It does not, include any postcard without a pre-printed stamp. It can take the form of an official mail issue produced only for the use of government departments and it can be an issue of a military force where an army, perhaps in a distant war, issues letter sheets for the use of its troops to write home. Postal stationery can be overprinted by the government or, occasionally, in emergency situations, postal stationery has been produced by handstamping envelopes with modified canceling devices, many of the rare Confederate postmasters provisionals are of this form. Finally, some postal stationery can be printed to private order, in this last case, stamped stationery bearing indicia is applied with postal administration approval and with specified regulations, to paper or cards provided by private persons or organizations. Private impressions result in a range of denominations and designs compared with governmental issues. Letter sheets lend themselves to airmail usage because they are lightweight, enclosures are not permitted in aerograms.
Sales of aerograms in the United States ended in 2006 due to poor sales, a letter card almost has the advantages of a postal card as far as weight and size, but the advantage of privacy of contents is concerned. It is a card, folded over, with gum or adhesive applied to the three open edges. It is opened by the recipient by tearing perforations on the three sides that are on the side of the gum. The gummed strip around the card is discarded, giving rise to the problems collectors have in finding intact used cards. The US has never issued any letter cards, before 1845 correspondence was not enclosed in an envelope. Letters were folded, sealed and postmarked on the outside and this continued even after adhesive postage stamps were introduced. The popularity of folded letters led postal authorities to introduce stamped letter sheets and these became available in the U. S. in 1861, but the first official postal stationery were the 1838 embossed letter sheets of New South Wales. These were followed by the Mulready stationery that was issued by Great Britain at the time as the Penny Black in 1840.
Since then, most postal services have issued a stream of stationery alongside stamps. Often the design of the stationery mimics the contemporaneous stamps, though with less variety and lower printing quality, much later,1947 in the U. S. letter sheets morphed into lithographed air letter sheets or aerograms. Postal cards are postal stationery and have a printed or embossed indicium and are sold by postal authorities. In the United States, they were first produced in 1873, postcards, on the other hand, are cards prepared by private companies that do not have prepaid franking and readily available at commercial outlets
A stamped envelope or postal stationery envelope is an envelope with a printed or embossed indicium indicating the prepayment of postage. It is a form of postal stationery, the Sherborn Collection in the British Library Philatelic Collections is an important collection of 1841-85 Queen Victoria embossed 1d pink stamped envelopes. The collection was formed by C. Davis Sherborn and donated to the British Museum in 1913, in August 1852 an act of the U. S. Congress authorized the Postmaster General to provide suitable letter envelopes with such watermarks or other guards against counterfeits. With the addition of the value or denomination of the stamps so printed or impressed thereon. The first result was the 1853 Nesbitt issues of stamped envelopes, when you combine the different envelope sizes, colors, dies to print the indicia, and denominations there are literally thousands of different stamped envelopes produced for the U. S. Collectors of stamped envelopes use a catalog to know what has been issued, siegfried Ascher was the first to try to comprehensively document all countries postal stationery including stamped envelopes.
This was followed some 40 years by the Higgins & Gage World Postal Stationery Catalog, though now out of date, it is still frequently cited since it covers all countries and no other comprehensive catalog has been attempted since. The H&G catalog, as it is known, describes stamped envelopes by the envelope size, the United Postal Stationery Society has two published books cataloging U. S. stamped envelopes. These books describe all of the stated criteria plus the envelope knife making them the most complete U. S. stamped envelope catalogs. Most stamped envelopes are collected as entires, in the 19th century the practice was to collect cut squares which involved cutting the embossed indicia from a postal envelope. As a result, one cannot tell from a cut square what specific envelope it came from and, many times, the manner in which the stamped envelope is cut before folding vanishes on a cut square. The envelope size disappears, with a cut square, in collecting entires, a single indicium may appear on many different sizes of envelopes.
Some countries have issued the same indicium on different paper types, likewise it is common for the same indicium to be embossed onto paper of several different colors. Finally, two envelopes of the size can have a different flap size indicating that they were cut from a different knife. Rarely, a color, or displaced surcharge, or albino indicium, or inside-out folding of the envelope may appear. All of these relate to mint or unused envelopes. When you add a postmark from an envelope to the mix. What was formerly in fashion, collecting only mint examples, has changed because many collectors seem to find used PSE collections more interesting, some postal stationery envelopes contain a corner card, a printed return address on the envelope, usually in the upper left hand corner
Abraham Lincoln was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the United States through its Civil War—its bloodiest war and perhaps its greatest moral, constitutional, in doing so, he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, and modernized the economy. Born in Hodgenville, Lincoln grew up on the frontier in Kentucky. Largely self-educated, he became a lawyer in Illinois, a Whig Party leader, elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1846, Lincoln promoted rapid modernization of the economy through banks and railroads. Reentering politics in 1854, he became a leader in building the new Republican Party, in 1860, Lincoln secured the Republican Party presidential nomination as a moderate from a swing state. Though he gained little support in the slaveholding states of the South. Subsequently, on April 12,1861, a Confederate attack on Fort Sumter inspired the North to enthusiastically rally behind the Union.
