England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Rake (stock character)
In a historical context, a rake was a man, habituated to immoral conduct womanising. A rake was prodigal, wasting his fortune on gambling, wine and song, incurring lavish debts in the process. Comparable terms are "libertine" and "debauchee"; the Restoration rake was a carefree, sexually irresistible aristocrat whose heyday was during the English Restoration period at the court of Charles II. They were typified by the "Merry Gang" of courtiers, who included as prominent members the Earl of Rochester. At this time the rake featured as a stock character in Restoration comedy. After the reign of Charles II, after the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the cultural perception of the rake took a dive into squalor; the rake became the butt of moralistic tales, in which his typical fate was debtor's prison, venereal disease, or, in the case of William Hogarth's A Rake's Progress, insanity in Bedlam. The defining period of the rake was at the court of Charles II in the late seventeenth century. Dubbed the "Merry Gang" by poet Andrew Marvell, their members included King Charles himself.
Following the tone set by the monarch himself, these men distinguished themselves in drinking and witty conversation, with the Earl of Rochester outdoing all the rest. Many of them were inveterate brawlers; some were duelists, but not to the approval of King Charles. Highlights of their careers include Sedley and the Earl of Dorset preaching naked to a crowd from an alehouse balcony in Covent Garden, as they simulated sex with each other, the lowlight was Buckingham's killing of Francis Talbot, 11th Earl of Shrewsbury in a duel for the latter's wife. In 1682 Thomas Wharton, 5th Baron Wharton, broke into a church at night and relieved himself against the communion table and in the pulpit. A group of aristocratic rakes were associated with the Hell Fire Club in the eighteenth century; these included John Wilkes. Other rakes include Colonel Charteris. On the whole, rakes may be subdivided into the penitent and persistent ones, the first being reformed by the heroine, the latter pursuing their immoral conduct.
Libertinistic attitudes, such as licentiousness, alcoholism and gaming, can be discerned in characters belonging to the satiric norm as well as to the satiric scene. However, only the degree of wit brings the rakish gentleman, the Truewit, closer to the satiric norm, whereas Falsewits are always exploded in the satiric scene; the motivation of a rake to change his libertinistic ways is either honest. In other words, penitent rakes among the falsewits only abandon their way of life for financial reasons, while penitent truewits so succumb to the charms of the witty heroine and, at least, go through the motions of vowing constancy. Another typology distinguishes between the "polite rake" and the "debauch", using criteria of social class and style. In this case, the young and well-bred male character, who dominates the drawing rooms, is in sharp contrast to a contemptible debauch, who indulges in fornication and hypocrisy. Still other assessments of the libertine concentrate on the kind and intensity of libertinistic demeanour.
Here, the rake falls into any one of three categories: extravagant libertine, vicious libertine, philosophical libertine. The extravagant rake is characterised by anti-normative conduct throughout though he settles down in matrimony. Between 1663 and 1668, examples are Wellbred in James Howard's The English Mounsieur, Philidor in James Howard's All Mistaken, Celadon in Dryden's Secret Love. In the 1690s, Sir Harry Wildair in George Farquhar's The Constant Couple represents this kind of gentlemanly rake; the extravagant rake is as promiscuous and impulsive as he is wild and frivolous, he finds his match in an extravagant and witty heroine. He is, above all, a self-aware character who "is what he wants to be", who delights in those qualities "with which he is endowed", who provides "carnival release". Thus, the extravagant rake is a comic figure, but he is never a comic fool. The vicious rake is invariably presented as a despicable, if wealthy person, who thrives on scheming and intrigue, he is married and abuses his wife.
