SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Commendation Medal

The Commendation Medal is a mid-level United States military decoration, presented for sustained acts of heroism or meritorious service. Each branch of the United States Armed Forces issues its own version of the Commendation Medal, with a fifth version existing for acts of joint military service performed under the Department of Defense; the Commendation Medal was only a service ribbon and was first awarded by the U. S. Navy and U. S. Coast Guard in 1943. An Army Commendation Ribbon followed in 1945, in 1949, the Navy, Coast Guard, Army Commendation ribbons were renamed the "Commendation Ribbon with Metal Pendant". By 1960, the Commendation Ribbons had been authorized as full medals and were subsequently referred to as Commendation Medals. Additional awards of the Army and Air Force Commendation Medals are denoted by bronze and silver oak leaf clusters; the Navy and Marine Corps Commendation Medal and Coast Guard Commendation Medal are authorized gold and silver 5/16 inch stars to denote additional awards.

The Operational Distinguishing Device is authorized for wear on the Coast Guard Commendation Medal upon approval of the awarding authority. Order of Precedence is following the Air Medal but before the Prisoner of War Medal and all campaign medals; each of the military services awards separate Achievement Medals which are below the Commendation Medals in precedence. For valorous actions in direct contact with an enemy, but of a lesser degree than required for the award of the Bronze Star Medal, a Commendation Medal with "V" Device or Combat "V" is awarded. On January 7 2016, The "C" Device or Combat "C” was created and may be authorized for wear on the service and suspension ribbon of the Commendation Medal to distinguish an award for meritorious service or achievement under the most arduous combat conditions. A Commendation Medal with Combat Device is unofficially named the “Combat Commendation” and is considered to be a higher level form of the Commendation Medal, regardless of the Awarding Branch.

Retroactive award of the “C” device is not approved for medals awarded before 7 January 2016. The Joint Service Commendation Medal was authorized on 25 June 1963 and is awarded in the name of the Secretary of Defense to members of the Armed Forces of the United States who, after 1 January 1963, distinguished themselves by meritorious achievement or service in a joint duty capacity; this award is intended for senior service on a joint military staff and is senior in precedence to service-specific Commendation Medals. As such, it is worn above the service Commendation Medals on a military uniform. DevicesOak leaf cluster "V" Device The Army Commendation Medal is awarded to any member of the Armed Forces of the United States other than General Officers who, while serving in any capacity with the U. S. Army after December 6, 1941, distinguished themselves by heroism, meritorious achievement or meritorious service; the medal may be awarded to a member of another branch of the U. S. Armed Forces or of a friendly foreign nation who, after June 1, 1962, distinguishes themselves by an act of heroism, extraordinary achievement, or significant meritorious service, of mutual benefit to the friendly nation and the United States.

Criteria and appearanceThe Army Commendation Medal is awarded to American and foreign military personnel in the grade of O-6 and below who have performed noteworthy service in any capacity with the United States Army. Qualifying service for the award of the medal can be for distinctive meritorious achievement and service, acts of courage involving no voluntary risk of life, or sustained meritorious performance of duty. Approval of the award must be made by an officer in the grade of higher; the medallion of the Army Commendation Medal is a bronze hexagon, 1​3⁄8 inches wide. On the medallion is an American bald eagle with wings spread horizontally, grasping in its talons three crossed arrows. On its breast is a shield paly of thirteen pieces and a chief; the reverse bears a panel for naming between the words FOR MILITARY above and MERIT below, all placed above a laurel sprig. The ribbon is 1​3⁄8 inches wide of myrtle green, it is edged in white and in the center are five thin white stripes spaced apart.

DevicesOak leaf cluster "V" Device "C" Device "R" Device After the First World War, the Department of the Navy authorized the Navy Commendation Star, a ribbon device to be placed on the World War I Victory Medal. The ​3⁄16 inch silver star was identical to the Army Citation Star, but not comparable, as the recognized "gallantry in action", while the Navy Commendation Star denoted those, cited and commended for performance of duty by the Secretary of the Navy. An independent Navy Commendation Ribbon was established in November 1943. On 22 March 1950 a metal pendant was authorized and the Commendation Ribbon was renamed the Navy Commendation Ribbon with Metal Pendant; this award was re-designated as the Navy Commendation Medal in September 1960, renamed the Navy and Marine Corps

Amphispiza

Amphispiza is a genus of birds in the American sparrow family. It contains two species: Five-striped sparrow Amphispiza quinquestriata Black-throated sparrow, Amphispiza bilineataIt has long been considered to contain the sage sparrow complex as well, but mitochondrial DNA sequences suggest that the sage sparrow is not closely related to the five-striped and black-throated sparrows, so it has been placed in its own genus, Artemisiospiza, a treatment followed here. Both Amphispiza species inhabit dry areas of the western United States and northern Mexico, but in different habitats, they run on the ground with their tails cocked and sing from low bushes. Adults are whitish on the belly and gray with black and white head markings. Juveniles are rather similar to each other, grayish brown above and whitish below, with short streaks on the breast; the genus name Amphispiza derives from the two Ancient Greek words αμφι, meaning "on both sides" or "around", σπίζα, a catch-all term for finch-like birds applied to the sage sparrow.

It was considered a finch and resembles some other finch-like birds "around" it, that is, in its range. Peterson, Alan P.. 1999. Zoological Nomenclature Resource. Accessed 2007-07-29

FS Class ALe 642

FS ALe 642 is a class of Italian Electric Multiple Unit trains built at the beginning of the 1990s for use on secondary lines and for commuter traffic. All units of this group are assigned to Emilia Romagna and Tuscany regional service divisions; this class is derived from the previous ALe 582 and ALe 724 EMUs, sharing most of the mechanical and technical characteristics. The main differences are for the presence of 2nd class only seatings; the frontal part containing cabins consists of a preformed structure made of polyester reinforced with fiberglass. They had the Navetta livery, painted in gray with orange and red lateral stripes. Like the previous EMUs on which they are based on, Class 642 can be divided in one or more sections containing a varying number of elements: ALe 642.001 ÷ 60, the engine units with driving cabins. Each section must contain one Le, with a driving cabin on each end. Basic section arrangement are: M + R + Rp M + R + R + Rp M + R + R + M M + Rpwhere M are ALe 642, R Le 764 and Rp Le 682.

Engine units employ four direct current traction motors placed inside the bogies, two for each one of them. They are fed by one per bogie. Chopper regulation allows rheostatic braking and the current generated by motors can be sent to the overhead supply line if there are other trains able to absorb it. An interlocking valve limits to 0.4 bars the pressure into the brake cylinders of the ALes when electrically braking. Low tension circuitry employs 24 V batteries recharged by 380 V three-phase 70 kVA DC/AC static converters, located on engine units and Le 682 and which supply electric current to auxiliary services. Corradino/Bologna. Avarie pratiche ALe642