Politically, Lincoln fought back by pitting his opponents against each other, by carefully planned political patronage and his Gettysburg Address became an iconic endorsement of the principles of nationalism, equal rights and democracy. Lincoln initially concentrated on the military and political dimensions of the war and his primary goal was to reunite the nation. He suspended habeas corpus, leading to the ex parte Merryman decision. Lincoln closely supervised the war effort, especially the selection of top generals, including his most successful general, Lincoln tried repeatedly to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, each time a general failed, Lincoln substituted another, until finally Grant succeeded. As the war progressed, his moves toward ending slavery included the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863. On April 14,1865, five days after the surrender of Confederate commanding general Robert E. Lee, Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, a Confederate sympathizer. Secretary of War Edwin Stanton launched a manhunt for Booth, and 12 days on April 26, Lincoln has been consistently ranked both by scholars and the public as among the greatest U. S. presidents.
Abraham Lincoln was born February 12,1809, the child of Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln, in a one-room log cabin on the Sinking Spring Farm near Hodgenville. He was a descendant of Samuel Lincoln, an Englishman who migrated from Hingham, Norfolk to its namesake of Hingham, samuels grandson and great-grandson began the familys western migration, which passed through New Jersey and Virginia. Lincolns paternal grandfather and namesake, Captain Abraham Lincoln, moved the family from Virginia to Jefferson County, Captain Lincoln was killed in an Indian raid in 1786. His children, including eight-year-old Thomas, the presidents father
The Columbian Issue, often known as simply the Columbians, is a set of 16 postage stamps issued by the United States to commemorate the Worlds Columbian Exposition held in Chicago during 1893. Fifteen denominations of the series were placed on sale by post offices on Monday and they were available nationwide, and were not restricted to the Exposition in any way. A sixteenth stamp—-8 cents, to provide for the newly lowered registered letter fee—- was added during March, as a result, the face value of the complete set was $16.34, a substantial sum of money during 1893. In approximate 2009 dollars, the set would cost almost $390, as a result, of the most expensive stamps, especially the dollar values, only a small number were sold. Unsold stamps were destroyed after the Columbian Issue was removed from sale on April 12,1894, in all, the American Banknote Company printed more than 2 billion Columbian stamps with a total face value exceeding $40 million. Opinion regarding the Columbian Issue at the time was mixed, the set sold well and did not have the sort of criticism that resulted in the withdrawal of the 1869 Pictorial Issue.
Ridiculing the $5 stamp, the Chicago Tribune stated that it could be used for one purpose. The Columbians did not immediately increase in value after being removed from sale, however, as of 2006, depending on condition, a full set might be valued at $100,000 or more. It was not only in design and commemorative purpose that this proved a watershed in U. S. stamp history. The Columbians, like all previous U. S. stamps, had been produced by private security printers on limited-term contracts periodically presented for bidding and they proved, however, to be the last U. S. stamps printed by a private company for many years. Not until 1944 would a company again produce U. S. stamps. Entitled Columbus in Sight of Land, this lowest value in the set was based on a painting by William Powell and was one of several to be engraved by Alfred Jones and this stamp was used primarily to pay postage on third-class mail. By a substantial margin, this is the most common stamp of the Columbian Issue, more than 1 billion copies were printed, more than 70 percent of the total number of Columbian Issue stamps, in part because it paid the first-class rate for domestic mail.
Damage to one transfer roll resulted in a notch in the hat of the third man on Columbus right on some copies of this stamp. Entitled Flag Ship of Columbus, this depicts the ship Santa Maria. It is generally believed that a Spanish engraving was the model for this stamp, regardless of its original source, Robert Savage performed the engraving used. Although more than 11 million were printed, this did not pay any standard postal rate during 1893. Instead it was considered a stamp, meant to be used in combination with other small denomination stamps to pay higher rates
World's Columbian Exposition
The Worlds Columbian Exposition was a worlds fair held in Chicago in 1893 to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbuss arrival in the New World in 1492. The centerpiece of the Fair, the water pool, represented the long voyage Columbus took to the New World. Chicago bested New York City, Washington, D. C. the Exposition was an influential social and cultural event and had a profound effect on architecture, the arts, Chicagos self-image, and American industrial optimism. The layout of the Chicago Columbian Exposition was, in part, designed by John Wellborn Root, Daniel Burnham, Frederick Law Olmsted. It was the prototype of what Burnham and his colleagues thought a city should be and it was designed to follow Beaux Arts principles of design, namely French neoclassical architecture principles based on symmetry and splendor. The color of the generally used to cover the buildings facades gave the fairgrounds its nickname. Many prominent architects designed its 14 great buildings and musicians were featured in exhibits and many made depictions and works of art inspired by the exposition.