The philosophical rake, the most attractive libertine figure, is characterised by self-control and refined behaviour as well as by a capacity for manipulating others. His pronounced libertinistic leanings are not supposed to contribute anything to the comic development of the plot. Rather, his libertinism is serious, thus reflecting the philosophical principles of the pleasure-seeking, cynical Court Wits, it is this kind of libertinism that has secured the notoriety of, William Wycherley's The Country Wife, George Etherege's The Man of Mode, Sir Charles Sedley's Bellamira: or, The Mistress. Not only characters like Horner and Dorimant spring to mind but Rodophil and Palamede in Dryden's Marriage-a-la-Mode and Bruce in Shadwell's The Virtuoso and the eponymous heroine in Sedley'
The School for Scandal
The School for Scandal is a play, a comedy, written by Richard Brinsley Sheridan. It was first performed in London at Drury Lane Theatre on 8 May 1777. Scene I: Lady Sneerwell, a wealthy young widow, her hireling Snake discuss her various scandal-spreading plots. Snake asks why she is so involved in the affairs of Sir Peter Teazle, his ward Maria, Charles and Joseph Surface, two young men under Sir Peter's informal guardianship, why she has not yielded to the attentions of Joseph, respectable. Lady Sneerwell confides that Joseph wants Maria, an heiress, that Maria wants Charles, thus she and Joseph are plotting to alienate Maria from Charles by putting out rumours of an affair between Charles and Sir Peter's new young wife, Lady Teazle. Joseph arrives to confer with Lady Sneerwell. Maria herself enters, fleeing the attentions of Sir Benjamin Backbite and his uncle Crabtree. Mrs. Candour enters and talks about how "tale-bearers are as bad as the tale-makers." Soon after that, Sir Benjamin and Crabtree enter, bringing a good deal of gossip with them.
One item is the imminent return of the Surface brothers' rich uncle Sir Oliver from the East Indies, where he has been for sixteen years. Scene II: Sir Peter complains of Lady Teazle's spendthrift ways. Rowley, the former steward of the Surfaces' late father and Sir Peter gives him an earful on the subject, he complains that Maria has refused Joseph, whom he calls "a model for the young men of the age," and seems attached to Charles, whom he denounces as a profligate. Rowley defends Charles, announces that Sir Oliver has just arrived from the East Indies. Scene I: Sir Peter argues with his wife, Lady Teazle, refusing to be "ruined by extravagance." He reminds her of her far humbler country origins. Lady Teazle excuses herself by appealing to "the fashion", departs to visit Lady Sneerwell. Despite their quarrel, Sir Peter still finds himself charmed by his wife when she is arguing with him. Scene II: At Lady Sneerwell's, the scandal-mongers have great fun at the expense of friends not present. Lady Teazle and Maria arrive.
So is Sir Peter, when he arrives, rather breaks up the party with his comments. He departs, the others retire to the next room, Joseph seizes the opportunity to court Maria, who rejects him again. Lady Teazle returns and dismisses Maria, it is revealed that she is flirting with Joseph – who doesn't want her, but cannot afford to alienate her. Scene III: Sir Oliver calls on his old friend Sir Peter, he is amused by Sir Peter's marriage to a young wife. Their talk turns to the Surface brothers. Sir Peter praises Joseph's high morals but Sir Oliver suspects that he might be a hypocrite. Scene I: Rowley describes his plan for Sir Oliver to visit each of the brothers incognito to test their characters. Sir Oliver will disguise himself as their needy relative Mr. Stanley, ask each for his help. Rowley brings in the "friendly Jew" Moses, a moneylender who has tried to help Charles, to explain Charles' position. Moses mentions that he is to introduce Charles to yet another moneylender that evening. Sir Oliver decides that with Moses' assistance, he will pose as Premium when visiting Charles while still intending to visit Joseph as Stanley.
Sir Peter is left alone and when Maria enters, he tries to convince her to marry Joseph expressing him as a worthier match than Charles, whom she favours. When she is not persuaded, he threatens her with "the authority of a guardian", she goes, Lady Teazle enters asking her husband for two hundred pounds. Sir Peter and Lady Teazle argue again, conclude that they should separate. Scene II: Sir Oliver arrives with Moses at Charles' house. While they are waiting in the hall, the servant, tries to negotiate a loan on his own account from Moses. Sir Oliver concludes that "this is the temple of dissipation indeed!" Scene III: Charles and his raucous guests drink and sing merry songs, as they prepare for a night of gambling. Charles raises a toast to Maria. Moses and "Premium" enter, Sir Oliver is dismayed at the scene. Charles does not recognise his long-lost uncle. Charles frankly asks "Premium" for credit. "Premium" discounts this possibility, noting that Sir Oliver could live many years, or disinherit his nephew.
