The Perks of Being a Wallflower
The Perks of Being a Wallflower is a coming-of-age epistolary novel by American writer Stephen Chbosky, first published on February 1, 1999, by Pocket Books. Set in the early 1990s, the novel follows Charlie, an introverted teenager, through his freshman year of high school in a Pittsburgh suburb; the novel details Charlie’s unconventional style of thinking as he navigates between the worlds of adolescence and adulthood, attempts to deal with poignant questions spurred by his interactions with both his friends and family. Chbosky took five years to develop and publish The Perks of Being a Wallflower, creating the characters and other aspects of the story from his own memories; the novel addresses themes permeating adolescence, including introversion, drug use, mental health, while making several references to other literary works and pop culture in general. Because of the mentioned themes, it was banned in some American schools for its content. In 2012, Chbosky himself adapted and directed a film version starring Logan Lerman, Emma Watson and Ezra Miller.
The film boosted the novel's sales, the book reached The New York Times Best Seller list. Charlie, the 15-year-old protagonist, begins writing letters about his own life to an unknown recipient. In these letters he discusses his first year at high school and his struggles with two traumatic experiences: the suicide of his only middle-school friend, Michael Dobson, the death of his favorite aunt, Helen, his English teacher, who encourages Charlie to call him Bill, notices Charlie's passion for reading and writing, acts as a mentor by assigning him extracurricular books and reports. Although he is a wallflower Charlie is befriended by two seniors: Sam. Patrick is secretly dating Brad, a football player, Sam is Patrick's stepsister. Charlie develops a crush on Sam and subsequently admits his feelings to her, it is revealed that Sam was sexually abused as a child, she kisses Charlie to ensure that his first kiss is from someone who loves him. In parallel, Charlie witnesses his sister's boyfriend hit her across the face, but she forbids him from telling their parents.
He mentions the occurrence to Bill, who tells Charlie's parents about it. Charlie's relationship with his sister deteriorates and she continues to see her boyfriend against her parents' wishes, he discovers that his sister is pregnant and agrees to bring her to an abortion clinic without telling anyone. His sister breaks up with her boyfriend, after which her and Charlie's relationship begins to improve significantly. Charlie is accepted by Sam and Patrick's group of friends and begins experimenting with tobacco and other drugs. At a party Charlie trips on LSD, he cannot control his flashbacks of Aunt Helen, who died in a car crash on her way to buy him a birthday gift. He ends up in the hospital after falling asleep in the snow. At a Rocky Horror Picture Show performance, Charlie is asked to fill in as Rocky for Sam's boyfriend Craig, unavailable, their friend Mary Elizabeth is impressed and asks Charlie to the Sadie Hawkins dance and they enter into a desultory relationship. The relationship ends, during a game of truth or dare when Charlie is dared to kiss the prettiest girl in the room.
He kisses Sam, Mary Elizabeth storms out of the room in response. Following this, Patrick suggests that Charlie stay away from Sam for a while, the rest of the friend group shuns him, his flashbacks of Aunt Helen return. Patrick and Brad's relationship is discovered by Brad's abusive father, Brad disappears from school for a few days. Upon returning, Brad mean toward Patrick, while Patrick attempts to reconnect with him. However, when Brad derogatorily attacks Patrick's sexuality in public, Patrick physically attacks Brad until other football players join in and gang up on Patrick. Charlie joins in the fight to help Patrick, breaks it up, regaining the respect of Sam and her friends. Patrick begins spending much of his time with Charlie and Patrick kisses Charlie impulsively and apologizes, but Charlie understands that he is recovering from his romance with Brad. Soon Patrick sees Brad engaging with a stranger in the park and Patrick is able to move on from the relationship; as the school year ends, Charlie is anxious about losing his older friends—especially Sam, leaving for a summer college-preparatory program and has learned that her boyfriend cheated on her.
When Charlie helps her pack, they talk about his feelings for her. They begin to engage sexually, but Charlie grows inexplicably uncomfortable and stops Sam. Charlie begins to realize that his sexual contact with Sam has stirred up repressed memories of him being molested by his Aunt Helen as a little boy. Charlie shows signs of PTSD from the incident and the revelation of his abuse helps the reader understand his view of relationships and love. In an epilogue, Charlie is discovered by his parents in a catatonic state and does not show any movement despite being hit reluctantly by his father. After being admitted to a mental hospital, it is revealed that Helen sexually abused him when he was young; as is far too the case with early childhood trauma, Charlie's young mind tried to protect him from his abuse, causing him to repress his traumatic memories. This psychological damage explains his derealization phases throughout the book. In two months Charlie is released, Sam and Patrick visit him. In the epilogue, Sam and Charlie go through the tunnel again and Charlie stands up and exclaims that he feels infinite.