The exposition covered more than 600 acres, featuring nearly 200 new buildings of predominantly neoclassical architecture and lagoons, more than 27 million people attended the exposition during its six-month run. Dedication ceremonies for the fair were held on October 21,1892, the fair continued until October 30,1893. On October 9,1893, the day designated as Chicago Day, the debt for the fair was soon paid off with a check for $1.5 million. Chicago has commemorated the fair one of the stars on its municipal flag. Schwab, Chicago railroad and manufacturing magnate John Whitfield Bunn, and Connecticut banking, the fair was planned in the early 1890s during the Gilded Age of rapid industrial growth and class tension. Worlds fairs, such as Londons 1851 Crystal Palace Exhibition, had been successful in Europe as a way to bring together societies fragmented along class lines, the first American attempt at a worlds fair in Philadelphia in 1876, drew crowds but was a financial failure. Nonetheless, ideas about distinguishing the 400th anniversary of Columbus landing started in the late 1880s.
Civic leaders in St. Louis, New York City, Washington DC and Chicago expressed an interest in hosting a fair to generate profits, boost real estate values, Congress was called on to decide the location. What finally persuaded Congress was Chicago banker Lyman Gage, who raised several million dollars in a 24-hour period, over. The exposition corporation and national exposition commission settled on Jackson Park, Daniel H. Burnham was selected as director of works, and George R. Davis as director-general. Burnham emphasized architecture and sculpture as central to the fair and assembled the periods top talent to design the buildings, the temporary buildings were designed in an ornate Neoclassical style and painted white, resulting in the fair site being referred to as the “White City”
Territories of the United States on stamps
Territories of the United States on stamps discusses commemorative postal issues devoted to lands that have been ceded to the nation or purchased by treaty in conjunction with both war and peace. Thirteen states have created from colonial territories, two from independent republics, four from previous states in the Union, and an additional thirty-one from United States territories. Many aspects of acquisition and exploration have been celebrated on postage stamps and these are represented below in issues that appeared prior to 1978. From the territory ceded by Great Britain in the Treaty of Paris 1783, five states were to emerge from the Northwest Territory, two from the Southwest Territory. States under the Articles of Confederation ceded their claims to lands, allowing Congress to administer territories until statehood. From the Northwest Territory came Ohio, Illinois, from The Southwest Territory came Mississippi and Alabama. A 3-cent stamp was issued on July 13,1937, to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the Northwest Territory as defined by the Ordinance of 1787, the Territory consisted of lands north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River ceded by eastern states.
The Ordinance established the Territory, banned slavery, and specified that land must be purchased from the Indians and it made provision for temporary and permanent governments and eventual statehood of included regions based on population. The stamp shows a map of the Territory which is flanked by Manasseh Cutler who drafted the ordinance, the 150th anniversary of establishment of the Mississippi Territory was celebrated by a 3-cent stamp on April 7,1948. The vignette shows a map of the region of today’s Mississippi. The present Mississippi is shown in a darker tone, the map is divided into three sections with dates 1798,1804, and 1812, showing the growth of the Territory. Over the map is the seal of the Territory on which the second double s of Mississippi is written as a single s. The portrait is of Winthrop Sargent, first governor of Mississippi Territory, the first expansion beyond Treaty of Paris borders occurred with the Louisiana Purchase from France in 1803 under President Thomas Jefferson, known as the architect of the Louisiana Purchase.
