Trading Places is a 1983 American comedy film directed by John Landis and starring Dan Aykroyd and Eddie Murphy. It tells the story of an upper-class commodities broker and a homeless street hustler whose lives cross paths when they are unknowingly made part of an elaborate bet. Ralph Bellamy, Don Ameche, Denholm Elliott, Jamie Lee Curtis star; the storyline is called a modern take on Mark Twain's classic 19th-century novel The Prince and the Pauper. The film was produced by Aaron Russo, it was released to theaters in North America on June 8, 1983, where it was distributed by Paramount Pictures. The film earned over $90 million during its theatrical run in the United States, finishing as the fourth highest earning film of the year and the second highest earning R-rated film of 1983. Denholm Elliott and Jamie Lee Curtis won the awards for Best Actor in a Supporting Role and Best Actress in a Supporting Role at the 37th British Academy Film Awards; the film was nominated for several additional awards including Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy at the 41st Golden Globe Awards.
Duke brothers Randolph and Mortimer own a successful commodities brokerage firm Duke & Duke in Philadelphia. Holding opposing views on the issue of nature versus nurture, they make a wager and agree to conduct an experiment switching the lives of two unwitting people at opposite sides of the social hierarchy and observing the results, they witness an encounter between their managing director—the well-mannered and educated Louis Winthorpe III, engaged to the Dukes' grand-niece Penelope—and a poor street hustler named Billy Ray Valentine. The Dukes decide to use the two men for their experiment. Winthorpe is publicly framed as a thief, drug dealer and philanderer by Clarence Beeks, a man on the Dukes’ payroll. Winthorpe is fired from Duke & Duke, his bank accounts are frozen, he is denied entry to his Duke-owned home, he finds himself vilified by Penelope and his former friends, he befriends Ophelia, a prostitute who agrees to help him in exchange for a financial reward once he is exonerated. Meanwhile, the Dukes bail Valentine out of jail, install him in Winthorpe's former job and grant him use of Winthorpe's home.
Valentine soon becomes well-versed in the business using his street smarts to achieve success, begins to act well-mannered. During the firm's Christmas party, Winthorpe is caught planting drugs in Valentine's desk in an attempt to frame him, he brandishes a gun to escape; the Dukes discuss their experiment and settle their wager for one dollar, before plotting to return Valentine to the streets. Valentine overhears the conversation, seeks out Winthorpe, who attempts suicide by overdosing on pills. Valentine and Winthorpe's butler Coleman nurse him back to health and inform him of the Dukes' experiment. On television, they learn that Clarence Beeks is transporting a secret USDA report on orange crop forecasts. Winthorpe and Valentine recall large payments made to Beeks by the Dukes and realize that the Dukes plan to obtain the report to corner the market on frozen orange juice. On New Year's Eve, the four board Beeks' Philadelphia-bound train, intending to switch the original report with a forgery that predicts low orange crop yields.
Beeks uncovers their scheme and attempts to kill them, but he is knocked unconscious by a gorilla being transported on the train. The four disguise cage him with the real gorilla. After delivering the forged report to the Dukes in Beeks' place and Winthorpe travel to New York City with Coleman's and Ophelia's life savings to carry out their part of the plan. On the commodities trading floor, the Dukes commit all their holdings to buying frozen concentrated orange-juice futures contracts. Meanwhile and Winthorpe sell futures at the inflated price. Following the broadcast of the actual crop report and its prediction of a normal forecast, the price of orange-juice futures plummets. Valentine and Winthorpe close their futures position by buying futures at the lower price from everyone but the Dukes, turning a large profit; the Dukes fail to meet a margin call, are left owing $394 million. Valentine and Winthorpe explain to the Dukes that they had made a wager on whether they could get rich while making the Dukes poor.
