Logging is the cutting, skidding, on-site processing, loading of trees or logs onto trucks or skeleton cars. Logging is the process of cutting trees, processing them, moving them to a location for transport, it is the beginning of a supply chain that provides raw material for many products societies worldwide use for housing, construction and consumer paper products. Logging systems are used to manage forests, reduce the risk of wildfires, restore ecosystem functions. In forestry, the term logging is sometimes used narrowly to describe the logistics of moving wood from the stump to somewhere outside the forest a sawmill or a lumber yard. In common usage, the term may cover a range of forestry or silviculture activities. Illegal logging refers to, it can refer to the harvesting, purchase, or sale of timber in violation of laws. The harvesting procedure itself may be illegal, including the use of corrupt means to gain access to forests. Clearcut logging is not considered a type of logging but a harvesting or silviculture method and is called clearcutting or block cutting.
In the forest products industry logging companies may be referred to as logging contractors, with the smaller, non-union crews referred to as "gyppo loggers". Cutting trees with the highest value and leaving those with lower value diseased or malformed trees, is referred to as high grading, it is sometimes called selective logging, confused with selection cutting, the practice of managing stands by harvesting a proportion of trees. Logging refers to above-ground forestry logging. Submerged forests exist on land, flooded by damming to create reservoirs; such trees are by the lowering of the reservoirs in question. Ootsa Lake and Williston Lake in British Columbia, Canada are notable examples where timber recovery has been needed to remove inundated forests. Clearcutting, or clearfelling, is a method of harvesting that removes all the standing trees in a selected area. Depending on management objectives, a clearcut may or may not have reserve trees left to attain goals other than regeneration, including wildlife habitat management, mitigation of potential erosion or water quality concerns.
Silviculture objectives for clearcutting, a focus on forestry distinguish it from deforestation. Other methods include shelterwood cutting, group selective, single selective, seed-tree cutting, patch cut, retention cutting; the above operations can be carried out by different methods, of which the following three are considered industrial methods: Trees are felled and delimbed and topped at the stump. The log is transported to the landing, where it is bucked and loaded on a truck; this leaves the slash in the cut area, where it must be further treated if wild land fires are of concern. Trees and plants are felled and transported to the roadside with top and limbs intact. There have been advancements to the process which now allows a logger or harvester to cut the tree down and delimb a tree in the same process; this ability is due to the advancement in the style felling head. The trees are delimbed and bucked at the landing; this method requires. In areas with access to cogeneration facilities, the slash can be chipped and used for the production of electricity or heat.
Full-tree harvesting refers to utilization of the entire tree including branches and tops. This technique removes both nutrients and soil cover from the site and so can be harmful to the long term health of the area if no further action is taken, depending on the species, many of the limbs are broken off in handling so the end result may not be as different from tree-length logging as it might seem. Cut-to-length logging is the process of felling, delimbing and sorting at the stump area, leaving limbs and tops in the forest. Harvesters fell the tree and buck it, place the resulting logs in bunks to be brought to the landing by a skidder or forwarder; this method is available for trees up to 900 mm in diameter. Harvesters are employed in level to moderately steep terrain. Harvesters are computerized to optimize cutting length, control harvesting area by GPS, use price lists for each specific log to archive most economical results during harvesting. Felled logs are generally transported to a sawmill to be cut into lumber, to a paper mill for paper pulp, or for other uses, for example, as fence posts.
Many methods have been used to move logs from where they were cut to a rail line or directly to a sawmill or paper mill. The cheapest and most common method is making use of a river's current to float floating tree trunks downstream, by either log driving or timber rafting. To help herd the logs to the mill, in 1960 the Alaskan Lumber and Pulp Mill had a specially designed boat, constructed of 1 1⁄2 inch steel. In the late 1800s and the first half of the 1900s, the most common method was the high-wheel loader, a set of wheels over ten feet tall that the log or logs were strapped beneath. Oxen were at first used with the high-wheel loaders. In 1960 the largest high wheel loader was built for service in California. Called the Bunyan Buggie, the unit was self-prop
David Fergusson or Ferguson was a Scottish reformer. His date of birth is debated, he is reputed to have been a native of Dundee. Robert Wodrow states that he was by trade a glover, but gave up business and went to school, in order to fit himself for the duties of a preacher or expounder among the reformers; the Scottish doctor of the Sorbonne James Laing sneered at him as glover. He was well acquainted both with Latin and Greek, was among the earliest of the preachers of the reformed doctrines; when the first appointment was made of ministers or superintendents for places in Scotland, he was selected to go to Dunfermline. Ferguson was chosen moderator of the general assembly which met at Edinburgh on 6 March 1573, of that which met on 24 Oct. 1578. He had a place on important commissions, for many years was chosen one of the assessors to the moderator to prepare matters for the assembly, he was one of the ministers who waited on James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton before his execution, 2 June 1581.