His portrait is featured on the stamp of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition issue. This issue of 1904 featured a 10-cent stamp with an outline of the Louisiana Purchase territory superimposed over a map of the United States. The Louisiana Purchase sesquicentennial 1953 featured James Monroe, Robert R. Livingston and François Barbé-Marbois, “signing the Louisiana Transfer, Paris 1803”. A map of the 1822 Florida Territory was pictured on the statehood commemoration from its state seal on its 100th anniversary by a 3-cent stamp on March 3,1945. The gates of St. Augustine are pictured on the left, Texas was annexed in 1845 by Republic of Texas petition to the United States under the presidency of James K. Polk
They continued in use throughout the remainder of Victorias reign, and many of the designs were reused in the stamps of Edward VII. They include the first British stamps to be printed in two colours, the variety of colours and designs was partly in response to the much-disliked Lilac and Green issues of 1883-1884. The 1884 Stamp Committee was formed to make decisions about improved replacements, the 1887 issue generally followed the Committees recommendations and the ½d, 1½d, 2d, 2½d, 3d, 4d, 5d, 6d, 9d and 1s values were put on sale 1 January 1887. A 10d value followed on 24 February 1890 and the 4½d value on 15 September 1892, the stamps continued in use largely unchanged, though specialists identify shade variations, to the end of the century. From 1 January 1900, the value was reprinted in blue-green. Because of the period of use, the lower values of the issue are still quite common today. Higher values generally rise in price according to the denomination, topped by an unused 1-shilling value, double impressions of the halfpenny vermilion are known, and go for several thousand pounds.
Stanley Gibbons Great Britain Specialised Stamp Catalogue Volume 1, Queen Victoria
Stamp collecting is the collecting of postage stamps and related objects. It is related to philately which is the study of stamps and it has been one of the worlds most popular hobbies since the late nineteenth century with the rapid growth of the postal service. Stamp collecting proved to be an almost perfect hobby for collectors because there was a never ending stream of new stamps as each sought to advertise its distinctiveness through its stamps. Because some stamps became rare, a international trade in stamps was created. While stamp collectors are of all ages, it has been particularly popular hobby among children, Stamp collecting is generally accepted as one of the areas that make up the wider subject of philately, which is the study of stamps. A philatelist may, but does not have to, collect stamps and it is not uncommon for the term philatelist to be used to mean a stamp collector. Many casual stamp collectors accumulate stamps for sheer enjoyment and relaxation without worrying about the tiny details, the creation of a large or comprehensive collection, generally requires some philatelic knowledge and will usually contain areas of philatelic studies.
Stamp collectors are an important source of income for countries who create limited runs of elaborate stamps designed mainly to be bought by stamp collectors. The stamps produced by these countries may exceed their postal needs and it has been suggested that John Bourke, Receiver General of Stamp Dues in Ireland was the first collector. In 1774 he assembled a book of the existing embossed revenue stamps, ranging in value from 6 pounds to half a penny and his collection is preserved in Dublin. The first postage stamp, the Penny Black, was issued by Britain in 1840 and it was produced without perforations and consequently had to be cut from the sheet with scissors in order to be used. While unused examples of the Penny Black are quite scarce, used examples are quite common, people started to collect stamps almost immediately. One of the earliest and most notable was John Edward Gray, in 1862, Gray stated that he began to collect postage stamps shortly after the system was established and before it had become a rage.
As the hobby and study of stamps began to grow, stamp albums and stamp related literature began to surface and teenagers were early collectors of stamps in the 1860s and 1870s. Many adults dismissed it as a pursuit but many of those same collectors, as adults, began to systematically study the available postage stamps. Some stamps, such as the issues of the Cape of Good Hope, have become legendary. Stamp collecting is a popular hobby in the early 21st century than it was a hundred years ago. In 2013, the Wall Street Journal estimated the number of stamp collectors was around 60 million
Postage stamp may refer to a formatting artifact in the display of film or video, Windowbox. A postage stamp is a piece of paper that is purchased and displayed on an item of mail as evidence of payment of postage. Typically, stamps are printed on special paper, show a national designation and a denomination on the front. They are sometimes a source of net profit to the issuing agency, stamps are usually rectangular, but triangles or other shapes are occasionally used. The stamp is affixed to an envelope or other postal cover the customer wishes to send, the item is processed by the postal system, where a postmark, sometimes known as a cancellation mark, is usually applied in overlapping manner to stamp and cover. This procedure marks the stamp as used to prevent its reuse, in modern usage, postmarks generally indicate the date and point of origin of the mailing. The mailed item is delivered to the address the customer has applied to the envelope or parcel. Postage stamps have facilitated the delivery of mail since the 1840s, before then and hand-stamps, usually made from wood or cork, were often used to frank the mail and confirm the payment of postage.
The first adhesive postage stamp, commonly referred to as the Penny Black, was issued in the United Kingdom in 1840, there are varying accounts of the inventor or inventors of the stamp. The postage stamp resolved this issue in a simple and elegant manner, concurrently with the first stamps, the UK offered wrappers for mail. S. Postal service for priority or express mailing, the postage stamp afforded convenience for both the mailer and postal officials, more effectively recovered costs for the postal service, and ultimately resulted in a better, faster postal system. With the conveniences stamps offered, their use resulted in greatly increased mailings during the 19th and 20th centuries, as postage stamps with their engraved imagery began to appear on a widespread basis and collectors began to take notice. The study of stamps and their use is referred to as philately. Stamp collecting can be both a hobby and a form of study and reference, as government-issued postage stamps. The postage for the item was prepaid by the use of a hand-stamp to frank the mailed item.
