-ground forestry logging. Submerged forests exist on land, flooded by damming to create reservoirs; such trees are by the lowering of the reservoirs in question. Ootsa Lake and Williston Lake in British Columbia, Canada are notable examples where timber recovery has been needed to remove inundated forests. Clearcutting, or clearfelling, is a method of harvesting that removes all the standing trees in a selected area. Depending on management objectives, a clearcut may or may not have reserve trees left to attain goals other than regeneration, including wildlife habitat management, mitigation of potential erosion or water quality concerns. Silviculture objectives for clearcutting, a focus on forestry distinguish it from deforestation. Other methods include shelterwood cutting, group selective, single selective, seed-tree cutting, patch cut, retention cutting; the above operations can be carried out by different methods, of which the following three are considered industrial methods: Trees are felled and delimbed and topped at the stump.
The log is transported to the landing, where it is bucked and loaded on a truck. This leaves the slash in the cut area, where it must be further treated if wild land fires are of concern. Trees and plants are felled and transported to the roadside with top and limbs intact. There have been advancements to the process which now allows a logger or harvester to cut the tree down and delimb a tree in the same process; this ability is due to the advancement in the style felling head. The trees are delimbed and bucked at the landing; this method requires. In areas with access to cogeneration facilities, the slash can be chipped and used for the production of electricity or heat. Full-tree harvesting refers to utilization of the entire tree including branches and tops; this technique removes both nutrients and soil cover from the site and so can be harmful to the long term health of the area if no further action is taken, depending on the species, many of the limbs are broken off in handling so the end result may not be as different from tree-length logging as it might seem.
Cut-to-length logging is the process of felling, delimbing and sorting at the stump area, leaving limbs and tops in the forest. Harvesters fell the tree and buck it, place the resulting logs in bunks to be brought to the landing by a skidder or forwarder; this method is available for trees up to 900 mm in diameter. Harvesters are employed in level to moderately steep terrain. Harvesters are computerized to optimize cutting length, control harvesting area by GPS, use price lists for each specific log to archive most economical results during harvesting. Felled logs are generally transported to a sawmill to be cut into lumber, to a paper mill for paper pulp, or for other uses, for example, as fence posts. Many methods have been used to move logs from where they were cut to a rail line or directly to a sawmill or paper mill; the cheapest and most common method is making use of a river's current to float floating tree trunks downstream, by either log driving or timber rafting. To help herd the logs to the mill, in 1960 the Alaskan Lumber and Pulp Mill had a specially designed boat, constructed of 1 1⁄2 inch steel.
In the late 1800s and the first half of the 1900s, the most common method was the high-wheel loader, a set of wheels over ten feet tall that the log or logs were strapped beneath. Oxen were at first used with the high-wheel loaders. In 1960 the largest high wheel loader was built for service in California. Called the Bunyan Buggie, the unit was self-propelled and had wheels 24 feet high and a front dozer blade, 30 feet across and 6 feet high. Log transportation can be challenging and costly since trees are far from roads or watercourses. Road building and maintenance may be restricted in National Forests or other wilderness areas since it can cause erosion in riparian zones; when felled logs sit adja
Frances Elena Farmer was an American actress and television host. She appeared in over a dozen feature films over the course of her career, though she garnered notoriety for the various sensationalized accounts of her life her involuntary commitment to a psychiatric hospital and subsequent mental health struggles. A native of Seattle, Farmer began acting in stage productions while a student at the University of Washington. After graduating, she began performing in stock theater before signing a film contract with Paramount Pictures in 1936, she made her film debut in Too Many Parents, followed by a lead role in the musical western, Rhythm on the Range. Unhappy with the opportunities given to her by the studio, Farmer returned to stock theater in 1937 before being cast in the original Broadway production of Clifford Odets's Golden Boy, staged by New York City's Group Theatre, she followed this with two Broadway productions directed by Elia Kazan in 1939, but a battle with depression and binge drinking caused her to drop out of a subsequent Ernest Hemingway stage adaptation.
Farmer returned to Los Angeles, earning supporting roles in the comedy World Premiere and the film noir Among the Living. In 1942, publicity of her erratic behavior began to surface, after several arrests and committals to psychiatric institutions, Farmer was diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia. At the request of her family her mother, she was relocated to an institution in her home state of Washington, where she remained a patient until 1950. Farmer attempted an acting comeback appearing as a television host in Indianapolis on her own series, Frances Farmer Presents, her final film role was in the 1958 drama The Party Crashers, after which she spent the majority of the 1960s performing in local theater productions staged by Purdue University. In the spring of 1970, she was diagnosed with esophageal cancer, of which she died several months aged 56, she has been the subject of various works, including two feature films and several books, many of which focus on her time spent institutionalized, during which she claimed to have been subject to various systemic abuses.
