A comic book or comicbook called comic magazine or comic, is a publication that consists of comics art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panels that represent individual scenes. Panels are accompanied by descriptive prose and written narrative dialog contained in word balloons emblematic of the comics art form. Although comics has some origins in 18th century Japan, comic books were first popularized in the United States and the United Kingdom during the 1930s; the first modern comic book, Famous Funnies, was released in the U. S. in 1933 and was a reprinting of earlier newspaper humor comic strips, which had established many of the story-telling devices used in comics. The term comic book derives from American comic books once being a compilation of comic strips of a humorous tone; the largest comic book market is Japan. By 1995, the manga market in Japan was valued at ¥586.4 billion, with annual sales of 1.9 billion manga books/magazines in Japan. The comic book market in the United States and Canada was valued at $1.09 billion in 2016.
As of 2017, the largest comic book publisher in the United States is manga distributor Viz Media, followed by DC Comics and Marvel Comics. Another major comic book market is France, where Franco-Belgian comics and Japanese manga each represent 40% of the market, followed by American comics at 10% market share. Comic books are reliant on their appearance. Authors focus on the frame of the page, size and panel positions; these characteristic aspects of comic books are necessary in conveying the content and messages of the author. The key elements of comic books include panels, balloons and characters. Balloons are convex spatial containers of information that are related to a character using a tail element; the tail has an origin, path and pointed direction. Key tasks in the creation of comic books are writing and coloring. There are many technological formulas used to create comic books, including directions, axes and metrics. Following these key formatting procedures is the writing and coloring.
Comics as a print medium have existed in America since the printing of The Adventures of Mr. Obadiah Oldbuck in 1842 in hardcover, making it the first known American prototype comic book. Proto-comics periodicals began appearing early in the 20th century, with the first comic standard-sized comic being Funnies on Parade. Funnies on Parades was the first book that established the size and format of the modern comic book. Following this was, Dell Publishing's 36-page Famous Funnies: A Carnival of Comics as the first true newstand American comic book; the introduction of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster's Superman in 1938 turned comic books into a major industry and ushered the Golden Age of Comics. The Golden Age originated the archetype of the superhero. According to historian Michael A. Amundson, appealing comic-book characters helped ease young readers' fear of nuclear war and neutralize anxiety about the questions posed by atomic power. Historians divide the timeline of the American comic book into eras.
The Golden Age of Comic Books began in the 1930s. The Silver Age of comic books is considered to date from the first successful revival of the then-dormant superhero form, with the debut of the Flash in Showcase #4; the Silver Age lasted through the late 1960s or early 1970s, during which time Marvel Comics revolutionized the medium with such naturalistic superheroes as Stan Lee and Jack Kirby's Fantastic Four and Lee and Steve Ditko's Spider-Man. The demarcation between the Silver Age and the following era, the Bronze Age of Comic Books, is less well-defined, with the Bronze Age running from the early 1970s through the mid-1980s; the Modern Age of Comic Books runs from the mid-1980s to the present day. A notable event in the history of the American comic book came with psychiatrist Fredric Wertham's criticisms of the medium in his book Seduction of the Innocent, which prompted the American Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency to investigate comic books. Wertham claimed that comic books were responsible for an increase in juvenile delinquency, as well as potential influence on a child's sexuality and morals.
In response to attention from the government and from the media, the U. S. comic book industry set up the Comics Magazine Association of America. The CMAA instilled the Comics Code Authority in 1954 and drafted the self-censorship Comics Code that year, which required all comic books to go through a process of approval, it was not until the 1970s that comic books could be published without passing through the inspection of the CMAA. The Code was made formally defunct in November 2011. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, a surge of creativity emerged in what became known as underground comics. Published and distributed independently of the established comics industry, most of such comics reflected the youth counterculture and drug culture of the time. Underground comix "reflected and commented on the social divisions and tensions of American society". Many had an uninhibited irreverent style. Underground comics were never sold at newsstands, but rather in such youth-oriented outlets as head shops and record stores, as well as by mail order.