He asks. Charles admits that he has sold the family silver and his late father's library, offers to sell "Premium" the family portrait collection. "Premium" accepts. Scene I: Charles goes on to sell all of the family portraits to "Premium", using the rolled-up family tree as a gavel. However, he refuses to sell the last portrait, of Sir Oliver, out of respect for his benefactor. Moved, Sir Oliver inwardly forgives Charles. Sir Oliver and Moses leave with Rowley entering shortly after, Charles sends a hundred pounds of the proceeds for the relief of "Mr. Stanley", despite Rowley's objection. Scene II: Sir Oliver, reflecting on Charles's character with Moses, is met by Rowley, who has brought him the hundred pounds sent to "Stanley." Declaring "I’ll pay his debts, his benevolence too", Sir Oliver plans to go meet his other nephew in the person of Stanley. Scene III: Joseph, anxiously awaiting a visit from Lady Teazle, is told by a servant that she has just left "her chair at the milliner's next door" and so has the servant draw a screen across the window (his reason: "my opposite neigh
Oliver Goldsmith was an Irish novelist and poet, best known for his novel The Vicar of Wakefield, his pastoral poem The Deserted Village, his plays The Good-Natur'd Man and She Stoops to Conquer. He is thought to have written the classic children's tale The History of Little Goody Two-Shoes. Goldsmith's birth date and year are not known with certainty. According to the Library of Congress authority file, he told a biographer that he was born on 10 November 1728; the location of his birthplace is uncertain. He was born either in the townland of Pallas, near Ballymahon, County Longford, where his father was the Anglican curate of the parish of Forgney, or at the residence of his maternal grandparents, at the Smith Hill House near Elphin in County Roscommon, where his grandfather Oliver Jones was a clergyman and master of the Elphin diocesan school, where Oliver studied; when Goldsmith was two years old, his father was appointed the rector of the parish of "Kilkenny West" in County Westmeath. The family moved to the parsonage at Lissoy, between Athlone and Ballymahon, continued to live there until his father's death in 1747.
In 1744 Goldsmith went up to Dublin. His tutor was Theaker Wilder. Neglecting his studies in theology and law, he fell to the bottom of his class. In 1747, along with four other undergraduates, he was expelled for a riot in which they attempted to storm the Marshalsea Prison, he was graduated in 1749 as a Bachelor of Arts, but without the discipline or distinction that might have gained him entry to a profession in the church or the law. He lived for a short time with his mother, tried various professions without success, studied medicine desultorily at the University of Edinburgh from 1752 to 1755, set out on a walking tour of Flanders, France and Northern Italy, living by his wits, he settled in London in 1756, where he held various jobs, including an apothecary's assistant and an usher of a school. Perennially in debt and addicted to gambling, Goldsmith produced a massive output as a hack writer on Grub Street for the publishers of London, but his few painstaking works earned him the company of Samuel Johnson, with whom he was a founding member of "The Club".
There, through fellow Club member Edmund Burke, he made the acquaintance of Sir George Savile, who would arrange a job for him at Thornhill Grammar School. The combination of his literary work and his dissolute lifestyle led Horace Walpole to give him the epithet "inspired idiot". During this period he used the pseudonym "James Willington" to publish his 1758 translation of the autobiography of the Huguenot Jean Marteilhe. In his ‘Life’, Washington Irving states that Goldsmith was between 5'4" and 5'6" in height, not built but quite muscular and with rather plain features. In character he had a lively sense of fun, was guileless, never happier than when in the light-hearted company of children; the money that he sporadically earned was frittered away or given away to the next good cause that presented itself so that any financial security tended to be fleeting and short-lived. Goldsmith's talents were unreservedly recognised by Samuel Johnson, whose patronage – somewhat resented by Boswell – aided his eventual recognition in the literary world and the world of drama.