Her posthumously-released autobiography, Will There Really Be a Morning? Details these claims significantly. A disputed 1978 biography of her life, alleged that Farmer underwent a transorbital lobotomy during her institutionalization, a 1982 biographical film based on her life depicted this event as truth, resulting in renewed interest in her life and career. Frances Elena Farmer was born on September 19, 1913 in Seattle, the daughter of Lillian, a boardinghouse operator and dietician and Ernest Melvin Farmer, a lawyer, her father was from Spring Valley, while her mother was from Oregon, a descendant of pioneers. Farmer had Edith. Prior to the birth of Wesley and Edith and Lillian had given birth to a daughter who died of pneumonia in infancy; when she was four years old, Farmer's parents separated, her mother relocated with the children from their home in North Seattle to Los Angeles, where her sister Zella was living. In early 1925, the family moved north to Chico, where Lillian pursued a career performing nutrition research.
Shortly after arriving in Chico, Lillian concluded that caring for the children was interfering with her ability to work. The children's Aunt Zella drove them to Albany, where they boarded a train back to Seattle to live with their father. Farmer's inconsistent home life had a notable effect on her, upon returning to Seattle, she recalled: "In certain ways, that train trip represented the end of my dependent childhood. I began to understand that there were certain things one could expect from adults, others that one could not expect... being shunted from one household to another was a new adjustment, a fresh confusion, I groped for ways to compensate for the disorder." The following year, her mother returned to Seattle after her home in Chico burned down in a house fire. In Seattle, the family shared a household, though Lillian and Ernest remained separated despite his attempts to reconcile their marriage. In the fall of 1929, when Farmer was sixteen and Ernest divorced, Lillian relocated to a cottage in Bremerton, while the children remained with their father.
In 1931, while a senior at West Seattle High School, Farmer entered and won $100 from The Scholastic Art & Writing Awards, a writing contest sponsored by Scholastic Magazine, with her controversial essay "God Dies." It was a precocious attempt to reconcile her wish for, in her words, a "superfather" God, with her observations of a chaotic and godless world. In her autobiography, she wrote that the essay was influenced by her reading of Friedrich Nietzsche: "He expressed the same doubts, only he said it in German:'Gott ist tot.' God is dead. This I could understand. I was not to assume that there was no God, but I could find no evidence in my life that He existed or that He had shown any particular interest in me. I was not an atheist, but I was an agnostic, by the time I was sixteen I was well indoctrinated into this theory."After graduating high school, Farmer enrolled at the University of Washington majoring in journalism. She worked various odd jobs to pay her tuition, including as an usherette in a cinema, a waitress, a tutor, a laborer in a soap factory.
For a time, she worked as a singing waitress at Mount Rainier National Park. During her sophomore year, Farmer became involved with the unive
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. is an American media company, involved in the production and distribution of feature films and television programs. One of the world's oldest film studios, MGM's headquarters are located at 245 North Beverly Drive in Beverly Hills, California. MGM was founded in 1924 when the entertainment entrepreneur Marcus Loew gained control of Metro Pictures, Goldwyn Pictures, Louis B. Mayer Pictures. In 1971, it was announced that MGM was to merge with 20th Century Fox, but the plan never came to fruition. Over the next 39 years, the studio was bought and sold at various points in its history until, on November 3, 2010, MGM filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. MGM emerged from bankruptcy on December 20, 2010, at which time the executives of Spyglass Entertainment, Gary Barber and Roger Birnbaum, became co-chairmen and co-CEOs of the holding company of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer; as of 2017, MGM co-produces, co-finances, co-distributes a majority of its films with Sony Pictures, Paramount Pictures and Warner Bros.