Valentine collects $1 from Winthorpe while Randolph collapses holding his chest and Mortimer shouts angrily at his brother about their failed plan. The now wealthy Valentine, Winthorpe and Coleman vacation on a tropical beach, while Beeks and the gorilla are loaded onto a ship heading for Africa. Dan Aykroyd as Louis Winthorpe III Eddie Murphy as Billy Ray Valentine Ralph Bellamy as Randolph Duke Don Ameche as Mortimer Duke Denholm Elliott as Coleman Jamie Lee Curtis as Ophelia Kristin Holby as Penelope Witherspoon, Louis Winthorpe's fiancée. Paul Gleason as Clarence BeeksThe cast includes Robert Curtis-Brown as Todd, Winthorpe's romantic rival for Penelope. Tom Davis and Al Franken Saturday Night Live cast members, cameo as train baggage handlers; the storyline of Trading Places—a member of society trading places with another whose socio-economic status stands in direct contrast to his own—often draws comparisons to Mark Twain's novel The Prince and the Pauper. First published in 1881, the nove
Eriq La Salle
Erik Ki La Salle, professionally known as Eriq La Salle, is an American actor, director and producer known for his performances in the films Coming to America and as Dr. Peter Benton in the NBC medical drama ER which earned him three NAACP Image Awards and nominations for a Golden Globe Award and three Primetime Emmy Awards. La Salle, one of four children, was born and raised in Hartford, Connecticut, by his mother, Ada Haynes, he is the Artists Collective, Inc. in Hartford. He attended the Juilliard School's Drama Division for two years as a member of Group 13 attended New York University's Tisch School of the Arts, where he earned a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree from the Graduate Acting Program in 1984. At the time of his graduation from NYU, La Salle was cast in Joseph Papp's Shakespeare in the Park production of Henry V. Soon after, he found continuous acting work on Broadway, off-Broadway and in several daytime TV dramas including One Life to Live, where he played the reporter Mike Rivers.
In 1988, La Salle starred alongside Eddie Murphy in the movie Coming to America as Darryl Jenks. In 1994 the medical drama ER premiered on NBC with La Salle starring as Dr. Peter Benton, he held the role until leaving during the eighth season. He returned to ER for three episodes during its 15th and final season, including his uncredited appearance as himself in the opening of "Heal Thyself" to tell the audience of the death of the show's creator Michael Crichton. During season 15, he returned to direct an episode. On January 31, 2003 he made a cameo appearance in Biker Boyz as an unnamed mechanic for a legendary motorcycle racer named Smoke, he played a Jamaican gangster in the independent film Johnny Was opposite Vinnie Jones, Samantha Mumba, Lennox Lewis, Roger Daltrey. La Salle lived in Belfast, for four weeks while filming the movie, which he supported at the North American premiere of the film in 2006, at the American Black Film Festival in Miami. La Salle starred in the Hallmark Channel original movie, Relative Stranger, which premiered on March 14, 2009.
In the movie were Cicely Tyson as well as La Salle's former ER castmates Michael Michele and Michael Beach. In 2010, La Salle played the United Nations Secretary General in the series finale of 24 and guest-starred in an episode of Covert Affairs in August of the same year. In 2011, he played two recurring roles: one as a Caribbean community leader who rallied against the product Rasta Monsta in HBO's How to Make it in America, the second as the neuropsychiatrist E-Mo in CBS' A Gifted Man. In 1996, La Salle made his directorial debut in the HBO made-for-TV movie Rebound: The Legend of Earl "The Goat" Manigault, starring Don Cheadle, James Earl Jones and Forest Whitaker, in which La Salle played a pivotal role. Shortly after that, La Salle directed the pilot for Soul Food: The Series on Showtime. In 2002, he produced the feature film The Salton Sea, in the same year, he produced and starred in the movie Crazy as Hell. In 2003 he wrote and starred in "Memphis", an episode of The Twilight Zone, he has subsequently directed multiple episodes of Law & Order: Special Victims Unit, CSI: NY, Ringer as well as the 2012 Hallmark Channel movie Playing Father.
After several years spent both in front and behind the camera, Eriq La Salle decided to face a new angle of storytelling and, in 2012, published his first novel Laws of Depravity. In 2015, La Salle returned to television with a role in Under the Dome's third season, after having directed one episode of the second season, he directed an episode in the third season as well. He had minor roles as an actor in CSI: Cyber, The Night Shift, Madam Secretary. In 2016, La Salle directed the episode "Wingman" in the Fox series Lucifer and the episode "Black and Blue" of TNT's Murder in the First. La Salle co-starred as Will Munson in Logan. La Salle has directed and produced multiple episodes of Chicago PD throughout its six seasons. Eriq La Salle on IMDb
James Earl Jones
James Earl Jones is an American actor. His career has spanned more than 60 years, he has been described as "one of America's most distinguished and versatile" actors and "one of the greatest actors in American history". Since his Broadway debut in 1957, Jones has won many awards, including a Tony Award for his role in The Great White Hope, which earned him a Golden Globe Award and an Academy Award nomination for Best Actor in a Leading Role for the film version of the play. Jones has won three Emmy Awards, including two in the same year in 1990, he is known for his voice roles as Darth Vader in the Star Wars film series and Mufasa in Disney's The Lion King, as well as many other film and television roles. Jones has been said to possess "one of the best-known voices in show business, a stirring basso profondo that has lent gravel and gravitas" to his projects, including live-action acting, voice acting, commercial voice-overs. In 1970, he won a Grammy Award for Great American Documents; as a child, Jones had a stutter.
