Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
For a list of keyboard shortcuts, see Table of keyboard shortcutsThe Alt key on a computer keyboard is used to change the function of other pressed keys. Thus, the Alt key is a modifier key, used in a similar fashion to the Shift key. For example pressing "A" will type the letter a, but if you hold down either Alt key while pressing A, the computer will perform an Alt+A function, which varies from program to program; the international standard ISO/IEC 9995-2 calls it Alternate key. The key is located on either side of the Space bar, but in non-US PC keyboard layouts, rather than a second Alt key, there is an'Alt Gr' key to the right of the space bar. Both placements are in accordance with ISO/IEC 9995-2; the standardized keyboard symbol for the Alt key, ⎇ is given in ISO/IEC 9995-7 as symbol 25, in ISO 7000 “Graphical symbols for use on equipment” as symbol ISO-7000-2105. This symbol is encoded in Unicode as U+2387 alternative key symbol. Macintosh keyboards equate the Alt key with the ⌥ Option key, which has its own, symbol.
The Alt key should not be confused with the Altmode key on some Teletype and ASCII terminals, a synonym for the ASCII escape character. The Alt key has come to replace the Meta key of the old MIT keyboards. In their original function, both Alt and Meta would set the high bit of the signal generated by the key to 1. However, in modern software, due to the requirement of the high bit for internationalization, Alt no longer works in such a way. Since the 1990s Alt has been printed on the Option key on most Mac keyboards. Alt is used in non-Mac software, such as non-macOS Unix and Windows programs, but in macOS it is always referred as the Option key; the Option key's behaviour in macOS differs from that of the Windows Alt key. The Alt key is well known as part of the key combinations: Ctrl+Alt+Delete brings up a task manager in some operating systems, see Control-Alt-Delete. Alt + ⌘ Cmd + Esc brings up the Force Quit window in Apple's macOS. Ctrl+Alt+← Backspace causes the X display server to shut down or to restart, see Control-Alt-Backspace.
Alt+F4 closes the current window on most windowing systems. Alt+⇧ Shift switches between language layouts. Alt+Tab ↹ switches between the opened windows on most windowing systems, see Alt-Tab. Alt + ↵ Enter allows for a new line. In Microsoft Windows, holding down the Alt key while typing in numbers on the numeric keypad allows the user to type special characters not available on the keyboard. For example, holding down Alt while typing 0225 on the numeric keypad will result in á, the character at 225 in the codepage; these extended keyboard characters are useful for persons using foreign languages, currency symbols, business use, etc. Some computers work the same. On a Macintosh, the Alt key is called the Option key, it is not used to enter numeric character codes. Instead, keyboard letters and numbers are used; the diagram below shows the special characters a US Mac keyboard will produce when the Option key is pressed. The highlighted orange keys show the accents available from the combination of the Alt key and the keyboard characters e i u and ` n.
The accent can be applied to associated letters both lower and uppercase. The additional characters a Mac will produce are a combination of both the ⌥ Option key and the ⇧ Shift key pressed down together. With this combination pressed the keyboard will now produce a different set or an uppercase version of the previous set in some cases; when a user presses the Alt key by itself on Microsoft Windows, that moves keyboard focus to the menubar of the application having keyboard focus, the key is not delivered to the application. In that state, another press of the Alt key will be delivered to the application. On other platforms, for example Ubuntu, the Alt key pressed by itself may invoke another application and not be delivered to the application having keyboard focus. In Ubuntu 16.04, pressing the key opens the HUD, an input field that lets you do menu commands such as opening a file, or creating a new file. Control-Alt-Delete Modifier key Alt code Option key
IBM PC compatible
IBM PC compatible computers are computers similar to the original IBM PC, XT, AT, able to use the same software and expansion cards. Such computers used to be referred to as PC clones, or IBM clones, they duplicate exactly all the significant features of the PC architecture, facilitated by IBM's choice of commodity hardware components and various manufacturers' ability to reverse engineer the BIOS firmware using a "clean room design" technique. Columbia Data Products built the first clone of the IBM personal computer by a clean room implementation of its BIOS. Early IBM PC compatibles used the same computer bus as AT models; the IBM AT compatible bus was named the Industry Standard Architecture bus by manufacturers of compatible computers. The term "IBM PC compatible" is now a historical description only, since IBM has ended its personal computer sales. Descendants of the IBM PC compatibles comprise the majority of personal computers on the market presently with the dominant operating system being Microsoft Windows, although interoperability with the bus structure and peripherals of the original PC architecture may be limited or non-existent.