Charlie comes to terms with his past: "Even if we don't have the power to choose where we come from, we can still choose where we go from ther
Stephen Edwin King is an American author of horror, supernatural fiction, science fiction, fantasy. His books have sold more than 350 million copies, many of which have been adapted into feature films, television series, comic books. King has published six non-fiction books, he has written 200 short stories, most of which have been published in book collections. King has received Bram Stoker Awards, World Fantasy Awards, British Fantasy Society Awards. In 2003, the National Book Foundation awarded him the Medal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters, he has received awards for his contribution to literature for his entire oeuvre, such as the World Fantasy Award for Life Achievement, the Grand Master Award from the Mystery Writers of America. In 2015, King was awarded with a National Medal of Arts from the United States National Endowment for the Arts for his contributions to literature, he has been described as the "King of Horror". King was born September 1947, in Portland, Maine, his father, Donald Edwin King, was a merchant seaman.
Donald was born under the surname Pollock, but as an adult, used the surname King. King's mother was Nellie Ruth; when Stephen King was two years old, his father left the family. King's mother raised Stephen and his older brother, David, by herself, sometimes under great financial strain; the family moved to De Pere, Fort Wayne and Stratford, Connecticut. When King was 11, his family returned to Durham, where his mother cared for her parents until their deaths, she became a caregiver in a local residential facility for the mentally challenged. King lost his belief in organized religion while in high school. While no longer religious, King chooses to believe in the existence of God; as a child, King witnessed one of his friends being struck and killed by a train, though he has no memory of the event. His family told him that after leaving home to play with the boy, King returned, speechless and in shock. Only did the family learn of the friend's death; some commentators have suggested that this event may have psychologically inspired some of King's darker works, but King makes no mention of it in his memoir On Writing.
King related in detail his primary inspiration for writing horror fiction in his non-fiction Danse Macabre, in a chapter titled "An Annoying Autobiographical Pause." King compares his uncle's dowsing for water using the bough of an apple branch with the sudden realization of what he wanted to do for a living. That inspiration occurred while browsing through an attic with his elder brother, when King uncovered a paperback version of an H. P. Lovecraft collection of short stories he remembers as The Lurker in the Shadows, that had belonged to his father. King told Barnes & Noble Studios during a 2009 interview, "I knew that I'd found home when I read that book."King attended Durham Elementary School and graduated from Lisbon Falls High School, in Lisbon Falls, Maine. He displayed an early interest in horror as an avid reader of EC's horror comics, including Tales from the Crypt, he began writing for fun while still in school, contributing articles to Dave's Rag, the newspaper his brother published with a mimeograph machine, began selling to his friends stories based on movies he had seen.
The first of his stories to be independently published was "I Was a Teenage Grave Robber". That story was published the following year in a revised form as "In a Half-World of Terror" in another fanzine, Stories of Suspense, edited by Marv Wolfman; as a teen, King won a Scholastic Art and Writing Award. From 1966, King studied at the University of Maine, graduating in 1970 with a Bachelor of Arts in English; that year, his daughter Naomi Rachel was born. He wrote a column, Steve King's Garbage Truck, for the student newspaper, The Maine Campus, participated in a writing workshop organized by Burton Hatlen. King held a variety of jobs to pay for his studies, including janitor, gas pump attendant, worker at an industrial laundry. King met his future wife, fellow student Tabitha Spruce, at the University's Fogler Library after one of Professor Hatlen's workshops. King sold his first professional short story, "The Glass Floor," to Startling Mystery Stories in 1967. After graduating from the University of Maine, King earned a certificate to teach high school but, unable to find a teaching post initially supplemented his laboring wage by selling short stories to men's magazines such as Cavalier.