In his episode of Biography, he said he overcame the affliction through poetry, public speaking, acting, although it lasted for several years. A pre-med major in college, he went on to serve in the United States Army during the Korean War before pursuing a career in acting. On November 12, 2011, he received an Honorary Academy Award. On November 9, 2015, Jones received the Voice Arts Icon Award. On May 25, 2017, he received an Honorary Doctor of Arts degree from Harvard University and concluded the event's benediction with "May the Force be with you". James Earl Jones was born in Arkabutla, Mississippi, on January 17, 1931, to Ruth Jones, a teacher and maid, Robert Earl Jones, a boxer and chauffeur who left the family shortly after James Earl's birth, he became a stage and screen actor in New York and Hollywood. Jones and his father became reconciled then, his parents were African-American, Jones has learned they had Irish and Native American ancestry. From the age of five, Jones was raised by his maternal grandparents, John Henry and Maggie Williams, who had moved from Mississippi in the Great Migration and had a farm in Jackson, Michigan.
Jones found the transition to living with his grandparents in Michigan traumatic, developed a stutter so severe that he refused to speak. When his family moved to the more rural Brethren, Michigan, a teacher helped him overcome his stutter, he remained functionally mute for eight years. He credits his English teacher, Donald Crouch, who discovered he had a gift for writing poetry, with helping him end his silence. Crouch urged him to challenge his reluctance to speak. "I was a stutterer. I couldn't talk. So my first year of school was my first mute year, those mute years continued until I got to high school." After being educated at the Browning School for boys in his high school years and graduating as vice president of his class from Dickson Rural Agricultural School in Brethren, Jones attended the University of Michigan where he was a pre-med major. He excelled, he felt comfortable within the structure of the military environment and enjoyed the camaraderie of his fellow cadets in the Pershing Rifles Drill Team and Scabbard and Blade Honor Society.
During the course of his studies, Jones discovered. Instead, he focused on drama at the University of Michigan School of Music, Theatre & Dance with the thought of doing something he enjoyed, before, he assumed, he would have to go off to fight in the Korean War. After four years of college, Jones graduated from the university in 1955. With the war intensifying in Korea, Jones expected to be deployed as soon as he received his commission as a second lieutenant; as he waited for his orders, he worked as a part-time stage crew hand at the Ramsdell Theatre in Manistee, where he had earlier performed. Jones was commissioned in mid-1953, after the Korean War's end, reported to Fort Benning to attend the Infantry Officers Basic Course, he received his Ranger Tab. He was to report to Fort Leonard Wood, but his unit was instead sent to establish a cold weather training command at the former Camp Hale near Leadville, Colorado, his battalion became a training unit in the rugged terrain of the Rocky Mountains.