Some computers ran MS-DOS but had enough hardware differences that IBM compatible software could not be used. Only the Macintosh kept significant market share without compatibility with the IBM PC. IBM decided in 1980 to market a low-cost single-user computer as as possible in response to Apple Computer's success in the burgeoning microcomputer market. On 12 August 1981, the first IBM PC went on sale. There were three operating systems available for it; the least expensive and most popular was PC DOS made by Microsoft. In a crucial concession, IBM's agreement allowed Microsoft to sell its own version, MS-DOS, for non-IBM computers; the only component of the original PC architecture exclusive to IBM was the BIOS. IBM at first asked developers to avoid writing software that addressed the computer's hardware directly, to instead make standard calls to BIOS functions that carried out hardware-dependent operations; this software would run on any machine using MS-DOS or PC-DOS. Software that directly addressed the hardware instead of making standard calls was however.
Software addressing IBM PC hardware in this way would not run on MS-DOS machines with different hardware. The IBM PC was sold in high enough volumes to justify writing software for it, this encouraged other manufacturers to produce machines which could use the same programs, expansion cards, peripherals as the PC; the 808x computer marketplace excluded all machines which were not hardware- and software-compatible with the PC. The 640 KB barrier on "conventional" system memory available to MS-DOS is a legacy of that period. Rumors of "lookalike", compatible computers, created without IBM's approval, began immediately after the IBM PC's release. InfoWorld wrote on the first anniversary of the IBM PC that The dark side of an open system is its imitators. If the specs are clear enough for you to design peripherals, they are clear enough for you to design imitations. Apple... has patents on two important components of its systems... IBM, which has no special patents on the PC, is more vulnerable. Numerous PC-compatible machines—the grapevine says 60 or more—have begun to appear in the marketplace.
By June 1983 PC Magazine defined "PC'clone'" as "a computer accommodate the user who takes a disk home from an IBM PC, walks across the room, plugs it into the'foreign' machine". Because of a shortage of IBM PCs that year, many customers purchased clones instead. Columbia Data Products produced the first computer more or less compatible with the IBM PC standard during June 1982, soon followed by Eagle Computer. Compaq announced its first IBM PC compatible in the Compaq Portable; the Compaq was the first sewing machine-sized portable computer, 100% PC-compatible. The company could not copy the BIOS directly as a result of the court decision in Apple v. Franklin, but it could reverse-engineer the IBM BIOS and write its own BIOS using clean room design. At the same time, many manufacturers such as Tandy/RadioShack, Hewlett-Packard, Digital Equipment Corporation, Texas Instruments, Tulip and Olivetti introduced personal computers that supported MS-DOS, but were not software- or hardware-compatible with the IBM PC.
Tandy described the Tandy 2000, for example, as having a "'next generation' true 16-bit CPU", with "More speed. More disk storage. More expansion" than the IBM PC or "other MS-DOS computers". While admitting in 1984 that many MS-DOS programs did not support the computer, the company stated that "the most popular, sophisticated software on the market" was available, either or "over the next six months". Like IBM, Microsoft's intention was that application writers would write to the application programming interfaces in MS-DOS or the firmware BIOS, that this would form what would now be termed a hardware abstraction layer; each computer would have its own Original Equipment Manufacturer version of MS-DOS, customized to its hardware. Any software written for MS-DOS would operate on any MS-DOS computer, despite variations in hardware design; this expectation seemed reasonable in the computer marketplace of the time. Until Microsoft was based on computer languages such as BASIC; the established small system operating software was CP/M from Digital Research, in use both at the hobbyist level and by the more professional of t
A logo is a graphic mark, emblem, or symbol used to aid and promote public identification and recognition. It may be of an abstract or figurative design or include the text of the name it represents as in a wordmark. In the days of hot metal typesetting, a logotype was one word cast as a single piece of type, as opposed to a ligature, two or more letters joined, but not forming a word. By extension, the term was used for a uniquely set and arranged typeface or colophon. At the level of mass communication and in common usage, a company's logo is today synonymous with its trademark or brand. Numerous inventions and techniques have contributed to the contemporary logo, including cylinder seals, trans-cultural diffusion of logographic languages, coats of arms, silver hallmarks, the development of printing technology; as the industrial revolution converted western societies from agrarian to industrial in the 18th and 19th centuries and lithography contributed to the boom of an advertising industry that integrated typography and imagery together on the page.