MGM Resorts International, a Las Vegas-based hotel and casino company listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "MGM", was created in 1973 as a division of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. The company was spun out in 1979, with the studio's owner Kirk Kerkorian maintaining a large share, but it ended all affiliation with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in 1986. MGM was the last studio to convert to sound pictures, but in spite of this fact, from the end of the silent film era through the late 1950s, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer was the dominant motion picture studio in Hollywood. Always slow to respond to the changing legal and demographic nature of the motion picture industry during the 1950s and 1960s, although at times its films did well at the box office, the studio lost significant amounts of money throughout the 1960s. In 1966, MGM was sold to Canadian investor Edgar Bronfman Sr. whose son Edgar Jr. would buy Universal Studios. Three years an unprofitable MGM was bought by Kirk Kerkorian, who slashed staff and production costs, forced the studio to produce low-budget fare, shut down theatrical distribution in 1973.
The studio continued to produce five to six films a year that were released through other studios United Artists. Kerkorian did, commit to increased production and an expanded film library when he bought United Artists in 1981. MGM ramped up internal production, as well as keeping production going at UA, which included the lucrative James Bond film franchise, it incurred significant amounts of debt to increase production. The studio took on additional debt as a series of owners took charge in early 1990s. In 1986, Ted Turner bought MGM, but a few months sold the company back to Kerkorian to recoup massive debt, while keeping the library assets for himself; the series of deals left MGM more in debt. MGM was bought by Pathé Communications in 1990, but Parretti lost control of Pathé and defaulted on the loans used to purchase the studio; the French banking conglomerate Crédit Lyonnais, the studio's major creditor took control of MGM. More in debt, MGM was purchased by a joint venture between Kerkorian, producer Frank Mancuso, Australia's Seven Network in 1996.
The debt load from these and subsequent business deals negatively affected MGM's ability to survive as a separate motion picture studio. After a bidding war which included Time Warner and General Electric, MGM was acquired on September 23, 2004, by a partnership consisting of Sony Corporation of America, Texas Pacific Group, Providence Equity Partners, other investors. In 1924, movie theater magnate Marcus Loew had a problem, he had bought Metro Pictures Corporation in 1919 for a steady supply of films for his large Loew's Theatres chain. With Loew's lackluster assortment of Metro films, Loew purchased Goldwyn Pictures in 1924 to improve the quality. However, these purchases created a need for someone to oversee his new Hollywood operations, since longtime assistant Nicholas Schenck was needed in New York headquarters to oversee the 150 theaters. Approached by Louis B. Mayer, Loew addressed the situation by buying Louis B. Mayer Pictures on April 17, 1924. Mayer became head of the renamed Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, with Irving Thalberg as head of production.
MGM produced more than 100 feature films in its first two years. In 1925, MGM released the extravagant and successful Ben-Hur, taking a $4.7 million profit that year, its first full year. In 1925, MGM, Paramount Pictures and UFA formed a joint German distributor, Parufamet; when Samuel Goldwyn left he sued over the use of his name. Marcus Loew died in 1927, control of Loew's passed to Nicholas Schenck. In 1929, William Fox of Fox Film Corporation bought the Loew family's holdings with Schenck's assent. Mayer and Thalberg disagreed with the decision. Mayer was active in the California Republican Party and used his political connections to persuade the Justice Department to delay final approval of the deal on antitrust grounds. During this time, in the summer of 1929, Fox was badly hurt in an automobile accident. By the time he recovered, the stock market crash in the fall of 1929 had nearly wiped Fox out and ended any chance of the Loew's merger going through. Schenck and Mayer had never gotten along, the abortive Fox merger increased the animosity between the two men.
From the outset, MGM tapped into the audience's need for sophistication. Having inherited few big names from their predecessor companies and Thalberg began at once
Come and Get It (1929 film)
Come and Get It is a lost 1929 American silent action film directed by Wallace Fox and starring Bob Steele, James Quinn and Betty Welsh. Shortly after the film's production, FBO was merged into the larger RKO Pictures; the film was released in Britain by Ideal Films. Bob Steele as Breezy Smith James Quinn as Buch Farrel Betty Welsh as Jane Elliott Jay Morley as Tout Regan James B. Leong as Singapore Joe Harry O'Connor as Breezy's father Marin Sais as Breezy's mother William Welsh as Judge Elliott Todd McCarthy & Charles Flynn. Kings of the Bs: working within the Hollywood system: an anthology of film history and criticism. E. P. Dutton, 1975. Come and Get It on IMDb synopsis at AllMovie
Edward Arnold (actor)
Edward Arnold was an American actor. Arnold was born on the Lower East Side of New York City, the son of German immigrants Elizabeth and Carl Schneider, his schooling came at the East Side Settlement House. Arnold was married three times: Harriet Marshall, with whom he had three children: Elizabeth and William. Interested in acting since his youth, Arnold made his professional stage debut in 1907, he found work as an extra for Essanay Studios and World Studios, before landing his first significant role in 1916's The Misleading Lady. In 1919, he left film for a return to the stage, did not appear again in movies until he made his talkie debut in Okay America!. He recreated one of his stage roles in one of his early films, his role in the 1935 film Diamond Jim boosted him to stardom. He reprised the role of Diamond Jim Brady in the 1940 film Lillian Russell, he played a similar role in The Toast of New York, another fictionalized version of real-life business chicanery, for which he was billed above Cary Grant in the posters with his name in much larger letters.