Jones was promoted to first lieutenant prior to his discharge. He moved to New York, he worked as a janitor to support himself. Jones began his acting career at the Ramsdell Theatre in Michigan. In 1953, he was a stage carpenter. During the 1955 -- 57 seasons, he was an stage manager, he performed his first portrayal of Shakespeare's Othello in this theater in 1955. His early career included an appearance in the ABC radio anthology series Theatre-Five. Jones is an accomplished stage actor, he has acted in many Shakespearean roles: Othello, King Lear, Oberon in A Midsummer Night's Dream, Abhorson in Measure for Measure, Claudius in Hamlet. In 1973, Jones played Hickey on Broadway at the Circle in the Square Theater in a revival of "The Iceman Cometh." Jones played Lennie on Broadway in the 1974 Brooks Atkinson Theatre production of the adaptation of John Steinbeck's novella, Of Mice and Men, with Kevin Conway as George and Pamela Blair as Curley's Wife. Jones received Kennedy Center H
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Samuel L. Jackson
Samuel Leroy Jackson is an American actor and film producer. A recipient of critical acclaim and numerous accolades and awards, Jackson is the actor whose films have made the highest total gross revenue, he came to prominence in the early 1990s with films such as Goodfellas, Jungle Fever, Patriot Games, Amos & Andrew, True Romance, Jurassic Park and his collaborations with director Quentin Tarantino including Pulp Fiction, Jackie Brown, Django Unchained, The Hateful Eight. He is a prolific actor, having appeared in over 100 films, including Die Hard with a Vengeance, A Time to Kill, The Long Kiss Goodnight, The Negotiator, Deep Blue Sea, Shaft, XXX, Snakes on a Plane, Kong: Skull Island and the Star Wars prequel trilogy. With Jackson's permission, his likeness was used for the Ultimate version of the Marvel Comics character Nick Fury, he has subsequently played Fury in the Marvel Cinematic Universe films Iron Man, Iron Man 2, Captain America: The First Avenger, The Avengers, Captain America: The Winter Soldier, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Avengers: Infinity War, Captain Marvel and will reprise his role in Spider-Man: Far From Home, as well as the TV show Marvel's Agents of S.
H. I. E. L. D. Jackson has provided his voice to several animated films, television series and video games, including the roles of Lucius Best / Frozone in Pixar Animation Studios' films The Incredibles and Incredibles 2, Mace Windu in Star Wars: The Clone Wars, Whiplash in Turbo, Afro Samurai in the anime television series Afro Samurai, Frank Tenpenny in the video game Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas. Jackson is married to LaTanya Richardson, with whom he has Zoe. Jackson is ranked as the highest all-time box office star with over $5.15 billion total US box office gross, an average of $70.5 million per film. The worldwide box office total of his films is over $12 billion, he became the top-grossing actor in October 2011. Jackson was born in Washington, D. C. the son of Elizabeth and Roy Henry Jackson. He grew up as an only child in Tennessee, his father lived away from the family in Kansas City and died from alcoholism. Jackson met his father only twice during his life. Jackson was raised by his mother, a factory worker and a supplies buyer for a mental institution, by his maternal grandparents and extended family.
According to DNA tests, Jackson descends from the Benga people of Gabon. Jackson graduated from Riverside High School in Chattanooga. Between the third and 12th grades, he trumpet in the school orchestra. Jackson played the flute and piccolo. During childhood, he had a stuttering problem. While he learned to "pretend to be other people who didn't stutter" and use the curse word motherfucker as an affirmation word, he still has days where he stutters. Intent on pursuing a degree in marine biology, he attended Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia. After joining a local acting group to earn extra points in a class, Jackson found an interest in acting and switched his major. Before graduating in 1972, he co-founded the "Just Us Theatre". After the 1968 assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. Jackson attended the funeral in Atlanta as one of the ushers. Jackson flew to Memphis to join an equal rights protest march. In a Parade interview Jackson revealed: "I was angry about the assassination, but I wasn't shocked by it.
I knew that change was going to take something different – not sit-ins, not peaceful coexistence."In 1969, Jackson and several other students held members of the Morehouse College board of trustees hostage on the campus, demanding reform in the school's curriculum and governance. The college agreed to change its policy, but Jackson was charged with and convicted of unlawful confinement, a second-degree felony. Jackson was suspended for two years for his criminal record and his actions, he would return to the college to earn his Bachelor of Arts in Drama in 1972. While he was suspended, Jackson was employed as a social worker in Los Angeles. Jackson decided to return to Atlanta, where he met with Stokely Carmichael, H. Rap Brown, others active in the Black Power movement. Jackson revealed in the same Parade interview that he began to feel empowered with his involvement in the movement when the group began buying guns. However, before Jackson could become involved with any significant armed confrontation, his mother sent him to Los Angeles after the FBI told her that he would die within a year if he remained with the Black Power movement.