Typography itself was undergoing a revolution of form and expression that expanded beyond the modest, serif typefaces used in books, to bold, ornamental typefaces used on broadsheet posters. The arts were expanding in purpose—from expression and decoration of an artistic, storytelling nature, to a differentiation of brands and products that the growing middle classes were consuming. Consultancies and trades-groups in the commercial arts were organizing. Artistic credit tended to be assigned to the lithographic company, as opposed to the individual artists who performed less important jobs. Innovators in the visual arts and lithographic process—such as French printing firm Rouchon in the 1840s, Joseph Morse of New York in the 1850s, Frederick Walker of England in the 1870s, Jules Chéret of France in the 1870s—developed an illustrative style that went beyond tonal, representational art to figurative imagery with sections of bright, flat colors. Playful children’s books, authoritative newspapers, conversational periodicals developed their own visual and editorial styles for unique, expanding audiences.
As printing costs decreased, literacy rates increased, visual styles changed, the Victorian decorative arts led to an expansion of typographic styles and methods of representing businesses. The Arts and Crafts Movement of late-19th century in response to the excesses of Victorian typography, aimed to restore an honest sense of craftsmanship to the mass-produced goods of the era. A renewal of interest in craftsmanship and quality provided the artists and companies with a greater interest in credit, leading to the creation of unique logos and marks. By the 1950s, Modernism had shed its roots as an avant-garde artistic movement in Europe to become an international, commercialized movement with adherents in the United States and elsewhere; the visual simplicity and conceptual clarity that were the hallmarks of Modernism as an artistic movement formed a powerful toolset for a new generation of graphic designers whose logos embodied Ludwig Mies van der Rohe’s dictum, "Less is more." Modernist-inspired logos proved successful in the era of mass visual communication ushered in by television, improvements in printing technology, digital innovations.
The current era of logo design began in the 1870s with the first abstract logo, the Bass red triangle. As of 2014, many corporations, brands, services and other entities use an ideogram or an emblem or a combination of sign and emblem as a logo; as a result, only a few of the thousands of ideograms in circulation are recognizable without a name. An effective logo may consist of both an ideogram and the company name to emphasize the name over the graphic, employ a unique design via the use of letters and additional graphic elements. Ideograms and symbols may be more effective than written names for logos translated into many alphabets in globalized markets. For instance, a name written in Arabic script might have little resonance in most European markets. By contrast, ideograms keep the general proprietary nature of a product in both markets. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross exemplifies a well-known emblem that does not need an accompanying name; the red cross and red crescent are among the best-recognized symbols in the world.
National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and their Federation as well as the International Committee of the Red Cross include these symbols in their logos. Branding can aim to facilitate cross-language marketing. Consumers and potential consumers can identify the Coca-Cola name written in different alphabets because of the standard color and "ribbon wave" design of its logo; the text was written in Spencerian Script, a popular writing style when the Coca Cola Logo was being designed. Since a logo is the visual entity signifying an organization, logo design is an important area of graphic design. A logo is the central element of a complex identification system that must be functionally extended to all communications of an organization. Therefore, the design of logos and their incorporation in a visual identity system is one of the most difficult and important areas of graphic design. Logos fall into three classifications. Ideographs, such as Chase Bank, are abstr
The Latin or Roman alphabet is the writing system used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language. Due to its use in writing Germanic and other languages first in Europe and in other parts of the world, due to its use in Romanizing writing of other languages, it has become widespread, it is used in China and has been adopted by Baltic and some Slavic states. The Latin alphabet evolved from the visually similar Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, itself descended from the Phoenician abjad, which in turn derived from Egyptian hieroglyphics; the Etruscans, who ruled early Rome, adopted the Cumaean Greek alphabet, modified over time to become the Etruscan alphabet, in turn adopted and further modified by the Romans to produce the Latin alphabet. During the Middle Ages, the Latin alphabet was used for writing Romance languages, which are direct descendants of Latin, as well as Celtic, Germanic and some Slavic languages. With the age of colonialism and Christian evangelism, the Latin script spread beyond Europe, coming into use for writing indigenous American, Austronesian and African languages.