Arnold appeared in over 150 movies. Although he was labeled "box office poison" in 1938 by an exhibitor publication, he never lacked for work. Rather than continue in leading man roles, he gave up losing weight and went after character parts instead. Arnold was quoted as saying, "The bigger I got, the better character roles I received." He was such a sought-after actor, he worked on two pictures at the same time. Arnold was an expert at playing rogues and authority figures, superb at combining the two as powerful villains pulling strings, he was best known for his roles in Come and Get It, Sutter's Gold, the aforementioned The Toast of New York, You Can't Take It with You, Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, Meet John Doe, The Devil and Daniel Webster, he was the first actor to portray Rex Stout's famous detective Nero Wolfe, starring in Meet Nero Wolfe, the film based on the first novel in the series. He played blind detective Duncan Maclain in two movies based on the novels by Baynard Kendrick, Eyes in the Night and The Hidden Eye.
Arnold made a posthumous cameo in the 1984 film Gremlins as the deceased husband of Mrs. Deagle, a character much like the rich, heartless characters Arnold was known for. Director Joe Dante mentioned. From 1947 to 1953, Arnold starred in the ABC radio program Mr. President, he played a lawyer, "Mr. Reynolds," in The Charlotte Greenwood Show. In 1953, he was host of Spotlight Story on Mutual. Arnold was host for Your Star Showcase, "a series of 52 half-hour television dramas... released by Television Programs of America." The series was launched January 1954, to run in 1950 cities. He co-starred in "Ever Since the Day," an episode of Ford Theatre on NBC. Midwestern University awarded Arnold an honorary Doctor of Letters degree on May 24, 1951. Arnold has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame located at 6225 Hollywood Blvd. Arnold was president of the Screen Actors Guild from 1940–42. In 1940, his autobiography, Lorenzo Goes to Hollywood, was published, he was the co-founder of the I Am An American Foundation.
Starting in the 1940s, Arnold became involved in Republican politics and was mentioned as a possible G. O. P. candidate for the United States Senate. He lost a contested election for Los Angeles County Supervisor and said at the time that actors were not suited to run for political office. Arnold died at his home in Encino, California from a cerebral hemorrhage associated with atrial fibrillation, aged 66, he was interred in the San Fernando Mission Cemetery. The New York Times April 27, 1956 obituary, "Edward Arnold, Dies at 66" Edward Arnold on IMDb Edward Arnold at AllMovie Edward Arnold at the Internet Broadway Database Edward Arnold at Find a Grave Edward Arnold at Virtual History
A Western saloon is a kind of bar particular to the Old West. Saloons served customers such as fur trappers, soldiers, businessmen, lawmen and gamblers. A saloon might be known as a "watering trough, shebang, cantina and gin mill"; the first saloon was established at Wyoming, in 1822, to serve fur trappers. By 1880, the growth of saloons was in full swing. In Leavenworth, there were "about 150 saloons and four wholesale liquor houses"; some saloons in the Old West were little more than gambling houses and opium dens. Saloons in the U. S. began to have a close association with breweries in the early 1880s. With a growing overcapacity, breweries began to adopt the British “tied-house” system of control where they owned saloons outright. Schlitz Brewing Company and a few others built elaborate saloons to attract customers and advertise their beers. Politicians frequented local saloons because of the adaptable social nature of their business. Beginning in 1893, the Anti-Saloon League began protesting against American saloons.
In 1895 it became a national organization and rose to become the most powerful prohibition lobby in America, pushing aside its older competitors the Woman's Christian Temperance Union and the Prohibition Party. The League lobbied at all levels of government for legislation to prohibit the manufacture or import of spirits and wine. Ministers had launched several efforts to close Arizona saloons after the 1906 creation of League chapters in Yuma and Phoenix. League members pressured local police to take licenses from establishments that violated closing hours or served women and minors, they provided witnesses to testify about these violations, its triumph was nationwide prohibition locked into the Constitution with passage of the 18th Amendment in 1920. It was decisively defeated when prohibition was repealed in 1933; the free lunch was a sales enticement which offered a meal at no cost in order to attract customers and increase revenues from other offerings. It was a tradition once common in saloons in many places in the United States, with the phrase appearing in U.