In a 2018 interview with Vogue he denied having been a member of the Black Panther Party. Jackson majored in marine biology at Morehouse College before switching to architecture, he settled on drama after taking a public speaking class and appearing in a version of The Threepenny Opera. Jackson began acting in multiple plays, including A Soldier's Play, he appeared in several television films, made his feature film debut in the blaxploitation independent film Together for Days. After these initial roles, Jackson moved from Atlanta to New York City in 1976 and spent the next decade appearing in stage plays, including the premiers of The Piano Lesson and Two Trains Running at the Yale Repertory Theater. Jackson developed addictions to alcohol and cocaine, which prevented him from procee
Queens is the easternmost of the five boroughs of New York City. It is the largest borough geographically and is adjacent to the borough of Brooklyn at the southwestern end of Long Island. To its east is Nassau County. Queens shares water borders with the boroughs of Manhattan and the Bronx. Coterminous with Queens County since 1899, the borough of Queens is the second largest in population, with an estimated 2,358,582 residents in 2017 48% of them foreign-born. Queens County is the second most populous county in the U. S. state of New York, behind Brooklyn, coterminous with Kings County. Queens is the fourth most densely populated county among New York City's boroughs, as well as in the United States. If each of New York City's boroughs were an independent city, Queens would be the nation's fourth most populous, after Los Angeles and Brooklyn. Queens is the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world. Queens was established in 1683 as one of the original 12 counties of New York; the settlement was named for the English queen Catherine of Braganza.
Queens became a borough during the consolidation of New York City in 1898, from 1683 until 1899, the County of Queens included what is now Nassau County. Queens has the most diversified economy of the five boroughs of New York City, it is home to John F. Kennedy International Airport and LaGuardia Airport, both among the world's busiest, which in turn makes the airspace above Queens among the busiest in the United States. Landmarks in Queens include Flushing Meadows–Corona Park; the borough has diverse housing, ranging from high-rise apartment buildings in the urban areas of western and central Queens, such as Jackson Heights, Flushing and Long Island City, to somewhat more suburban neighborhoods in the eastern part of the borough, including Douglaston–Little Neck and Bayside. European colonization brought English settlers, as a part of the New Netherland colony. First settlements occurred in 1635 followed by early colonizations at Maspeth in 1642, Vlissingen in 1643. Other early settlements included Jamaica.
However, these towns were inhabited by English settlers from New England via eastern Long Island subject to Dutch law. After the capture of the colony by the English and its renaming as New York in 1664, the area became known as Yorkshire; the Flushing Remonstrance signed by colonists in 1657 is considered a precursor to the United States Constitution's provision on freedom of religion in the Bill of Rights. The signers protested the Dutch colonial authorities' persecution of Quakers in what is today the borough of Queens. Queens County included the adjacent area now comprising Nassau County, it was an original county of New York State, one of twelve created on November 1, 1683. The county is assumed to have been named after Catherine of Braganza, since she was queen of England at the time; the county was founded alongside Kings County, Richmond County. However, the namesake is in dispute. On October 7, 1691, all counties in the Colony of New York were redefined. Queens gained South Brother Islands as well as Huletts Island.
On December 3, 1768, Queens gained other islands in Long Island Sound that were not assigned to a county but that did not abut on Westchester County. Queens played a minor role in the American Revolution, as compared to Brooklyn, where the Battle of Long Island was fought. Queens, like the rest of what became New York City and Long Island, remained under British occupation after the Battle of Long Island in 1776 and was occupied throughout most of the rest of the Revolutionary War. Under the Quartering Act, British soldiers used, as barracks, the public inns and uninhabited buildings belonging to Queens residents. Though many local people were against unannounced quartering, sentiment throughout the county remained in favor of the British crown; the quartering of soldiers in private homes, except in times of war, was banned by the Third Amendment to the United States Constitution. Nathan Hale was captured by the British on the shore of Flushing Bay in Queens before being executed by hanging in Manhattan for gathering intelligence.
From 1683 until 1784, Queens County consisted of five towns: Flushing, Jamaica and Oyster Bay. On April 6, 1784, a sixth town, the Town of North Hempstead, was formed through secession by the northern portions of the Town of Hempstead; the seat of the county government was located first in Jamaica, but the courthouse was torn down by the British during the American Revolution to use the materials to build barracks. After the war, various buildings in Jamaica temporarily served as courthouse and jail until a new building was erected about 1787 in an area near Mineola known as Clowesville; the 1850 United States Census was the first in which the population of the three western towns exceeded that of the three eastern towns that are now part of Nassau County. Concerns were raised about the condition and distance of the old courthouse, several sites were in contention for the constru