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Commanding officer

The commanding officer or sometimes, if the incumbent is a general officer, commanding general, is the officer in command of a military unit. The commanding officer has ultimate authority over the unit, is given wide latitude to run the unit as they see fit, within the bounds of military law. In this respect, commanding officers have significant responsibilities and powers. In some countries, commanding officers may be of any commissioned rank. There are more officers than command positions available, time spent in command is a key aspect of promotion, so the role of commanding officer is valued; the commanding officer is assisted by an executive officer or second-in-command, who handles personnel and day-to-day matters, a senior enlisted advisor. Larger units may have staff officers responsible for various responsibilities. In the British Army, Royal Marines, many other Commonwealth military and paramilitary organisations, the commanding officer of a unit is appointed, thus the office of CO is an appointment.

The appointment of commanding officer is exclusive to commanders of major units. It is customary for a commanding officer to hold the rank of lieutenant colonel, they are referred to within the unit as "the colonel" or the CO. "The colonel" may refer to the holder of an honorary appointment of a senior officer who oversees the non-operational affairs of a regiment. However, the rank of the appointment holder and the holder's appointment are separate; that is, not all lieutenant colonels are COs, although most COs are lieutenant colonels, not a requirement of the appointment. Sub-units and minor units and formations do not have a commanding officer; the officer in command of a minor unit holds the appointment of "officer commanding". Higher formations have a general officer commanding. Area commands have a commander-in-chief; the OC of a sub-unit or minor unit is today customarily a major, although again the rank of the appointment holder and the holder's appointment are separate and independent of each other.

In some cases, independent units smaller than a sub-unit will have an OC appointed. In these cases, the officer commanding can be a captain or a lieutenant. Appointments such as CO and OC may have specific powers associated with them. For example, they may have statutory powers to promote soldiers or to deal with certain disciplinary offences and award certain punishments; the CO of a unit may have the power to sentence an offender to 28 days' detention, whereas the OC of a sub-unit may have the power to sentence an offender to 3 days' restriction of privileges. Commanders of units smaller than sub-units are not specific appointments and officers or NCOs who fill those positions are referred to as the commander or leader. In the Royal Air Force, the title of commanding officer is reserved for station commanders or commanders of independent units, including flying squadrons; as with the British Army, the post of a commander of a lesser unit such as an administrative wing, squadron or flight is referred to as the officer commanding.

In the Royal Navy and many others, commanding officer is the official title of the commander of any ship, unit or installation. However, they are referred to as "the captain" no matter what their actual rank, or informally as "skipper" or "boss". In the United States, the status of commanding officer is duly applied to all commissioned officers who hold lawful command over a military unit, ship, or installation; the commanding officer of a company a captain, is referred to as the company commander. The commanding officer of a battalion is a lieutenant colonel; the commanding officer of a brigade, a colonel, is the brigade commander. At the division level and higher, the commanding officer is referred to as the commanding general, as these officers hold general officer rank. Although holding a leadership position in the same sense as commanders, the individual in charge of a platoon, the smallest unit of soldiers led by a commissioned officer a second lieutenant, is referred to as the platoon leader, not the platoon commander.

This officer does have command of the soldiers under him but does not have many of the command responsibilities inherent to higher echelons. For example, a platoon leader cannot issue non-judicial punishment. Non-commissioned officers may be said to have charge of certain smaller military units, they cannot, hold command as they lack the requisite authority granted by the head of state to do so. Those wielding "command" of individual vehicles are called vehicle commanders; this distinction in title applies to officers who are aircraft commanders, as well as officers and enlisted soldiers who are tank and armored vehicle commanders. While these officers and NCOs have tactical and operational command (including full authority and accountability –


Kushari koshari, is Egypt’s national dish and a popular street food. An Egyptian dish that originated during the mid-19th century the dish combines Italian and Middle Eastern culinary elements. Kushari is made of rice and lentils mixed together, topped with a spiced tomato sauce and garlic vinegar and garnished with chickpeas and crispy fried onions and is served with sprinklings of garlic juice, garlic vinegar and hot sauce are optional. Kushari originated in the mid-19th century, during a time when Egypt was a multicultural country in the middle of an economic boom, it consists of fried onions, rice and lemon sauce. It's somehow related to Italian cuisine and to an Indian dish made only from rice and lentils, but the Egyptian dish has more ingredients and flavors the local Egyptian sauce giving it its unique taste the dish is popular with; some believe. Over time, the dish has evolved through Egyptian soldiers Egyptian citizens. Kushari used to be sold on food carts in its early years, was introduced to restaurants later.

