Light truck or light-duty truck is a US classification for trucks or truck-based vehicles with a payload capacity of less than 4,000 pounds. Similar sized goods vehicles in the European Union are known as commercial vehicles. ”Light trucks includes vans, pickups. The United States government uses light truck as a class in regulating fuel economy through the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standard. The class includes vans, sport utility vehicles, light trucks have lower fuel economy standards than cars, under the premise that these vehicles are used for utilitarian purposes rather than personal transportation. Since light trucks sold in the US are increasingly being used for personal use, US production of light trucks are protected by the Chicken Tax, a 25% tariff on imported light trucks. California Air Resources Board Commercial vehicle Emission standard Regulatory Announcement on EPA changing definitions of the light and heavy-duty trucks
This page refers to a collection of vehicles with a single owner. For other uses of the fleet, see Fleet. Fleet vehicles are groups of vehicles owned or leased by a business. Typical examples are operated by car rental companies, taxicab companies, public utilities, public bus companies. In addition, many businesses purchase or lease fleet vehicles to deliver goods to customers, in the United States, Federal Vehicle fleets refers to the federal governments vehicles. Fleet leasing in the UK is very much the same as in the USA, Fleet leasing is popular with much larger businesses with the ability to get great deals and discounts on multi leasing vehicles. Carsharing Fleet card Fleet management software Fleet Management System Fleet Special General Services Administration Take-home vehicle Vehicle remarketing
A trailer is generally an unpowered vehicle towed by a powered vehicle. It is commonly used for the transport of goods and materials, sometimes recreational vehicles, travel trailers, or mobile homes with limited living facilities, where people can camp or stay have been referred to as trailers. In earlier days, many vehicles were towable trailers. In the United States, the term is used interchangeably with travel trailer and mobile home, varieties of trailers. Their origins lay in utility trailers built in a fashion to horse-drawn wagons. A trailer park is an area where homes are placed for habitation. In the United States trailers ranging in size from single-axle dollies to 6-axle,13 ft 6 in high,53 ft 0 in long semi-trailers are commonplace. The latter, when towed as part of a tractor-trailer or 18-wheeler, enclosed toy trailers and motorcycle trailers can be towed by commonly accessible pickup truck or van, which generally require no special permit beyond a regular drivers license. Other trailers, such as utility trailers and travel trailers or campers come in single and multiple axle varieties, there exist highly specialized trailers, such as genset trailers, pusher trailers and their ilk that are used to power the towing vehicle.
Others are custom-built to hold entire kitchens and other specialized equipment used by carnival vendors, there are trailers for hauling boats. Popular campers use lightweight trailers, aerodynamic trailers that can be towed by a small car and they are built to be lower than the tow vehicle, minimizing drag. Others range from two-axle campers that can be pulled by most mid-sized pickups to trailers that are as long as the host countrys law allows for drivers without special permits. Larger campers tend to be fully integrated recreational vehicles, which often are used to tow single-axle dolly trailers to allow the driver to bring small cars on their travels, a semi-trailer is a trailer without a front axle. A large proportion of its weight is supported either by a tractor or by a detachable front axle assembly known as a dolly. A semi-trailer is normally equipped with legs, called landing gear, which can be lowered to support it when it is uncoupled. In the United States, a single trailer cannot exceed a length of 57 ft 0 in on interstate highways, semi-trailers vary considerably in design, ranging from open-topped grain haulers through Tautliners to normal-looking but refrigerated 13 ft 6 in x 53 ft 0 in enclosures.
Many semi-trailers are part of semi-trailer trucks, other types of semi-trailers include dry vans and chassis. A full trailer is a used in the United States for a freight trailer supported by front and rear axles
A bus driver, bus operator, or omnibus driver is a person who drives buses as their career. In many jurisdictions, bus drivers must have a special license above, Bus drivers typically drive their vehicles between bus stations or stops. Bus drivers often drop off and pick up passengers on a route schedule. In British English a different term, coach driver, is used for drivers on long-distance routes, there are various types of bus drivers, including transit drivers, school bus drivers and tour bus drivers. Bus drivers may work for city, public governments, school boards, coach captains in Australia are frequently freelance sub-contractors who work for various bus and coach companies. One famous incident involving a bus driver during the period of segregation in the United States was in 1955 when Montgomery. In Australia and coach drivers need a Drivers Licence in the class of vehicle they can drive, they are required to possess a Drivers Authorisation. The Drivers Authorisation entails a regular review of driving history, criminal history, in 2012, Australia had a fleet of 90,599 buses and collectively travelled about 2.0 billion km.