Many of these early stories have been republished in the collection Night Shift. The short story The Raft was published in a men's magazine. After being arrested for driving over a traffic cone, he was fined $250 and had no money to pay the petty larceny fine. However, payment arrived for the short story The Raft, King was able to pay the fine. In 1971, King was hired as a teacher at Hampden Academy in Maine, he worked on ideas for novels. In 1973, King's novel Carrie was accepted by publishing house Doubleday. Carrie was King's fourth novel, it was written on a portable typewriter. The novel began as a short story intended for Cavalier magazine, but King tossed the first three pages of his work in the garbage can. Tabith
J. D. Salinger
Jerome David Salinger was an American writer known for his read novel, The Catcher in the Rye. Following his early success publishing short stories and The Catcher in the Rye, Salinger led a private life for more than a half-century, he published his final work in 1965, gave his last interview in 1980. Salinger began writing short stories while in secondary school. Several were published in Story magazine in the early 1940s before he began serving in World War II. In 1948, his critically acclaimed story "A Perfect Day for Bananafish" appeared in The New Yorker magazine, which became home to much of his work; the Catcher in the Rye became an immediate popular success. His depiction of adolescent alienation and loss of innocence in the protagonist Holden Caulfield was influential among adolescent readers; the novel remains read and controversial, selling around 250,000 copies a year. The success of The Catcher in the Rye led to public scrutiny. Salinger became reclusive, he followed Catcher with Nine Stories.
His last published work, a novella entitled "Hapworth 16, 1924", appeared in The New Yorker on June 19, 1965. Afterward, Salinger struggled with unwanted attention, including a legal battle in the 1980s with biographer Ian Hamilton and the release in the late 1990s of memoirs written by two people close to him: Joyce Maynard, an ex-lover. In 1996, a small publisher announced a deal with Salinger to publish "Hapworth 16, 1924" in book form, but amid the ensuing publicity the release was indefinitely delayed, he made headlines around the globe in June 2009 when he filed a lawsuit against another writer for copyright infringement resulting from that writer's use of one of the characters from The Catcher in the Rye. Salinger died of natural causes on January 2010, at his home in Cornish, New Hampshire. In November 2013, three unpublished stories by Salinger were posted online. One of the stories, "The Ocean Full of Bowling Balls", is said to be a prequel to The Catcher in the Rye. Jerome David Salinger was born in Manhattan, New York on January 1, 1919.
His father, Sol Salinger, sold kosher cheese, was from a Jewish family of Lithuanian descent, his own father having been the rabbi for the Adath Jeshurun Congregation in Louisville, Kentucky. Salinger's mother, was born in Atlantic, Iowa, of German and Scottish descent, but changed her name to Miriam and considered herself Jewish after marrying Salinger's father. Salinger did not learn that his mother was not of Jewish ancestry until just after he celebrated his bar mitzvah, he had an older sister, Doris. In his youth, Salinger attended public schools on the West Side of Manhattan. In 1932, the family moved to Park Avenue, Salinger was enrolled at the McBurney School, a nearby private school. Salinger had trouble fitting in at his new school and took measures to conform, such as calling himself Jerry, his family called him Sonny. At McBurney, he wrote for the school newspaper and appeared in plays, he "showed an innate talent for drama". His parents enrolled him at Valley Forge Military Academy in Wayne, Pennsylvania.
Salinger began writing stories "under the covers, with the aid of a flashlight". Salinger was the literary editor of Crossed Sabres, he participated in the Glee Club, Aviation Club, French Club, the Non-Commissioned Officers Club. Salinger's Valley Forge 201 file reveals that he was a "mediocre" student, unlike the overachievement enjoyed by members of the Glass family about whom he wrote, his recorded IQ between 111 and 115 was above average, he graduated in 1936. Salinger started his freshman year at New York University in 1936, he dropped out the following spring. That fall, his father urged him to learn about the meat-importing business, he went to work at a company in the Austrian city of Vienna and the Polish city of Bydgoszcz. Salinger went willingly, but he was so disgusted by the slaughterhouses that he decided to embark on a different career path, his disgust for the meat business and his rejection of his father had a lot to do with his vegetarianism as an adult. He left Austria one month before it was annexed by Nazi Germany on March 12, 1938.