Though this stamp was applied to a letter instead of a piece of paper it is considered by many historians as the worlds first postage stamp. Rowland Hill The Englishman Sir Rowland Hill began interest in postal reform in 1835, in 1836, a Member of Parliament, Robert Wallace, provided Hill with numerous books and documents, which Hill described as a half hundred weight of material. Hill commenced a study of these documents, leading him to the 1837 publication of a pamphlet entitled Post Office Reform its Importance
An airmail stamp is a postage stamp intended to pay either an airmail fee that is charged in addition to the surface rate, or the full airmail rate, for a piece of mail to be transported by air. Airmail stamps should not be confused with airmail etiquettes, which are affixed to mail as an instruction to the authority that the mail should be transmitted by air. With aviation developments, several countries started to experiment with flights, initially flights were unofficial, but some flights such as the 1877 Buffalo balloon flight, carried mail, to which stamp-like labels were affixed. At the beginning airmail letters cost more than surface mail, the first stamp depicting an aeroplane was a US 20-cent parcel post stamp issued on 1 January 1913 but not intended for airmail duty, the set of 12 showed transportation and delivery methods. Four years a stamp was issued in Italy. Some other examples are the use of stamps, telegraph stamps, postage due stamps. Airmail stamps have been issued for extra services, such as registered airmail, express airmail, airmail fieldpost, in the 1920s and 1930s, when many countries issued airmail stamps to publicise their new airmail routes, a new branch of stamp collecting started.
This led to an expansion that includes the collection of covers, Airmail items from the early days are expensive due to the popularity of this collecting area. Specialised catalogues and albums are produced for collectors of airmail stamps, many airmail stamps feature aviation themes that are an area of topical stamp collecting. The first official postage stamp to be issued for a flight was in May 1917 when Poste italiane overprinted their existing special delivery stamps. One pane of 100 stamps were found to have an error, known as the Inverted Jenny. The error is one of the most well known airmail stamps, for example, as noted above the privately produced 5¢ Buffalo balloon stamps were used on June 18,1877, for a balloon flight from Nashville to Gallatin, Tennessee. The Vin Fiz Flyer, an airplane, carried semi-official stamps on its 1911 flight across the United States. Aerophilately Airmail stamps of Denmark Art Deco stamps List of United States airmail stamps Notes Sources Hornung, the Illustrated Encyclopedia of Stamp Collecting.
Feltham, The Hamlyn Publishing Group, further reading Gomez, Ariel Books Staff. Buffalo balloon stamp on cover Collecting airmail stamps American Air Mail Society U. S. Air Mail Stamps American Air Mail Society
First day of issue
Sometimes the issue is made from a temporary or permanent foreign or overseas office. Depending on the policy of the nation issuing the stamp, official first day postmarks may sometimes be applied to covers weeks or months after the date indicated. The ceremony may be held in a location that has a connection with the stamps subject, such as the birthplace of a social movement. Computer vended postage stamps issued by Neopost had first-day-of-issue ceremonies sponsored by the company, personalised postage stamps of different designs are sometimes given first-day-of-issue ceremonies and cancellations by the private designer. The stamps issued by private local posts can have first days of issue, event covers, instead of marking the issuance of a stamp, commemorate events. A design on the side of the envelope explains the event or anniversary being celebrated. Ideally the stamp or stamps affixed relate to the event, cancels are obtained either from the location or, in the case of the United States, from the Postal Services Cancellation Services unit in Kansas City.
The earliest known use of a stamp may or may not be the same as the first day of issue and this can occur if, Stamps are inadvertently sold or stolen, and cancelled on an envelope or package by unaware postal officials prior to the first day of issue. Minor changes, such as a different perforation, are noted by postal officials and this is true of some major stamp issues, especially during periods of civil unrest or if government records have been lost. Some earlier stamps, especially high values, have not found any customers using them on the day of issue, EKUs for these may be weeks or even months after the official first day. Some stamps have not have had a designated first day of issue. The search for EKUs of both old and new stamps is an area of philately, and new discoveries are regularly announced. As the collecting of first day covers became more popular they began to appear on prepared envelopes, earliest Reported Postmark on stamped envelopes. The Official Blackbook Price Guide to United States Postage Stamps 2010