This dish is popular among workers and labourers, the dish is well-suited to mass catering events such as conferences. It may be prepared at home, is served at roadside stalls and restaurants all over Egypt; as traditionally prepared kushari does not contain any animal products so it can be considered vegan, as long as all frying uses vegetable oil. Ful medames Media related to Kushari at Wikimedia Commons Egyptian Kushari with step by step photos from Food Lover Article on Egyptian vegetarian cooking A travel writer's take on Kushari in Cairo

The GM Effect

"The GM Effect" is a science fiction short story by American writer Frank Herbert, which first appeared in Analog magazine in 1965 and in Herbert's 1985 short story collection The Worlds of Frank Herbert. It was Herbert's first story that dealt with a concept of other memory, a concept which would come to permeate most of his work, most notably the novels of the Dune universe. While "looking for a hormonal method of removing fat from the body" a group of doctors at a Yankton Technical Institute realize that the side effect of their compound 105 is a genetic memory effect, which allows the users to access memories of all of their biological ancestors. Realizing that such a discovery not only gives a complete and true insight in the history of the human race, but grants the knowledge that the ancestors acquired, the doctors organize a meeting in which they plan to discuss how to proceed, they are, however and killed by military forces, who seize the formula to test it further for military use.

Like many of Herbert's stories, the sprouts of ideas mentioned in "The GM Effect" would develop in his other works. Other Memory, a concept Herbert based on the idea of a genetic memory and Jung's collective unconscious, is in "The GM Effect" discovered by Dr. Valeric Sabantoce and accessed by both males and females by a simple use of a drug compound. In the Dune universe, the spice melange, as a drug, would come to dominate the future of mankind for both its ability to prolong life and to grant superhuman abilities; the inability of males to access the other memory would turn out to be the leading cause for the creation of Kwisatz Haderach by the Bene Gesserit sisterhood in their attempt to create their equal, a male counterpart that would help them bring on the maturity of the human race. Hints of possession, as a possible side effect of the other memory, further developed in the concept of Abomination, is mentioned in "The GM Effect", as is the "brutality of ancestors" necessary for the survival of the species and the downfall of individuals and groups that try to limit the information from others of their kind, which Herbert further explored in "Committee of the Whole" and the Dune universe.

The GM Effect title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database


Bhaavageete or Bhavageeth is a form of poetry and light music in India. Most of the poetry sung in this genre pertain to subjects like love and philosophy, the genre itself is not much different from Ghazals, though ghazals are bound to a peculiar metre; this genre is quite popular in Maharashtra. This genre may be called by different names in other languages. Kannada Bhavageete draws from modern Kannada poetry. Notable modern Kannada poets whose works have been set to music include Kuvempu, D. R. Bendre, Gopalakrishna Adiga, K. S. Narasimhaswamy, G. S. Shivarudrappa, K. S. Nissar Ahmed, Raju Ananthaswami. Tanuvu ninnadu, manavu ninnadu - Kuvempu Anandamaya ee jagahrudaya - Kuvempu Oh nanna chetana - Kuvempu Ealladaru Iru - Kuvempu Baa Chakori - Kuvempub Yaava Mohana Murali Kareyitu - Gopalakrishna Adiga Ede tumbi haadidenu andu naanu baavartha - G. S. Shivarudrappa Ondu munjaavinali - Chennaveera Kanavi Ee dinantha samayadali - K. S. Nissar Ahmed Jogada siri belakinalli - K. S. Nissar Ahmed Kaanada kadalige - G. S. Shivarudrappa Rayaru bandaru mavana manege - K. S. Narasimhaswamy Deepavu ninnade gaaliyu ninnade - K. S. Narasimhaswamy Amma naanu devaraane - H. S. Venkateshamurthy Baa illi sambhavisu - Kuvempu Ello hudukide illada devara - G. S. Shivarudrappa Naakutanti - aavu eevina - D. R. Bendre Ilidu baa taayi - D. R. Bendre Nee hinge nodabeda - ] Mugila Maarige Raaga Ratiya - ] Ee Banu Ee Chukki - ] Marathi Bhavageet draws from Marathi language poetry.

Notable composers/performers/singers include Hridaynath Mangeshkar, Lata Mangeshkar, Asha Bhosle, Sudhir Phadke, Arun Date, Suman Kalyanpur. Poets include Shanta Shelke. Shukratara - Arun Date Ya Janmavar - Arun Date Swargangechya Kathavarti - Arun Date Bhatukalichya Khelamadhali - Arun Date Hee Waat Door Jate - Asha Bhosle Chandane Shimpit Jaashi - Asha Bhosle Toch Chandrama Nabhaat - Sudhir Phadke Mawalatya Dinakara - Lata Mangeshkar Asa Bebhan Ha Wara - Lata Mangeshkar Tinhi Sanja SakheF Milalaya - Lata Mangeshkar Pratima Uri Dharuni - Lata Mangeshkar Airanichya Deva Tula - Lata Mangeshkar Rimjhim Jharati Shravan Dhara - Suman Kalyanpur Shabda Shabda Japuni Thewa - Suman Kalyanpur Omkar Pradhan Roop Ganeshache - Suman Kalyanpur Keshava Madhava - Suman Kalyanpur Ketakichya Bani Tithe - Suman Kalyanpur Jithe Sagara Dharani Milate - Suman Kalyanpur Naavika Re Wara Wahe Re - Suman Kalyanpur Nakalat Saare Ghadale - Suman Kalyanpur Waat ithe Swapnatil - Suman Kalyanpur Natya Sangeet