In the fall of 1938, Salinger attended Ursinus College in Collegeville and wrote a column called "skipped diploma", which included movie reviews. He dropped out after one semester. In 1939, Salinger attended the Columbia University School of General Studies, where he took a writing class taught by Whit Burnett, longtime editor of Story magazine. According to Burnett, Salinger did not distinguish himself until a few weeks before the end of the second semester, at which point "he came to life" and completed three stories. Burnett told Salinger that his stories were skillful and accomplished, accepting "The Young Folks", a vignette about several aimless youths, for publication in Story. Salinger's debut short story was published in the magazine's March–April 1940 issue. Burnett became Salinger's mentor, they corresponded for several years. In 1942, Salinger started dating daughter of the playwright Eugene O'Neill. Despite finding her immeasurably self-absorbed (he confided to a friend that "Little Oona's ho
The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman
The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman is a novel by Laurence Sterne. It was published in nine volumes, the first two appearing in 1759, seven others following over the next seven years, it purports to be a biography of the eponymous character. Its style is marked by digression, double entendre, graphic devices. Sterne had read, reflected in Tristram Shandy. Many of his similes, for instance, are reminiscent of the works of the metaphysical poets of the 17th century, the novel as a whole, with its focus on the problems of language, has constant regard to John Locke's theories in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Arthur Schopenhauer cited Tristram Shandy as one of the greatest novels written; as its title suggests, the book is ostensibly Tristram's narration of his life story. But it is one of the central jokes of the novel that he cannot explain anything that he must make explanatory diversions to add context and colour to his tale, to the extent that Tristram's own birth is not reached until Volume III.
Apart from Tristram as narrator, the most familiar and important characters in the book are his father Walter, his mother, his Uncle Toby, Toby's servant Trim, a supporting cast of popular minor characters, including the chambermaid, Doctor Slop, the parson, who became Sterne's favourite nom de plume and a successful publicity stunt. Yorick is the protagonist of Sterne's second work of fiction A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy. Most of the action is concerned with domestic upsets or misunderstandings, which find humour in the opposing temperaments of Walter—splenetic and somewhat sarcastic—and Uncle Toby, gentle, a lover of his fellow man. In between such events, Tristram as narrator finds himself discoursing at length on sexual practices, the influence of one's name, noses, as well as explorations of obstetrics, siege warfare, philosophy as he struggles to marshal his material and finish the story of his life. Though Tristram is always present as narrator and commentator, the book contains little of his life, only the story of a trip through France and accounts of the four comical mishaps which shaped the course of his life from an early age.
Firstly, while still only a homunculus, Tristram's implantation within his mother's uterus was disturbed. At the moment of procreation, his mother asked his father if he had remembered to wind the clock; the distraction and annoyance led to the disruption of the proper balance of humours necessary to conceive a well-favoured child. Secondly, one of his father's pet theories was that a large and attractive nose was important to a man making his way in life. In a difficult birth, Tristram's nose was crushed by Dr. Slop's forceps. Thirdly, another of his father's theories was that a person's name exerted enormous influence over that person's nature and fortunes, with the worst possible name being Tristram. In view of the previous accidents, Tristram's father decreed that the boy would receive an auspicious name, Trismegistus. Susannah mangled the name in conveying it to the curate, the child was christened Tristram. According to his father's theory, his name, being a conflation of "Trismegistus" and "Tristan", doomed him to a life of woe and cursed him with the inability to comprehend the causes of his misfortune.
As a toddler, Tristram suffered an accidental circumcision when Susannah let a window sash fall as he urinated out of the window because his chamberpot was missing. Sterne's presence inside the narrative changed the course of traditional novelistic interpretations as his narrative structure digresses through many jumbled and fragmentary events into a non-traditional, dual overlapping plot; these digressive methods reflect his inability to explain each event as it occurs, as he interrupts these events with commentary about how the reader should understand and follow each event. He relies on his reader's close involvement to the text and their interpretations of the non-traditional plot. Tristram's presence inside of the narrative as the narrator engages the imagination and his use of visual strategies, such as the marbled and blank pages, reflects the importance of the reader’s participation in the novel. Sterne incorporated into Tristram Shandy many passages taken word for word from Robert Burton's The Anatomy of Melancholy, Francis Bacon's Of Death and many more, rearranged them to serve the new meaning intended in Tristram Shandy.
Tristram Shandy was praised for its originality, nobody noticed these borrowings until years after Sterne's death. The first to note them was physician and poet John Ferriar, who did not see them negatively and commented: If opinion of Sterne's learning and originality be lessened by the perusal, he must, at least, admire the dexterity and the good taste with which he has incorporated in his work so many passages, written with different views by their respective authors. Victorian critics of the 19th century, who were hostile to Sterne for the alleged obscenity of his prose, used Ferriar's findings to defame Sterne, claimed that he was artistically dishonest, unanimously accused him of mindless plagiarism. Scholar Graham Petrie analysed the alleged passages in 1970.