Goldsmith was described by contemporaries as prone to envy, a congenial but impetuous and disorganised personality who once planned to emigrate to America but failed because he missed his ship. At some point around this time he worked at Thornhill Grammar School basing Squire Thornhill on his benefactor Sir George Savile and spending time with eminent scientist Rev. John Mitchell, whom he knew from London. Mitchell sorely missed good company, which Goldsmith provided in spades. Thomas De Quincey wrote of him "All the motion of Goldsmith's nature moved in the direction of the true, the natural, the sweet, the gentle", his premature death in 1774 may have been due to his own misdiagnosis of his kidney infection. Goldsmith was buried in Temple Church in London; the inscription reads. A monument was raised to him at the site of his burial, but this was destroyed in an air raid in 1941. A monument to him survives in the centre of Ballymahon in Westminster Abbey with an epitaph written by Samuel Johnson.
Among his papers was found the prospectus of an encyclopedia, to be called the Universal dictionary of the arts and sciences. He wished this to be the British equivalent of the Encyclopédie and it was to include comprehensive articles by Samuel Johnson, Edmund Burke, Adam Smith, Edward Gibbon, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Sir William Jones, Fox and Dr. Burney; the project, was not realized due to Goldsmith's death. See The Vicar of Wakefield, The Good-Natur'd Man, The Traveller, She Stoops to Conquer. In 1760 Goldsmith began to publish a series of letters in the Public Ledger under the title The Citizen of the World. Purportedly written by a Chinese traveller in England by the name of Lien Chi, they used this fictional outsider's perspective to comment and at times moralistically on British society and manners, it was inspired by the earlier essay series Persian Letters by Montesquieu. Goldsmith wrote this romantic ballad of 160 lines in 1765; the hero and heroine are Edwin, a youth without wealth or power, Angelina, the daughter of a lord "beside the Tyne".
Angelina spurns many wooers, but refuses to
In a modern sense, comedy refers to any discourse or work intended to be humorous or amusing by inducing laughter in theatre, film, stand-up comedy, or any other medium of entertainment. The origins of the term are found in Ancient Greece. In the Athenian democracy, the public opinion of voters was influenced by the political satire performed by the comic poets at the theaters; the theatrical genre of Greek comedy can be described as a dramatic performance which pits two groups or societies against each other in an amusing agon or conflict. Northrop Frye depicted these two opposing sides as a "Society of Youth" and a "Society of the Old." A revised view characterizes the essential agon of comedy as a struggle between a powerless youth and the societal conventions that pose obstacles to his hopes. In this struggle, the youth is understood to be constrained by his lack of social authority, is left with little choice but to take recourse in ruses which engender dramatic irony which provokes laughter.
Satire and political satire use comedy to portray persons or social institutions as ridiculous or corrupt, thus alienating their audience from the object of their humor. Parody subverts popular genres and forms, critiquing those forms without condemning them. Other forms of comedy include screwball comedy, which derives its humor from bizarre, surprising situations or characters, black comedy, characterized by a form of humor that includes darker aspects of human behavior or human nature. Scatological humor, sexual humor, race humor create comedy by violating social conventions or taboos in comic ways. A comedy of manners takes as its subject a particular part of society and uses humor to parody or satirize the behavior and mannerisms of its members. Romantic comedy is a popular genre that depicts burgeoning romance in humorous terms and focuses on the foibles of those who are falling in love; the word "comedy" is derived from the Classical Greek κωμῳδία kōmōidía, a compound either of κῶμος kômos or κώμη kṓmē and ᾠδή ōidḗ.