The average age of the fleet is 11.0 years. In 2011, there were 40,900 bus and coach drivers employed in the industry and they work an average of 41.7 hours/week and the average age is 54 years. PCV drivers have to possess a Certificate of Professional Qualification card which requires training to be taken. For example, a bus driver may drive for 5.5 hours without a break in the UK. People with certain conditions are excluded from becoming bus drivers. Some of these conditions include Migraine and Epilepsy, before the introduction of one-man buses on many city routes, the bus driver had no contact with the passengers, the tickets being sold by a bus conductor. Now, drivers have the responsibility of selling tickets, keeping to the timetable. Bus drivers often come to the role from previous careers, of course some bus drivers go on to do other things, such as British bus driver-turned singer Matt Monro for instance. Actor Robert Carlyle passed the bus drivers test so he could drive a bus onscreen for his role as a bus driver in the film Carlas Song, cliff Richard learned to drive a bus for his role in the film Summer Holiday.
As of 2010, there are approximately 650,000 U. S. employed bus drivers
Heavy equipment refers to heavy-duty vehicles, specially designed for executing construction tasks, most frequently ones involving earthwork operations. They are known as machines, heavy trucks, construction equipment, engineering equipment, heavy vehicles. They usually comprise five equipment systems, traction, power train, Heavy equipment functions through the mechanical advantage of a simple machine, the ratio between input force applied and force exerted is multiplied. Some equipment uses hydraulic drives as a source of motion. The use of equipment has a long history, the ancient Roman engineer Vitruvius gave descriptions of heavy equipment. The pile driver was invented around 1500, the first tunnelling shield was patented by Isambard Kingdom Brunel in 1818. Until the 19th century and into the early 20th century heavy machines were drawn under human or animal power, with the advent of portable steam-powered engines the drawn machine precursors were reconfigured with the new engines, such as the combine harvester.
The design of a core tractor evolved around the new power source into a new machine core traction engine, that can be configured as the steam tractor. During the 20th century, internal-combustion engines became the power source of heavy equipment. Kerosene and ethanol engines were used, but today diesel engines are dominant, mechanical transmission was in many cases replaced by hydraulic machinery. The early 20th century saw new electric-powered machines such as the forklift, caterpillar Inc. is a present-day brand from these days, starting out as the Holt Manufacturing Company. The first mass-produced heavy machine was the Fordson tractor in 1917, the first commercial continuous track vehicle was the Lombard Steam Log Hauler from 1901. Tracks became extensively used for tanks during World War I, the largest engineering vehicles, and the largest mobile land machines altogether, are bucket-wheel excavators, built from the 1920s. Until almost the twentieth century, one simple tool constituted the primary earthmoving machine, the hand shovel - moved with animal and human powered, sleds and wagons.
This tool was the method by which material was either sidecast or elevated to load a conveyance, usually a wheelbarrow. In antiquity, an equivalent of the shovel or hoe. The two elements required for mechanized earthmoving, as now, were an independent power source and off-road mobility, container cranes were used from the 1950s and onwards, and made containerization possible. Nowadays such is the importance of this machinery, some companies have developed specific equipment to transport heavy construction equipment to
The European Union is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an area of 4,475,757 km2, the EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. Within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished, a monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002, and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency. The EU operates through a system of supranational and intergovernmental decision-making. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community, the community and its successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit. While no member state has left the EU or its antecedent organisations, the Maastricht Treaty established the European Union in 1993 and introduced European citizenship. The latest major amendment to the basis of the EU. The EU as a whole is the largest economy in the world, additionally,27 out of 28 EU countries have a very high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme.
In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence. The union maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the world and represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G7, because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as an emerging superpower. After World War II, European integration was seen as an antidote to the nationalism which had devastated the continent. 1952 saw the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community, the supporters of the Community included Alcide De Gasperi, Jean Monnet, Robert Schuman, and Paul-Henri Spaak. These men and others are credited as the Founding fathers of the European Union. In 1957, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany signed the Treaty of Rome and they signed another pact creating the European Atomic Energy Community for co-operation in developing nuclear energy. Both treaties came into force in 1958, the EEC and Euratom were created separately from the ECSC, although they shared the same courts and the Common Assembly.