Chroniosuchia is a group of tetrapods that lived from the Middle Permian to Late Triassic in what is now Eastern Europe, Kyrgyzstan and Germany. Chroniosuchians are thought to be reptiliomorphs, but some recent phylogenetic analyses suggest instead that they are stem-tetrapods, they were all rather short limbed with a strong tail and elongated snout, somewhat resembling modern crocodiles. The group is traditionally considered to be a order of labyrinthodonts. Chroniosuchians had ecological niches as riverside predators, may have been outcompeted by semiaquatic true reptiles such as phytosaurs in the late Triassic. Most forms bore a heavy armour of scutes along the back for protection against land born predators like therapsids, or to strengthen the axial skeleton for terrestrial locomotion. Indeed, femoral microanatomy of Chroniosaurus suggests; the most distinguishing features of chroniosuchians are the rows of interlocking bony plates called osteoderms that run along their backs from head to tail.
They are the most found remains of chroniosuchians. Each osteoderm is paired with a single vertebra; the osteoderms are flat plates connected to the neural arches of vertebra by an extension of bone on their undersurfaces. The front margin of each osteoderm has a pair of "anterior wings" that slip into a notch in the posterior margin of the osteoderm in front of it. Chroniosuchians are distinguished from other early reptiliomorphs by the lack of intertemporal bones in the skull, as well as the presence of holes in front of the eye sockets called antorbital fenestrae. Like many early tetrapods, chroniosuchians have vertebrae that are divided into three parts: a pleurocentrum and an intercentrum on the bottom, a neural arch on top. Chroniosuchians have shizomerous vertebrae, meaning that the pleurocentrum makes up most of the body of the vertebra while the intercentrum is small and wedge-like. Reptiliomorpha Order Chroniosuchia Family Bystrowianidae Axitectum Bystrowiana Bystrowiella Dromotectum Hassiacoscutum Jiyuanitectum Synesuchus Family Chroniosuchidae Chroniosaurus Chroniosuchus Ingentidens Jarilinus Madygenerpeton Phratochronis Uralerpeton Suchonica Family'Incertae sedis Laosuchus Below is the cladogram showing the preferred phylogeny of Buchwitz et al.: Permian tetrapods at Paleos
Vehicle registration plates of Georgia are composed of an embossed serial of two letters, a hyphen, three numbers, a hyphen, two letters, in black on a white background with a blue vertical strip on the left. The plates are issued in the Latin alphabet. Georgian registration plates are the same size as the most common European registration plate. All plates have the abbreviation "GE" in the lower left corner of the plate and the national flag in the upper left corner; this set of new style registration plates have been in use since 1 September 2014. A new, European-style of registration plate was introduced on 1 September 2014; these have sets of two letters last, with three numerals in the middle. A blue strip on the left contains the Georgian flag and a "GE", there is a small security hologram on the bottom right; as additional security features, the plates have a watermark-like symbol of the LEPL Service Agency of MIA of Georgia and a machine-readable data matrix code near the hologram. The old style plates with three letters, a hyphen and three numbers, in black on a white background, will remain valid until 2020 at least.
To accommodate owners of imported American or Japanese vehicles, a more square styled plate is available. The first letter of the old registration plate was assigned according to the territory where the vehicle was registered: A - Tbilisi B - Adjara C - Abkhazia D - Kutaisi E - Rustavi F - Zugdidi N - Akhaltsikhe O - Gori P - Mtskheta R - Telavi S - BolnisiOnce the system was exhausted, it was removed. Anyone may buy the combination; some commercial organizations have bought up all the number sequences of the old registration plates within one tri-letter combination. Ambulances had plates in the PSP series, after the pharmaceutical company sponsoring them, fire engines have plates in the SOS series. Embassy and consulate vehicles have their own registration plate with white characters and white numbers on a red background. Numbers on embassy plates are formatted so that the first two digits represent the foreign entity/organization the vehicle is registered, followed by a CMD, D or AS; the last three digits are sequential.
For a list of foreign entity/organization and their first digits, see below: The self-proclaimed republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia issue their own registration plates: Russian-style plates in Abkhazia and Soviet-style plates in South Ossetia. Since 2004 these registration plates are forbidden to be used on the territory controlled by the government of Georgia, thus most cars that cross the boundaries of the unrecognised republics have to use Russian registration plates. As of 2011, military police patrol vehicle plates were black with white letters, with a narrow yellow strip on the left containing the letters "GA" above each other; the code was two Latin letters with a safety hologram separating them. Dimensions are 550 mm by 110 mm. Regular military license plates receive a green strip on the left. Vehicle registration rules