The adjective "comic", which means that which relates to comedy is, in modern usage confined to the sense of "laughter-provoking". Of this, the word came into modern usage through the Latin comoedia and Italian commedia and has, over time, passed through various shades of meaning; the Greeks and Romans confined their use of the word "comedy" to descriptions of stage-plays with happy endings. Aristotle defined comedy as an imitation of men worse than the average. However, the characters portrayed in comedies were not worse than average in every way, only insofar as they are Ridiculous, a species of the Ugly; the Ridiculous may be defined as a deformity not productive of pain or harm to others. In the Middle Ages, the term expanded to include narrative poems with happy endings, it is in this sense that Dante used the term in the title of La Commedia. As time progressed, the word came more and more to be associated with any sort of performance intended to cause laughter. During the Middle Ages, the term "comedy" became synonymous with satire, with humour in general.
Aristotle's Poetics was translated into Arabic in the medieval Islamic world, where it was elaborated upon by Arabic writers and Islamic philosophers, such as Abu Bischr, his pupils Al-Farabi and Averroes. They disassociated comedy from Greek dramatic representation and instead identified it with Arabic poetic themes and forms, such as hija, they viewed comedy as the "art of reprehension", made no reference to light and cheerful events, or to the troubling beginnings and happy endings associated with classical Greek comedy. After the Latin translations of the 12th century, the term "comedy" gained a more general meaning in medieval literature. In the late 20th century, many scholars preferred to use the term laughter to refer to the whole gamut of the comic, in order to avoid the use of ambiguous and problematically defined genres such as the grotesque and satire. Starting from 425 BCE, Aristophanes, a comic playwright and satirical author of the Ancient Greek Theater, wrote 40 comedies, 11 of which survive.
Aristophanes developed his type of comedy from the earlier satyr plays, which were highly obscene. The only surviving examples of the satyr plays are by Euripides, which are much examples and not representative of the genre. In ancient Greece, comedy originated in bawdy and ribald songs or recitations apropos of phallic processions and fertility festivals or gatherings. Around 335 BCE, Aristotle, in his work Poetics, stated that comedy originated in phallic processions and the light treatment of the otherwise base and ugly, he adds that the origins of comedy are obscure because it was not treated from its inception. However, comedy had its own Muse: Thalia. Aristotle taught that comedy was positive for society, since it brings forth happiness, which for Aristotle was the ideal state, the final goal in any activity. For Aristotle, a comedy did not need to involve sexual humor. A comedy is about the fortunate rise of a sympathetic character. Aristotle divides comedy into three categories or subgenres: farce, romantic comedy, satire.
On the contrary, Plato taught. He believed that it produces an emotion that overrides ra
My Fair Lady
My Fair Lady is a musical based on George Bernard Shaw's Pygmalion, with book and lyrics by Alan Jay Lerner and music by Frederick Loewe. The story concerns Eliza Doolittle, a Cockney flower girl who takes speech lessons from professor Henry Higgins, a phoneticist, so that she may pass as a lady; the original Broadway and London shows starred Julie Andrews. The musical's 1956 Broadway production was a notable popular success, it set a record for the longest run of any show on Broadway up to that time. It was followed by a hit London production, a popular film version, many revivals. My Fair Lady has been called "the perfect musical". Act IIt is the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden; the protagonist, Eliza Doolittle, is a Cockney with a unintelligible accent. Professor Henry Higgins invites Colonel Pickering to stay as his houseguest. Soon after, Eliza Doolittle comes to Professor Higgins's house. Professor Higgins wagers Colonel Pickering, that in six months he will turn Eliza into a lady by teaching her to speak properly.
Eliza is indentured into the Higgins household as a resident elocution student. After some weeks, Eliza is introduced to Freddy Eynsford-Hill. Freddy falls in love. Eliza's accent is now refined, she is now being educated on how to function as a debutante in high society. Eliza's final test requires her to pass as a lady at the Embassy Ball. After more weeks of preparation, she is ready. All the ladies and gentlemen at the ball admire her, the Queen of Transylvania invites her to dance with the prince. For his part, the Hungarian linguist Zoltan Karpathy declares her to be a fellow Hungarian - deducting that the English she speaks is not her mother language and that she had been instructed in removing any trace of her native accent. Act IIThe ball was a success. Colonel Pickering and Professor Higgins revel in their triumph, failing to pay attention to Eliza until Higgins asks Eliza to fetch his slippers. Eliza is insulted packs up and leaves the Higgins house, she hadn't been given any credit for all the effort.