1595 in France

Events from the year 1595 in France Monarch – Henry IV 8 to 24 April – Siege of Calais 5 June – Battle of Fontaine-Française 20 to 26 June – Siege of Le Catelet 14 to 31 July – Siege of Doullens Jean Chapelain, poet. Jean Desmarets and dramatist Claude de Mesmes, comte d'Avaux, diplomat Henri II de Montmorency and military commander Jean Ballesdens and editor André de Brancas, admiral Henri I d'Orléans, duc de Longueville, aristocrat

Naomi (novel)

Naomi is a novel by Japanese author Jun'ichirō Tanizaki. Writing of the novel began in 1924, from March to June, Osaka's Morning News published the first several chapters of the serial. Four months the periodical Female started to publish the remaining chapters; the novel was first published in book form, by Kaizosha, in 1925. Narrated in the first person by the protagonist, a salaryman named Jōji, the novel follows his attempt to groom a Eurasian-looking girl, the titular Naomi, to be a Westernized woman. Naomi is a significant work in its comic depiction of Japanese culture of the era and its fascination with the West; the clash between older and newer generations over the more progressive depictions of women, such as Naomi, has been viewed as a clash over Japan's transition into the modern period. Naomi's story is focused around a man's obsession for a modan modern girl; the narrator, Jōji, is a well-educated Japanese man, an electrical engineer in the city, comes from a wealthy farming family.

Jōji wishes to break away from his traditional Japanese culture, becomes immersed in the new Westernized culture, taking root in Japan. The physical representation of everything Western is embodied in a girl named Naomi. Jōji sees Naomi for the first time in a café and falls for her exotic "Eurasian" looks, Western-sounding name, sophisticated mannerisms. Like the story of the prepubescent Murasaki in the classic novel The Tale of Genji, Jōji decides he will raise Naomi, a fifteen-year-old café hostess, to be his perfect woman: in this case, he will forge her into a glamorous Western-style girl like Mary Pickford, the famous Canadian actress of the silent film era, whom he thinks Naomi resembles. Jōji begins his efforts to make her a perfect Western wife, she turns out to be a willing pupil. He pays for her English-language lessons, though she has little skill with grammar, she possesses beautiful pronunciation, he funds her Westernized activities, including her love of movies and magazines. During the early part of the novel Jōji makes no sexual advances on Naomi, preferring instead to groom her according to his desires and observe her from a distance.

However, his plan to foster Western ideals such as independence in her backfires as she gets older. Jōji begins the novel being the dominator. However, as time progresses and his obsession takes hold, Naomi's manipulation puts her in a position of power over him. Jōji turns power over to Naomi, conceding to everything she desires, he buys a new house for them, though they are married, Jōji sleeps in a separate bedroom, while Naomi entertains Western men in another room. The book ends with Naomi having complete control of Jōji's life, though he claims he is satisfied as long as his obsession with her is satiated. Jōji – The narrator and protagonist: a well-educated 28-year-old man from a wealthy landlord family, he wishes to break from tradition and moves to the city to work as an electrical engineer. He meets Naomi when she is 15, takes her under his wing to educate her, he gives her everything she desires. He marries Naomi and allows himself to be dominated by her. Naomi – The antagonist: a beautiful girl with Western-like features, including her name.

She seems to embody Western culture, albeit in a superficial way. Naomi enjoys Western activities like going to movies and looking at the pictures in Western magazines, she is the perfect example of a modern girl with few inhibitions, she is sexually aggressive. Naomi is manipulative and manages to take control of her relationship with Jōji, beginning as a subordinate and becoming a dominatrix. Before Jun'ichirō Tanizaki wrote Naomi, he lived in Yokohama, a city near to Tokyo and full of Western influences, he was forced to move after 1923 Great Kantō earthquake devastated much of Yokohama. The earthquake caused extensive damage, many occupants of Tokyo and other major cities had to relocate. Tanizaki moved to Kyoto. In 1949 Tanizaki won the Imperial Cultural Prize, the highest honor awarded to artists in Japan, for his various works of literature, he was nominated for a Nobel Prize for his lifetime achievements before his death in 1965. Tanizaki wrote Naomi in his late 30s, during the Japanese Industrial Revolution when Western influences took root in Japan, continuing the trajectory of the Meiji period, when Western ideas were first introduced.

During this time Japan was transitioning from an unindustrialized nation to an industrialized, economic super-power. The novel reflects the perspective of a man shifting between modern and traditional Japan, the conflicts associated with the era. According to Anthony H. Chambers, in his Introduction to his translation of the book, the character Naomi was based upon Tanizaki's sister-in-law, who had learned to dance from a Western friend and who inspired his own interest in dancing. During the teens and twenties, a woman's role in society was drastically changing. In the early stages of the Meiji Restoration, women were limited to working in textile factories; these factories provided dormitories for the workers, who sent back their wages to their families in the countryside. However, during the teens and twenties, women started to take on other jobs as more population moved into the cities; the shift from country living to modern urban living, along with a growing adoption of Western culture, created a new niche in society for women.

The arrival of Western fashion and cosmetics spawned numerous job opportunities. Women became sa