More linguists have tended to prefer the Latin script or the International Phonetic Alphabet when transcribing or creating written standards for non-European languages, such as the African reference alphabet. The term Latin alphabet may refer to either the alphabet used to write Latin, or other alphabets based on the Latin script, the basic set of letters common to the various alphabets descended from the classical Latin alphabet, such as the English alphabet; these Latin-script alphabets may discard letters, like the Rotokas alphabet, or add new letters, like the Danish and Norwegian alphabets. Letter shapes have evolved over the centuries, including the development in Medieval Latin of lower-case, forms which did not exist in the Classical period alphabet. English is the only major modern European language requiring no diacritics for native words, it is believed that the Romans adopted the Cumae alphabet, a variant of the Greek alphabet, in the 7th century BC from Cumae, a Greek colony in Southern Italy.
The Ancient Greek alphabet was in turn based upon the Phoenician abjad. From the Cumae alphabet, the Etruscan alphabet was derived and the Romans adopted 21 of the original 27 Etruscan letters: Latin included 21 different characters; the letter ⟨C⟩ was the western form of the Greek gamma, but it was used for the sounds /ɡ/ and /k/ alike under the influence of Etruscan, which might have lacked any voiced plosives. During the 3rd century BC, the letter ⟨Z⟩ – unneeded to write Latin properly – was replaced with the new letter ⟨G⟩, a ⟨C⟩ modified with a small vertical stroke, which took its place in the alphabet. From on, ⟨G⟩ represented the voiced plosive /ɡ/, while ⟨C⟩ was reserved for the voiceless plosive /k/; the letter ⟨K⟩ was used only in a small number of words such as Kalendae interchangeably with ⟨C⟩. After the Roman conquest of Greece in the 1st century BC, Latin adopted the Greek letters ⟨Y⟩ and ⟨Z⟩ to write Greek loanwords, placing them at the end of the alphabet. An attempt by the emperor Claudius to introduce three additional letters.
Thus it was during the classical Latin period that the Latin alphabet contained 23 letters: The Latin names of some of these letters are disputed. In general the Romans did not use the traditional names as in Greek: the names of the plosives were formed by adding /eː/ to their sound and the names of the continuants consisted either of the bare sound, or the sound preceded by /e/; the letter ⟨Y⟩ when introduced was called "hy" /hyː/ as in Greek, the name upsilon not being in use yet, but this was changed to "i Graeca" as Latin speakers had difficulty distinguishing its foreign sound /y/ from /i/. ⟨ Z ⟩ was given zeta. This scheme has continued to be used by most modern European languages that have adopted the Latin alphabet. For the Latin sounds represented by the various letters see Latin pronunciation. Diacritics were not used, but they did occur sometimes, the most common being the apex used to mark long vowels, which had sometimes been written doubled. However, in place of taking an apex, the letter i was written taller: ⟨á é ꟾ ó v́⟩.
For example, what is today transcribed Lūciī a fīliī was written ⟨lv́ciꟾ·a·fꟾliꟾ⟩ in the inscription depicted. The primary mark of punctuation was the interpunct, used as a word divider, though it fell out of use after 200 AD. Old Roman cursive script called majuscule cursive and capitalis cursive, was the everyday form of handwriting used for writing letters, by merchants writing business accounts, by schoolchildren learning the Latin alphabet, emperors issuing commands. A more formal style of writing was based on Roman square capitals, but cursive was used for quicker, informal writing, it was most c
The Windows logo key is a keyboard key, introduced on the Microsoft Natural keyboard in 1994. This key became a standard key on PC keyboards. In Windows tapping the key brings up the start menu. Ctrl + Esc performs the same function, in case; the addition of two Windows keys and a menu key marked the change from the 101/102-key to 104/105-key layout for PC keyboards. Compared to the former layout, a Windows key was placed between the left Ctrl and the left Alt and another Windows key and the menu key were placed between the right Alt and the right Ctrl key. In laptop and other compact keyboards it is common to have just one Windows key. On Microsoft's Entertainment Desktop sets, the Windows key is in the middle of the keyboard, below all other keys. On Windows 8 tablet computers, hardware certification requirements mandated that the Windows key be centered on the bezel below the screen, except on a convertible laptop, where the button is allowed to be off-center in a tablet configuration; this requirement was relaxed in Windows 8.1, allowing the Windows key to be placed on any bezel or edge of the unit, though a centered location along the bottom bezel is still preferred.