In 1582 he was appointed by the assembly a commissioner for the West of Fife, to superintend the establishment of kirks and placing of ministers. Ferguson formed one of a deputation to wait on James VI in 1583 to discharge the duty of admonishing him ‘to beware of innovations in court’, to check reports before credit was given to them, remind him of the affair of the escaped Jesuit, William Holt, he jocularly told the king that Fergus was the first king of Scotland, that he was Fergus-son. In the discussion warmth was displayed by some of the deputies, but Ferguson succeeded in giving a new turn to the topics at critical points, the result being that as they took their leave ‘the king laid his hands upon every one of them.’ In August of the same year Ferguson and six other ministers were cited by the king to attend a convention at St Andrews to answer for certain proceedings of the assembly. On 12 May 1596, on the renewal of the covenant by the synod of Fife at Dunfermline, Ferguson gave an address, with reminiscences of his experiences of the early reform period.
At a meeting of the synod of Fife, held at Cupar in February 1598, in regard to a proposal to give ministers a vote in parliament, the eldest minister at that time in Scotland, after relating pat difficulties of the church in contending against efforts to introduce episcopacy, opposed the proposal, which he compared to the ‘busking up of the brave horse’ for the overthrow of Troy. He died 13 August 1598, he is buried on the west side of the north entrance path to Dunfermline Abbey. In 1563 Ferguson published a reply to confessor to Mary Queen of Scots, it was printed in Tracts by David Ferguson, edited by David Laing for the Bannatyne Club in 1860. On 13 January 1572 he preached a sermon before the Regent Mar at the meeting of the assembly in Leith, when a modified episcopacy was established, it protested against the alienation of the spoils of the church to the private uses of the nobility or to purposes of government, instead of their being applied to the establishment of churches and schools, to meet the necessities of the poor.
At the assembly held at Perth in August 1572 it was submitted to the revision of five ministers, all of whom gave it their approbation, after which it was printed at St. Andrews by Robert Lekprevick, the dedication to the Regent Mar bearing the date of 20 August. John Knox gave it his recommendation: ‘John Knox with my dead hand but glad heart, praising God that of his mercy he leaves such light to his kirk in this desolation.’ It is in the volume edited by Laing. The epithet ‘Tulchan’ applied to the bishops is ascribed to him, he was famed for his skill in the vernacular language, celebrated by John Davidson one of the regents at St. Andrews, he made a collection of Scottish proverbs, published in 1641 under the title, ‘Scottish Proverbs gathered together by David Fergusone, sometime minister at Dunfermline, put ordine alphabetico when he departed this life anno 1598.’ Other editions appeared in 1659, 1675, 1699, 1706, the latter bearing the title, ‘Nine Hundred and Forty Scottish Proverbs, the greater part of which were first gathered together by David Ferguson, the rest since added.’ He was the author of ‘Epithalamium Mysticum Solomonis Regis, sive analysis critico-poetica Cantici Canticorum,’ Edinburgh, 1677.
He left a diary containing a record of the principal ecclesiastical events of his time, lost, but which his son-in-law, John Row, incorporated in his ‘History.’ By his wife, Isabel Durham, he had five sons and four daughters, one of whom, married Row. "Ferguson, David". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Ferguson, David". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900
The architectural structures of Fredericksburg, Texas are unique to the Texas Hill Country, are historical edifices of the German immigrants who settled the area in the 19th Century. Many of the structures have historic designations on a state or national level; the Gillespie County Historical Society is involved in assisting with preservation. On October 14, 1970, the Fredericksburg Historic District was added to the National Register of Historic Places in Texas; the Sunday Houses are unique to the German immigrant culture of the Texas Hill Country. In reverse of the old European tradition of living in town while working the rural farms, the early Fredericksburg German settlers made their main homes on the acreage they worked. On their town lots, they erected Sunday Houses for overnight stays on their weekly travels into town for supplies and church attendance. Older generations would use the houses as a retirement house, as the younger generations inherited the acreage and the work; these houses were made of limestone rock coated with whitewash inside and out.