S. literature from about 1870 to the 1920s. These establishments included a "free" lunch, varying from rudimentary to quite elaborate, with the purchase of at least one drink; these free lunches were worth far more than the price of a single drink. The saloon-keeper relied on the expectation that most customers would buy more than one drink, that the practice would build patronage for other times of day. A saloon's appearance varied from where it grew; as towns grew, the saloons became more refined. The bartender prided himself on his drink pouring abilities. Early saloons and those in remote locations were crude affairs with minimal furniture and few decorations. A single wood-burning stove might warm such establishments during the winter months. A pair of "batwing" doors at the entrance was one of the more distinctive features of the typical saloon; the doors extended from chest to knee level. Further in the American West, some sold liquor from wagons, saloons were formed of materials at hand, including "sod houses....a hull of an old sailing ship" or interiors "dug into the side of a hill".
As the size of towns grew, many hotels included saloons, some stand-alone saloons, such as the Barlow Trail Saloon in Damascus, featured a railed porch. Saloons' appearance varied by ethnic group; the Irish preferred stand-up bars where whiskey was the drink of choice and women could obtain service only through the back door. German saloons were more brightly illuminated, more to serve restaurant food and beer at tables, more oriented toward family patronage. Germans were at odds with Temperance forces over Sunday operation and over the operation of beer gardens in outlying neighborhoods. Other ethnic groups added their own features and their unique cuisines on the sideboard, while a few groups, including Scandinavians, Jews and Italians, either preferred intimate social clubs or did little drinking in public. By way of entertainment saloons offered dancing girls, some of whom or doubled as prostitutes. Many saloons offered games of chance like Faro, brag, three-card monte, dice games. Other games were added as saloons continued to face increasing competition.
These additional games included billiards and bowling. Some saloons included piano players, can-can girls, theatrical skits. A current example of this type of entertainment is the Long Branch Variety Show, presented in the recreated Long Branch Saloon in Dodge City, Kansas; when a town was first founded, the initial saloons were nothing more than tents or shacks that served homemade whiskey that included such ingredients as "raw alcohol, burnt sugar and chewing tobacco". As towns grew, saloons were elaborately decorated, featured Bohemian stemware, oil paintings were hung from the wall; the hard liquor was improved featuring whiskey imported from the Eastern United States and Europe. To avoid rotgut, patrons would request "fancy" mixed drinks; some of the top ten drinks in 1881 included. Beer was served at room temperature since refrigeration was unavailable. Adolphus Busch introduced pasteurization of beer in 1880 with his Budweiser brand; some saloons kept the beer in kegs stored on racks inside the saloon.
Some saloons made their own beer. Sometimes the beer was kept in chairs, as seen in the motion picture Fort Apache. Among the more familiar saloons were First Chance Saloon in Montana.
Charles Halton was a stern-faced American character actor who appeared in over 180 films. Halton trained at the New York Academy of Dramatic Arts, he made his Broadway debut in 1901, after which he appeared in about 35 productions during the next 50 years. From the 1920s, Halton's thinning hair, rimless glasses and officious manner were familiar to generations of American moviegoers. Whether playing the neighborhood busybody, a stern government bureaucrat or weaselly attorney, Halton's characters tried to drive the "immoral influences" out of the neighborhood, foreclose on the orphanage, evict the poor widow and her children from their apartment, or any other number of dastardly deeds, all justified by "... I'm sorry but that's my job." Among his highest profile roles were Mr. Carter, the bank examiner in Frank Capra's It's a Wonderful Life, the Polish theatre producer Dobosh in Ernst Lubitsch's To Be or Not to Be, a county official from Idaho in Alfred Hitchcock's Mr. & Mrs. Smith. In Enemy of Women, the story of Joseph Goebbels, Halton played against type as a kindly radio performer of children's stories, arrested by the Nazis.
Although his career slowed down in the 1950s, he played roles in numerous television series. His 40-year film career ended with High School Confidential. On April 16, 1959. Halton died of hepatitis in Los Angeles, he was 83. Charles Halton on IMDb Charles Halton at the Internet Broadway Database Charles Halton at Find a Grave