Microsoft regulates the appearance of the Windows key logo picture with a specially crafted license for keyboard manufacturers. With the introduction of a new Microsoft Windows logo, first used with Windows XP, the agreement was updated to require that the new design be adopted for all keyboards manufactured after 1 September 2003. However, with the release of Windows Vista, Microsoft published guidelines for a new Windows Logo key that incorporates the Windows logo recessed in a chamfered lowered circle with a contrast ratio of at least 3:1 with respect to background that the key is applied to. In Common Building Block Keyboard Specification, all CBB compliant keyboards were to comply with the Windows Vista Hardware Start Button specification beginning in 1 June 2007. On Windows 9x and Windows NT families of Windows operating system, tapping the Windows key by itself traditionally revealed Windows Taskbar and opened the Start menu. In Windows Server 2012 and Windows 8, this key doesn't show the taskbar.
However, this feature was added back into Windows 10. Pressing the key in combination with other keys allows invoking many common functions through the keyboard. Holding down Ctrl+Esc will not substitute for the Windows key in these combinations. Which Windows key combinations are available and active in a given Windows session depends on many factors, such as accessibility options, the type of the session, the Windows version, the presence of specific software such as IntelliType and Group Policy if applicable. Below is a list of notable shortcuts. Unless otherwise noted, they are valid in the next version of Windows; the following shortcuts are valid in Windows 95 and Windows NT 4.0. ⊞ Win opens the Start Menu ⊞ Win+D shows the desktop, or restores hidden windows when pressed a second time. ⊞ Win+E opens Windows Explorer with folder pane on left side of window. ⊞ Win + F opens Find folders. ⊞ Win+M minimizes all windows. ⊞ Win+⇧ Shift+M restores windows that were minimized with Winkey+M. ⊞ Win + R opens the "Run File" Window.
⊞ Win+U runs Utility Manager. ⊞ Win+Pause or ⊞ Win+Break opens properties of My Computer. ⊞ Win+F1 opens Windows Help. ⊞ Win+Control+F opens Find computers. ⊞ Win+Tab ↹ cycles through taskbar buttons. This key combination is reassigned in Windows Vista. Windows 2000 adds the following: ⊞ Win+L locks the desktop. Windows XP adds the following: ⊞ Win+B selects the first icon in the Notification Area. ⊞ Win+Ctrl+F opens Search for Computers. Requires Active Directory Domain Services. ⊞ Win + L shows the user selection screen. Windows XP Media Center Edition adds the following: ⊞ Win+Alt+↵ Enter starts Windows Media Center. Windows Vista adds the following shortcuts: ⊞ Win+Space bar brings the Windows Sidebar to the front. ⊞ Win+G selects next Windows Sidebar gadget item, bringing all gadgets to the foreground in process. Gadgets were discontinued in Windows 8. ⊞ Win+X invokes Windows Mobility Center. Works only if portable computer features are installed; this key combination is reassigned in Windows 8. ⊞ Win+Tab ↹ switches active app using Aero Flip 3D.
Requires desktop composition, a feature of Windows Aero. Aero Flip 3D is discontinued in Windows 8 and this key is reassigned. ⊞ Win+Ctrl+Tab ↹ is same as above, but Aero Flip 3D remains when this key combination is released. Arrow keys or mouse may be used to navigate between windows. ⊞ Win+1 through ⊞ Win+9, ⊞ Win+0 starts the corresponding Quick Launch Bar program. ⊞ Win+0 runs the tenth item. Quick Launch is discontinued in Windows 7, but continued from Windows 8 onward. Windows 7 used the following shortcuts: ⊞ Win+Space bar activates Aero Peek. Reassigned in Windows 8. ⊞ Win + P toggles between the devices. The default is computer monitor only. Other options are video projector only, both showing the same image and both showing a portion of a larger desktop. ⊞ Win+↑ maximizes the active window. ⊞ Win + ↓ restores the default window state of the active window, if maximized. Otherwise, minimizes the active window. ⊞ Win + → to align the window to the corresponding side of the screen, tiled vertically.