Higgins awakens the next morning. He finds without Eliza, he is served tea instead of coffee, cannot find his files. Colonel Pickering notices the Professor's lack of consideration. Pickering finds another host, leaves the Higgins house. Professor Higgins visits his mother. To his surprise, Eliza has been staying with Mother Higgins. Mother Higgins scolds Henry, enjoins him to apologize to Eliza. Eliza accuses him of wanting her only to fetch and carry for him, saying that she will marry Freddy because he loves her, she declares. Higgins realizes his heart is broken, cannot do anything about it, he reaches the Higgins house. Sentimentally, he reviews the recording, he hears his own harsh words: "She's so deliciously low! So horribly dirty!" The phonograph turns off, a real voice speaks in a Cockney accent: "I washed me face an"ands before I come, I did". It is Eliza, standing in the doorway. In suppressed joy at their reunion, Professor Higgins scoffs and asks, "Eliza, where the devil are my slippers?"
The original cast of the Broadway stage production: Eliza Doolittle, a young Cockney flowerseller – Julie Andrews Henry Higgins, a professor of phonetics – Rex Harrison Alfred P. Doolittle, Eliza's father, a dustman – Stanley Holloway Colonel Hugh Pickering, Henry Higgins's friend and fellow phoneticist – Robert Coote Mrs. Higgins, Henry's socialite mother – Cathleen Nesbitt Freddy Eynsford-Hill, a young socialite and Eliza's suitor – John Michael King Mrs. Pearce, Higgins's housekeeper – Philippa Bevans Zoltan Karpathy, Henry Higgins's former student and rival – Christopher Hewett In the mid-1930s, film producer Gabriel Pascal acquired the rights to produce film versions of several of George Bernard Shaw's plays, Pygmalion among them. However, having had a bad experience with The Chocolate Soldier, a Viennese operetta based on his play Arms and the Man, refused permission for Pygmalion to be adapted into a musical. After Shaw died in 1950, Pascal asked lyricist Alan Jay Lerner to write the musical adaptation.
Lerner agreed, he and his partner Frederick Loewe began work. But they realised that the play violated several key rules for constructing a musical: the main story was not a love story, there was no subplot or secondary love story, there was no place for an ensemble. Many people, including Oscar Hammerstein II, with Richard Rodgers, had tried his hand at adapting Pygmalion into a musical and had given up, told Lerner that converting the play to a musical was impossible, so he and Loewe abandoned the project for two years. During this time, the collaborators separated and Gabriel Pascal died. Lerner had been trying to musicalize Li'l Abner when he read Pascal's obituary and found himself thinking about Pygmalion again; when he and Loewe reunited, everything fell into place. All of the insurmountable obstacles that had stood in their way two years earlier disappeared when the team realised that the play needed few changes apart from "adding the action that took place between the acts of the play".
They excitedly began writing the show. However, Chase Manhattan Bank was in charge of Pascal's estate, the musical rights to Pygmalion were sought both by Lerner and Loewe and by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, whose executives called Lerner to discourage him from challenging the studio. Loewe said, "We will write the show without the rights, when the time comes for them to decide, to get them, we will be so far ahead of everyone else that they will be forced to give them to us." Fo
Richard Brinsley Sheridan
Richard Brinsley Butler Sheridan was an Irish satirist, a playwright and long-term owner of the London Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. He is known for his plays such as The Rivals, The School for Scandal, The Duenna, A Trip to Scarborough, he was a Whig MP for 32 years in the British House of Commons for Stafford and Ilchester. He is buried at Poets' Corner in Westminster Abbey, his plays remain a central part of the canon and are performed worldwide. RB Sheridan was born in 1751 in Dublin, where his family had a house on fashionable Dorset Street. While in Dublin Sheridan attended the English Grammar School in Grafton Street; the family moved permanently to England in 1758. He was a pupil at Harrow School from 1762 to 1768, his mother, Frances Sheridan, was a novelist. She had two plays produced in London in the early 1760s, though she is best known for her novel The Memoirs of Miss Sidney Biddulph, his father, Thomas Sheridan, was for a while an actor-manager at the Smock Alley Theatre in Dublin, but following his move to England in 1758 he gave up acting and wrote several books on the subject of education, the standardisation of the English language in education.