Depending on the individual family's need, these small 2-story houses were designed for limited stays, with one or two ground floor rooms and an upper loft for sleeping. Standard design was a porch. There was an outside staircase leading to the loft. Many of these homes in Fredericksburg have been restored, with some of them being used as Bed and Breakfast retreats; the Pioneer Museum Complex includes many historical buildings. 30°16′49″N 98°52′53″W The Vereins Kirche was designated a recorded Texas Historic Landmark in 1967, marker number 10123. Markplatz The Vereins Kirche, or Peoples Church, was designed by Friedrich Schubbert and became the first public building in Fredericksburg in 1847, it served as a nondenominational church, town hall, fort. Locals refer to it as the Kaffeemühle Church for its shape. Pupils learned their lessons in their own German language, their parents paid $1 per quarter in tuition for each child; the first teacher in the Vereins-Kirche in 1847 was Professor Johann Leyendecker, who emigrated from Rhineland-Palatinate with his wife and five children.
They sailed on the ship Riga, which left Antwerp on November 7, 1845, arrived in Galveston on February 1, 1846. Leyendecker provided his home for Catholic services. Leyendecker was succeeded as the Vereins Kirche teacher in 1848 by Jacob Brodbeck; the building models similar to the Aachen Cathedral. Each side of the octagon was 18 feet wide by 18 feet high, with each side having a roof 10 feet high, topped by a 7-foot high octagonal cupola. A rooster weather vane that sat on top was replaced by a cross. In 1896 the original building was torn down; the Vereins Kirche was rebuilt in 1936. The Arhelger Bathhouse operated from 1910–1930 for travelers. 30°16′39″N 98°52′33″W Designated a Recorded Texas Historic Landmark in 1985, Marker number 10026. 515 E. Main The 1869 limestone Dambach-Besier House serves as the West End Visitor Center for the Fredericksburg Convention and Visitors Bureau Welcome Center; the house sat on a lot which cost F. Dambach $70 in 1867. Widow Anna Besier acquired the property in 1881 and moved there so her children could attend school in town.
She sold dairy products from the milk cows she kept across the street. Donated in 2005 by Kenneth and JoAnn Kothe, the house was disassembled and reconstructed at its current location; the Fassel-Roeder House began as a butcher shop with living quarters added later. The centerpiece of the house is a coin-operated music box from Leipzig; the Fredericksburg Volunteer Fire Department Museum displays fire fighting equipment from the early 20th century. The Fredericksburg Volunteer Fire Department was begun in 1883 by the Turn Verein organization. 30°16′19″N 98°51′09″W 309–315 W. Main Street The 1849 Kammlah House, designated a recorded Texas Historic Landmark in 1966, marker number 10064, was purchased by the Gillespie County Historical Society from the Kammlah family in 1955; this house was a one-room structure with stone floors and stone hearth, wall plaster over woven twig supports used in interior, enlarged over the years by the Kammlahs, who operated the house as a general store for over 50 years.
A barn and smokehouse are part of the property. The 1880s Walton-Smith Log Cabin is a small log and mortar 300-square-foot cabin with a one-room frame addition, built by John and Nancy Walton, it was rebuilt at its current location in 1985 by Cox Restoration. The Weber Sunday House was built by August Weber in 1904, with no electricity or running water, for the family's weekly 7-mile trips into town; the White Oak School is one-room country schoolhouse which accommodated students in grades one through eight and was built in the 1920s. Teachers were required to speak both English and German, the first teacher A. D. Fischer earned $30 a month. Financial support for the teacher and school was provided by a flat annual fee, plus an additional monthly stipend per student. Donated by Mr. and Mrs. Charles Feller. 30°16′54″N 98°52′44″W Designated a recorded Texas Historic Landmark in 2002, marker number 12975, the house at 102 W. College St was built in 1904 by the maternal grandparents of Lyndon B. Johnson, Joseph Wilson Baines and Ruth Ament Huffman Baines.