Lumberjacks are North American workers in the logging industry who perform the initial harvesting and transport of trees for ultimate processing into forest products. The term refers to a bygone era when hand tools were used in harvesting trees; because of its historical ties, the term lumberjack has become ingrained in popular culture through folklore, mass media and spectator sports. The actual work was difficult, intermittent, low-paying, primitive in living conditions. However, the men built a traditional culture that celebrated strength, confrontation with danger, resistance to modernization; the term lumberjack is of Canadian derivation. The first attested use of the word comes from an 1831 letter to the Cobourg Star and General Advertiser in the following passage: "my misfortunes have been brought upon me chiefly by an incorrigible, though useful, race of mortals called LUMBERJACKS, however, I would name the Cossack's of Upper Canada, having been reared among the oaks and pines of the wild forest, have never been subjected to the salutary restraint of laws."The term lumberjack is historical.

When lumberjack is used, it refers to a logger from an earlier time before the advent of chainsaws, feller-bunchers and other modern logging equipment. Other terms for the occupation include shanty boy and the colloquial term woodhick. A logger employed in driving logs down a river was known locally in northern North America as a river pig, catty-man, river hog, or river rat; the term lumberjill has been known for a woman. In Australia, the occupation is referred to cool cutters. Lumberjacks worked in lumber camps and lived a migratory life, following timber harvesting jobs as they opened. Being a lumberjack was seasonal work. Lumberjacks were men, they lived in bunkhouses or tents. Common equipment included the cross-cut saw. Lumberjacks could be found wherever there were vast forests to be harvested and a demand for wood, most in Scandinavia and parts of the United States. In the U. S. many lumberjacks were of Scandinavian ancestry. American lumberjacks were first centred in north-eastern states such as Maine.

They followed the general westward migration on the continent to the Upper Midwest, the Pacific Northwest. Stewart Holbrook documented the emergence and westward migration of the classic American lumberjack in his first book, Holy Old Mackinaw: A Natural History of the American Lumberjack, he wrote colourfully about lumberjacks in his subsequent books, romanticizing them as hard-drinking, hard-working men. Logging camps were phased out between World War II and the early 1960s as crews could by be transported to remote logging sites in motor vehicles; the division of labour in lumber camps led to several specialized jobs on logging crews, such as whistle punk and high climber. The whistle punk's job was to sound a whistle as a signal to the yarder operator controlling the movement of logs, he had to act as a safety lookout. A good whistle punk think fast as the safety of the others depended on him; the high climber used iron climbing hooks and rope to ascend a tall tree in the landing area of the logging site, where he would chop off limbs as he climbed, chop off the top of the tree, attach pulleys and rigging to the tree so it could be used as a spar so logs could be skidded into the landing.

High climbers and whistle punks were both phased out in the 1960s to early 1970s when portable steel towers replaced spar trees and radio equipment replaced steam whistles for communication. The choker setters attached steel cables to downed logs so they could be dragged into the landing by the yarder; the chasers removed the chokers. Choker setters and chasers were entry-level positions on logging crews, with more experienced loggers seeking to move up to more skill-intensive positions such as yarder operator and high climber, or supervisory positions such as hook tender. Despite the common perception that all loggers cut trees, the actual felling and bucking of trees were specialized job positions done by fallers and buckers. Faller and bucker were once two separate job titles. Before the era of modern diesel or gasoline powered equipment, the existing machinery was steam powered. Animal or steam-powered skidders could be used to haul harvested logs to nearby rail roads for shipment to sawmills.

Horse driven logging wheels were a means used for moving logs out of the woods. Another way for transporting logs to sawmills was to float them down a body of water or a specially-constructed log flume. Log rolling, the art of staying on top of a floating log while "rolling" the log by walking, was another skill much in demand among lumberjacks. Spiked boots known as "caulks" or "corks" were used for log rolling and worn by lumberjacks as their regular footwear; the term "skid row", which today means a poor city neighbourhood frequented by homeless people, originated in a way in which harvested logs were once transported. Logs could be "skidded" down hills or along a corduroy road, one such street in Seattle was named Skid Road; this street became frequented by people down on their luck, both the name and its meaning morphed into the modern term. Among the living history museums that preserve and interpret the forest industry are: BC Forest Discovery Centre, Duncan Camp Five Museum, Wisconsin The Lumberja

Velvet Tinmine

Velvet Tinmine is a compilation album consisting of 20 obscure, yet high quality, British pop rock tracks from the glam rock era. Composed of forgotten album tracks and hit singles, most of these songs have not been released outside of the UK prior to this 2003 compellation. "Rebels Rule" - Iron Virgin "Another School Day" - Hello "Let’s Get The Party Going" - Warwick "Morning Bird" - The Damned "Kick Your Boots Off" - Sisters "Big Wheels Turning" - Flame "Toughen Up" - Arrows "Let's Do It Again" - Crunch "Rock Star" - Bearded Lady " I Gotta Go" - Simon Turner "Va Va Va Voom" - Brett Smiley "Love Machine" - Shakane "The Comets Are Coming" - Washington Flyers "Slippery Rock 70s" - Stavely Makepeace "Neo City" - The Plod "I Wanna Go To A Disco" - Ricky Wilde "Bay City Rollers We Love You" - Tartan Horde "Shake A Tail" - Big Wheel "Wild Thing" - Fancy "Kick Out the Jams" - Tubthumper Review: Allmusic Review:

Soldier (1998 American film)

Soldier is a 1998 American science fiction action film directed by Paul W. S. Anderson, written by David Webb Peoples, starring Kurt Russell, Jason Scott Lee, Jason Isaacs, Connie Nielsen, Sean Pertwee and Gary Busey; the film tells the story of a skilled soldier defying his commanders and facing a relentless and brutal genetically-enhanced rival soldier. The film was released worldwide on October 23, 1998. Upon its release, Soldier received negative reviews but many praised the action sequences and Russell's performance; the film was a commercial failure, grossing $14 million worldwide against a production budget of $60 million. In 1996, as part of a new military training program, orphaned infants are selected at birth and raised as disciplined soldiers dedicated to a wholly military routine, they are trained to be ruthless obedient killers without any moral code of conduct, any deemed physically or mentally unworthy are executed. Survivors of the training program are turned into impassive, dedicated fighting machines with no exposure to or understanding of the outside world.

In 2036, at the age of 40, Sgt. Todd 3465 is a battle-hardened veteran and the best soldier of the original 1996 infants. Colonel Mekum, the leader of the original project, introduces a new group of genetically engineered soldiers, designed with superior physical attributes and a complete lack of emotion except unparalleled aggression. Captain Church, the commander of Todd's unit, insists on testing the abilities of the new soldiers against those of his proven older ones; the new soldiers outperform the old soldiers in every way. In a combat exercise held at the top of climbing chains, a new soldier, Caine 607 defeats two of the original soldiers before Todd gouges out Caine's eye. Caine knocks Todd from the top of the chains. Mekum classifies it as a training exercise gone wrong and orders their bodies disposed of like garbage. Declared obsolete by Mekum, the remaining older soldiers are removed from combat duty and demoted to menial unarmed support roles. Dumped on Arcadia 234, a waste disposal planet, an injured Todd limps toward a colony whose residents crash-landed there years earlier.

Todd is found and sheltered by Mace, he and his wife Sandra help nurse Todd back to health. Speaking himself, Todd develops a silent rapport with their mute son, traumatized by a snakebite as an infant, he looks upon the loving family with yearning in his eyes. Though they try to make him feel welcome, Todd has difficulty adapting to the community and their conflict-free lives due to his rigid conditioning; when Nathan silently looks to him for defense against a coiled snake, Todd attempts to show Nathan how to protect himself. Nathan's parents intervene and disapprove of the lesson, unsure of how to deal with the silent soldier. Todd's increasing disorientation by exposure to peaceful civilian life manifests into flashbacks of his time battling other enemy soldiers - and killing civilians who were in the way. With Todd's mind deep inside one of his more violent memories, one of the colonists surprises Todd, who nearly kills him. Fearful, the colonists expel Todd from the community. Having been rejected by every society he has known - the military and the refugee civilians - Todd shows strong emotion for the first time.

A short time Mace and Sandra are bitten by a snake while they sleep, but Nathan uses Todd's defensive technique and saves them. Now understanding the value of Todd's lesson, Mace leaves to bring him back, regardless of the opposition of the colonists who fear him. Mekum and the new soldiers arrive on the garbage planet to garner them combat experience. Since the world is listed as'uninhabited', Mekum declares the colonists as'hostiles', to be used as the targets, much to the disapproval of Captain Church. Just after Mace finds Todd and apologizes, the soldiers open fire. Todd survives but Mace dies from the attack. Though out-manned and outgunned, Todd's years of battle experience and superior knowledge of the planet allow him to return to the colony and kill the advance squad. Nervous that an unknown enemy force may be confronting them, Colonel Mekum orders the soldiers to withdraw and return with heavy artillery. Using guerrilla tactics, Todd kills all the remaining soldiers. Caine 607 is wounded and uses painkillers and performance enhancing stimulants to attack Todd in vicious hand-to-hand combat, but he is defeated by Todd's experience and clever tactics rather than mere physical prowess.

Todd confronts Mekum over the radio. Panicking, Mekum orders Todd's old squad to set up and activate a portable nuclear device powerful enough to destroy the planet before commanding the ship to lift off and leave the squad behind; when Captain Church objects to the abandonment of the old soldiers, Mekum shoots him in cold blood. Todd finds his old squad and they silently side with him over the army that has discarded them, they take over the ship, evacuate the remaining colonists and leave Mekum and Church's aides on the planet. In an attempt to disarm the nuclear device, Mekum accidentally sets it off, killing himself and the aides; the ship escapes the shockwave and sets course for the Trinity Moons, the colonists' original destination. When Nathan enters the control room and reaches for Todd, he picks up Nathan and points to their new destination while looking out upon the galaxy; the script