Command-line interface

A command-line interface processes commands to a computer program in the form of lines of text. The program which handles the interface is called a command-line interpreter or command-line processor. Operating systems implement a command-line interface in a shell for interactive access to operating system functions or services; such access was provided to users by computer terminals starting in the mid-1960s, continued to be used throughout the 1970s and 1980s on VAX/VMS, Unix systems and personal computer systems including DOS, CP/M and Apple DOS. Today, users rely upon menu-driven interactions; however some programming and maintenance tasks may not have a graphical user interface and may still use a command line. Alternatives to the command line interface include text user interface menus, keyboard shortcuts, various desktop metaphors centered on the pointer. Examples of this include the Microsoft Windows, DosShell, Mouse Systems PowerPanel. Command line interfaces are implemented in terminal devices that are capable of screen-oriented text user interfaces that use cursor addressing to place symbols on a display screen.

Programs with command-line interfaces are easier to automate via scripting. Many software systems implement command line interfaces for operation; this includes programming environments and utility programs. Compared with a graphical user interface, a command line interface requires fewer system resources to implement. Since options to commands are given in a few characters in each command line, an experienced user may find the options easier to access. Automation of repetitive tasks is simplified by line editing and history mechanisms for storing used sequences. A command-line history can be kept, allowing repetition of commands. A command-line system may require paper or online manuals for the user's reference, although a "help" option provides a concise review of the options of a command; the command-line environment may not provide the graphical enhancements such as different fonts or extended edit windows found in a GUI. It may be difficult for a new user to become familiar with all the commands and options available, compared with the drop-down menus of a graphical user interface, without repeated reference to manuals.

Operating system command line interfaces are distinct programs supplied with the operating system. A program that implements such a text interface is called a command-line interpreter, command processor or shell. Examples of command-line interpreters include DEC's DIGITAL Command Language in OpenVMS and RSX-11, the various Unix shells, CP/M's CCP, DOS's COMMAND. COM, as well as the OS/2 and the Windows CMD. EXE programs, the latter groups being based on DEC's RSX-11 and RSTS CLIs. Under most operating systems, it is possible to replace the default shell program with alternatives. Although the term'shell' is used to describe a command-line interpreter speaking a'shell' can be any program that constitutes the user-interface, including graphically oriented ones. For example, the default Windows GUI is a shell program named EXPLORER. EXE, as defined in the SHELL=EXPLORER. EXE line in the WIN. INI configuration file; these programs are shells, but not CLIs. Application programs may have command line interfaces.

An application program may support none, any, or all of these three major types of command line interface mechanisms: Parameters: Most operating systems support a means to pass additional information to a program when it is launched. When a program is launched from an OS command line shell, additional text provided along with the program name is passed to the launched program. Interactive command line sessions: After launch, a program may provide an operator with an independent means to enter commands in the form of text. Inter-process communication: Most operating systems support means of inter-process communication. Command lines from client processes may be redirected to a CLI program by one of these methods; some applications support only a CLI, presenting a CLI prompt to the user and acting upon command lines as they are entered. Other programs support both a CLI and a GUI. In some cases, a GUI is a wrapper around a separate CLI executable file. In other cases, a program may provide a CLI as an optional alternative to its GUI.

CLIs and GUIs support different functionality. For example, all features of MATLAB, a numerical analysis computer program, are available via the CLI, whereas the MATLAB GUI exposes only a subset of features; the early Sierra games, such as the first three King's Quest games, used commands from an internal command line to move the character around in the graphic window. The command-line interface evolved from a form of dialog once conducted by humans over teleprinter machines, in which human operators remotely exchanged information one line of text at a time. Early computer systems used teleprinter machines as the means of interaction with a human operator; the computer became one end of the human-to-human teleprinter model. So instead of a human communicating with another human over a teleprinter, a human communicated with a computer; the mechanical teleprinter was replaced by a "glass tty", a keyboard and screen emulating the teleprinter. "Smart" terminals permitted additional functions, such as cursor movement over the entire screen, or local editing of d

Momin Khan Momin

Momin Khan Momin was a late Mughal era poet known for his Urdu ghazals. A lesser-known contemporary of Ghalib and Zauq, he used "Momin" as his nom de plume, his grave is located near the parking area of Maulana Azad Medical College in Delhi. Momin Khan'Momin' was born in Delhi into a muslim family of Kashmiri origin, his father, Ghulam Nabi Khan, was a Hakeem. Momin Khan received training in the family profession from a young age and himself became a hakim, due to which he is referred to in contemporary accounts as "Hakeem Khan," Hakeem being the Urdu word for physician. However, his bent was for poetry and he soon became known more as an accomplished poet, his interest received a fillip due to the associations. In 1823, Momin married to a girl belonged to the family of zamindar; the marriage became unsuccessful, he separated from his wife. He married Anjuman-un-Nisa Begum, a relative of Urdu poet and sufi saint Khwaja Mir Dard, they had a son, Ahmad Nasir Khan, a daughter, Muhammadi Begum. Momin died on 24 Rajab 1268 Hijri at the age of 52.

Momin was something of a polymath, with several poetry. He was competent in mathematics, astrology and Hindustani music. Momin is known for his particular Persianized style and the beautiful use of his'takhallus'. According to legend, Mirza Ghalib offered Momin his entire diwan in exchange for a particular verse of Momin. However, most modern poets believe this claim as an'exaggeration' which poets indulged in at that time; this exaggeration was done to emphasise some thing. The couplet in question was: تم میرے پاس ہوتے ہو گویا جب کوئی دوسرا نہیں ہوتا "Tum mērē pās hōtē hō gōyā Jab kō'ī dūsrā nahīⁿˡ hotā"which translates to: You are close to me When no one else is; this couplet's beauty is in multiple layers of meaning. One of the meanings is When you're with me, no-one else is and a second meaning/interpretation is You are with me, when no-one else is; the two meanings emerge by the use of words gōyā and jab." One of his famous ghazals starts with the following matla. Woh jō ham mēⁿ tum mēⁿ qarār tḣā.

That promise of trust and faithfulness...whether you remember it or not... Filmography of Momin Khan Momin on IMDb website Works by or about Momin Khan Momin at Internet Archive Momin Khan Momin at Urdu Poetry Archive Momin Khan Momin at Kavita Kosh

South Hammond

South Hammond is a neighborhood in southwestern Hammond, Indiana between the Illinois state line and Columbia Avenue, south of 165th Street. It is bounded to the east by Woodmar, to the south by the towns of Munster and Highland, to the west by Calumet City, to the north by Central Hammond; the Little Calumet River snakes along the neighborhood's southern boundary. The neighborhood's boundaries correspond to Hammond's Planning District IV. With the exception of a commercial strip along Calumet Avenue, South Hammond is overwhelmingly residential. Many of these residences are historic: South Hammond is home to the Indi-Illi Park Historic District, Roselawn–Forest Heights Historic District and Forest–Ivanhoe Residential Historic District