Northanger Abbey was the first of Jane Austen's novels to be completed for publication, in 1803. However, it was not published until after her death in 1817, along with another novel of hers, Persuasion. Northanger Abbey is a satire of Gothic novels, which were quite popular at the time, in 1798–99; this coming-of-age story revolves around Catherine Morland, a young and naïve "heroine", who entertains the reader on her journey to a better understanding of the world and those around her. In the course of the novel, she discovers that she differs from those other women who crave wealth or social acceptance, as instead she wishes only to have happiness supported by genuine morality. Austen first titled the novel Susan, when she sold it in 1803 for £10 to a London bookseller, Crosby & Co.. This publisher held on to the manuscript. Austen threatened to take her work back from them, but Crosby & Co responded that she would face legal consequences for reclaiming her text. In the spring of 1816, the bookseller sold it back to the novelist's brother, Henry Austen, for the same sum as he had paid for it.
There is evidence that Austen further revised the novel in 1816-1817 with the intention of having it published. Austen rewrote sections, using that as her working title. After her death, Austen's brother Henry gave the novel its final name and arranged for publication of Northanger Abbey in late December 1817, as the first two volumes of a four-volume set, with a preface for the first time publicly identifying Jane Austen as the author of all her novels. Neither Northanger Abbey nor Persuasion was published under the working title. Aside from first being published together, the two novels are not connected. Seventeen-year-old Catherine Morland is one of ten children of a country clergyman. Although a tomboy in her childhood, by the age of 17 she is "in training for a heroine" and is excessively fond of reading Gothic novels, among which Ann Radcliffe's Mysteries of Udolpho is a favourite. Catherine is invited by the Allens, her wealthier neighbours in Fullerton, to accompany them to visit the town of Bath and partake in the winter season of balls and other social delights.
She is soon introduced to a clever young gentleman, Henry Tilney, with whom she dances and converses. Through Mrs. Allen's old schoolfriend Mrs. Thorpe, she meets her daughter Isabella, a vivacious and flirtatious young woman, the two become friends. Mrs. Thorpe's son John is a friend of Catherine's older brother, James, at Oxford where they are both students; the Thorpes are not happy about Catherine's friendship with the Tilneys, as they perceive Henry as a rival for Catherine's affections, though Catherine is not at all interested in the crude John Thorpe. Catherine tries to maintain her friendships with both the Thorpes and the Tilneys, though John Thorpe continuously tries to sabotage her relationship with the Tilneys; this leads to several misunderstandings, which put Catherine in the awkward position of having to explain herself to the Tilneys. Isabella and James become engaged. James' father approves of the match and offers his son a country parson's living of a modest sum, £400 annually, but they must wait until he can obtain the benefice in two and a half years.
Isabella is dissatisfied, but to Catherine she misrepresents her distress as being caused by the delay, not by the value of the sum. Isabella begins to flirt with Captain Tilney, Henry's older brother. Innocent Catherine cannot understand her friend's behaviour, but Henry understands all too well, as he knows his brother's character and habits; the Tilneys invite Catherine to stay with them for a few weeks at Northanger Abbey. Catherine, in accordance with her novel reading, expects the abbey to be frightening. Henry teases her about this, as it turns out that Northanger Abbey is pleasant and decidedly not Gothic. However, the house includes a mysterious suite of rooms that no one enters; as General Tilney no longer appears to be ill affected by her death, Catherine decides that he may have murdered her or imprisoned her in her chamber. Catherine discovers that her over-active imagination has led her astray, as nothing is strange or distressing in the apartments. Henry questions her, she leaves, fearing that she has lost Henry's regard entirely.
Realizing how foolish she has been, Catherine comes to believe that, though novels may be delightful, their content does not relate to everyday life. Henry does not mention this incident to her again. James writes to inform her that he has broken off his engagement to Isabella and that she has become engaged instead to Captain Tilney. Henry and Eleanor Tilney are sceptical that their brother has become engaged to Isabella Thorpe. Catherine is disappointed, realising what a dishonest person Isabella is. A subsequent letter from Isabella herself confirms the Tilney siblings' doubts, shows that Frederick Tilney was flirting with Isabella; the General goes off to London, the atmosphere at Northanger Abbey becomes lighter and pleasanter for his absence. Catherine passes several enjoyable days with Henry and Eleanor until, in Henry's absence, the General returns abruptly, in a temper, he forces Catherine to go home early the next morning, in a shocking and unsafe move that forces Catherine to undertake the 70 miles journey alone.
At home, Catherine is unhappy. Hen