After Sheridan's period in Harrow School, his father employed a private tutor, Lewis Ker, who directed his studies in his father's house in London, while Angelo instructed him in fencing and horsemanship. In 1772 Sheridan fought two duels with Captain Thomas Mathews, who had written a newspaper article defaming the character of Elizabeth Ann Linley, the woman Sheridan intended to marry. In the first duel, they agreed to fight in Hyde Park, but finding it too crowded they went first to the Hercules Pillars tavern and on to the Castle Tavern in Henrietta Street, Covent Garden. Far from its romantic image, the duel was bloodless. Mathews lost his sword and, according to Sheridan, was forced to "beg for his life" and sign a retraction of the article; the apology was made public and Mathews, infuriated by the publicity the duel had received, refused to accept his defeat as final and challenged Sheridan to another duel. Sheridan was not obliged to accept this challenge, but could have become a social pariah if he had not.
The second duel, fought in July 1772 at Kingsdown near Bath, was a much more ferocious affair. This time both men broke their swords but carried on fighting in a "desperate struggle for life and honour". Both were wounded, Sheridan dangerously, being "borne from the field with a portion of his antagonist's weapon sticking through an ear, his breast-bone touched, his whole body covered with wounds and blood, his face nearly beaten to jelly with the hilt of Mathews' sword", his remarkable constitution pulled him through, eight days after this bloody affair the Bath Chronicle was able to announce that he was out of danger. Mathews escaped in a post chaise. In the same year, 1772, Richard Sheridan, at the age of 21, eloped with and subsequently married Elizabeth Ann Linley and set up house in London on a lavish scale with little money and no immediate prospects of any—other than his wife's dowry; the young couple entered the fashionable world and held up their end in entertaining. In 1775 Sheridan's first play, The Rivals, was produced at London's Covent Garden Theatre.
It was a failure on its first night. Sheridan cast a more capable actor in the lead for its second performance, it was a huge success which established the young playwright's reputation and the favour of fashionable London, it has gone on to become a standard of English literature. Shortly after the success of The Rivals and his father-in-law Thomas Linley the Elder, a successful composer, produced the opera, The Duenna; this piece was accorded such a warm reception. His most famous play The School for Scandal is considered one of the greatest comedies of manners in English, it was followed by The Critic, an updating of the satirical Restoration play The Rehearsal. Having made his name and fortune, in 1776 Sheridan bought David Garrick's share in the Drury Lane patent, in 1778 the remaining share. In 1778 Sheridan wrote The Camp, which commented on the ongoing threat of a French invasion of Britain; the same year Sheridan's brother-in-law Thomas Linley, a young composer who worked with him at Drury Lane Theatre, died in a boating accident.
Sheridan had a rivalry with his fellow playwright Richard Cumberland and included a parody of Cumberland in his play The Critic. On 24 February 1809 the theatre burned down. On being encountered drinking a glass of wine in the street while watching the fire, Sheridan was famously reported to have said, "A man may be allowed to take a glass of wine by his own fireside." Sheridan was the manager of the theatre for many years, became sole owner with no managerial role. In 1780, Sheridan entered Parliament as the ally of Charles James Fox on the side of the American Colonials in the political debate of that year, he is said to have paid the burgesses of Stafford five guineas apiece to allow him to represent them. As a consequence, his first speech in Parliament was a defence against the charge of bribery. In 1787 Sheridan demanded the impeachment of the first Governor-General of India, his speech in the House of Commons was described by Edmund Burke, Charles James Fox and William Pitt as the greatest delivered in ancient or modern times.
In 1793 during the debates on the Aliens Act designed to preven