⊞ Win+⇧ Shift+← or → to move the window to the next or previous monitor, if multi
In computing, rebooting is the process by which a running computer system is restarted, either intentionally or unintentionally. Reboots can be either "cold" where the power to the system is physically turned off and back on again, causing an initial boot of the machine, or warm where the system restarts without the need to interrupt the power; the term restart is used to refer to a reboot when the operating system closes all programs and finalizes all pending input and output operations before initiating a soft reboot. Early electronic computers had no operating system and little internal memory; the input was a stack of punch cards. The computer was initiated by pressing a start button that performed a single command, read a card; this first card instructed the machine to read more cards that loaded a user program. This process was likened to an old saying, "picking yourself up by the bootstraps", referring to a horseman who lifts himself off the ground by pulling on the straps of his boots.
This set of initiating punch cards was called "bootstrap cards". Thus a cold start was called booting the computer up. If the computer crashed, it was rebooted; the boot reference carried over to all subsequent types of computers. For more, see Bootstrapping. Technical sources describe two contrasting forms of reboot known as a cold reboot and warm reboot, although the definition of these forms can vary between sources. According to Jones and Tittel, Cooper and Soper, on IBM PC compatible platform, a cold boot is a boot process in which the computer starts from a powerless state. All except Tulloch mention that in cold boot, the system performs a power-on self-test. In addition to the power switch and Soper state that the reset button, if present, may commence a cold reboot. Jones and Tittel contradicts this assertion and states that a reset button may commence either a cold or warm reboot, depending on the system. Microsoft Support article 102228 confers that although the reset button is designed to perform a cold reboot, it may not disconnect the power to the motherboard – a state that does not correspond to the cold boot definition given above.
According to Jones and Tittel, both the operating system and third-party software can initiate a cold boot. Finding a definition for warm boot, however, is more of a challenge. All aforementioned sources indicate that a warm boot is initiated by pressing Ctrl + Alt + Delete key combination. Jones and Tittel specifies that for a warm reboot to occur, BIOS must be the recipient of the key combination. Microsoft Support article 102228 takes a more technical approach and defines warm boot as the result of invoking INT 19h, a BIOS interrupt call, with the Ctrl + Alt + Delete key combination being only one way of achieving this. According to Grimes, malware may prevent or subvert a warm boot by intercepting the Ctrl + Alt + Delete key combination and prevent it from reaching BIOS; the Windows NT family of operating systems does the same and reserves the key combination for its own use. Soper asserts that the Windows "Restart" command initiates a warm boot, thus contradicting Jones and Tittel, who believe the same action performs a cold boot.
The Linux family of operating systems supports an alternative to warm boot. The entire process occurs independently of the system firmware; the kernel being executed does not have to be a Linux kernel. Outside the domain of IBM compatible PCs, the types of boot may not be as disambiguous. According to Sue Loh of Windows CE Base Team, Windows CE devices support three types of boots: Warm and clean. A warm boot discards program memory. A cold boot additionally discards storage memory, while a clean boot erases all forms of memory storage from the device. However, since these areas do not exist on all Windows CE devices, users are only concerned with two forms of reboot: one that resets the volatile memory and one that wipes the device clean and restores factory settings. For example, for a Windows Mobile 5.0 device, the former is a cold boot and the latter is a clean boot. A hard reboot means that the system is not shut down in an orderly manner, skipping file system synchronisation and other activities that would occur on an orderly shutdown.
This can be achieved by either applying a reset, by cycling power, by issuing the halt -q command in most Unix-like systems, or by triggering a kernel panic. The term "restart" is used by Microsoft Windows and Linux family of operating systems to denote an operating system-assisted reboot. In a restart, the operating system ensures that all pending I/O operations are gracefully ended before commencing a reboot. Users may deliberately initiate a reboot. Rationale for such action may include: Troubleshooting: Rebooting may be used by users, support staff or system administrators as a technique to work around bugs in software, for example memory leaks or processes that hog resources to the detriment of the overall system, or to terminate malware. While this approach does not address the root cause of the issue, resetting a system back to a good, known state may allow it to be used again for some period until the issue next occurs. Switching operating systems: On a multi-boot system