The EEC was headed by Walter Hallstein and Euratom was headed by Louis Armand, Euratom was to integrate sectors in nuclear energy while the EEC would develop a customs union among members. During the 1960s, tensions began to show, with France seeking to limit supranational power, Jean Rey presided over the first merged Commission. In 1973, the Communities enlarged to include Denmark, Norway had negotiated to join at the same time, but Norwegian voters rejected membership in a referendum
A vintage car is, in the most general sense, an old automobile, and in the narrower senses of car enthusiasts and collectors, it is a car from the period of 1919 to 1930. Such enthusiasts have categorization schemes for ages of cars that enforce distinctions between antique cars, vintage cars, classic cars, and so on, the classification criteria vary, but consensus within any country is often maintained by major car clubs. The vintage era in the world was a time of transition. The car started off in 1919 as still something of a rarity, in fact, automobile production at the end of this period was not matched again until the 1950s. In todays terms, a car is defined the same as a classic. Cars became much more practical and comfortable during this period, car heating was introduced, as was the in-car radio. Four-wheel braking from a foot pedal was introduced, as was the use of hydraulically actuated brakes. Towards the end of the era, the system of octane rating of fuel was introduced. Alfred P. Sloan and Harley Earl of General Motors, Chrysler capitalized on advertising the automobile’s role in the life of the consumer for more than just the utilitarian value compared with the horse.
The stock market crash of 1929 started the layoff of workers and many new companies went bankrupt. The Federal Aid Road Act of 1916 was the first federal highway act and lack of funding hampered any positive results of this act. The Federal Aid Highway Act of 1921 started a 50/50 matching fund to states for road building and resulted in the creation of new, during this period as well as the car adapting to society, there were better roads, and society began to adapt to the car. From 1919 to 1929, many changes took place. General Motors went into a crisis that lasted until after Alfred Sloan became president in 1923. Hudson produced the Essex in 1919 that, by 1925, had propelled the company to third in sales behind Ford. Ford was in the process of building a new plant, buying back stock, in 1921 Maxwell failed and Walter P. Chrysler, formerly of General Motors, was brought in to reorganize it and, in 1925, the Chrysler Corporation was formed. There were other automakers that made it past the 1920-1921 depression only to fail during the Great Depression, Antique automobiles and early to middle era classic cars do not have the safety features that are standard on modern cars.
The most rudimentary of safety features, front wheel brakes and hydraulic brakes, for the average person car collecting is a hobby
A semi-trailer truck, more commonly called a semi truck, is the combination of a tractor unit and one or more semi-trailers to carry freight. A semi-trailer attaches to the tractor with a fifth wheel hitch, the result is that both tractor and semi-trailer will have a distinctly different design than a rigid truck and trailer. The tractor unit typically has two or three axles, those built for hauling heavy-duty commercial-construction machinery may have as many as five, the most common tractor-cab layout has a forward engine, one steering axle, and two drive axles. The fifth-wheel trailer coupling on most tractor trucks is movable fore and aft, ubiquitous in Europe, but less common in North America since the 1990s, is the cabover engine configuration, where the driver sits next to, or over the engine. With changes in the US to the length of the combined vehicle. Cabovers were difficult to service, as the cab could not be lifted on its hinges to a full 90-degree forward tilt, Trucks average from 4 to 8 miles per US gallon, with fuel economy standards requiring better than 7 miles per US gallon efficiency by 2014.
The cargo trailer usually has tandem axles at the rear, each of which has wheels, or eight tires on the trailer. In the US it is common to refer to the number of hubs, rather than the number of tires. The combination of eight tires on the trailer and ten tires on the tractor is what led to the moniker eighteen wheeler, many trailers are equipped with movable tandem axles to allow adjusting the weight distribution. To connect the second of a set of doubles to the first trailer, and to support the front half of the second trailer and this has one or two axles, a fifth-wheel coupling for the rear trailer, and a tongue with a ring-hitch coupling for the forward trailer. Individual states may further allow longer vehicles, known as longer combination vehicles, Long Combination Vehicle types include, Two 28.5 ft trailers. Turnpike Doubles, Two 48 ft trailers, Rocky Mountain Doubles, One 40 to 53 ft trailer and one 28.5 ft trailer. In Canada, a Turnpike Double is two 53 ft trailers, and a Rocky Mountain Double is a 50 ft trailer with a 24 ft pup, future Long Combination Vehicles under consideration and study for the U. S. MAP-21 transportation bill are container doubles.
The US federal government, which regulates the Interstate Highway System, does not set maximum length requirements. Tractors can pull two or three if the combination is legal in that state. Weight maximums are 20,000 lb on an axle,34,000 lb on a tandem. There is a width of 8.5 ft and no maximum height. Roads other than the Interstates are regulated by the individual states, maximum weight varies between 80,000 lb to 171,000 lb, depending on the combination
Large goods vehicle
A heavy goods vehicle, large goods vehicle or medium goods vehicle, is the European Union term for any truck with a gross combination mass of over 3,500 kilograms. Sub-category N2 is used for vehicles between 3,500 kilograms and 12,000 kilograms and N3 for all vehicles over 12,000 kilograms as defined in Directive 2001/116/EC. The term medium goods vehicle is used within parts of the UK government to refer to vehicles of between 3.5 and 7.5 tonnes which according to the EU are large goods vehicles. Commercial carrier vehicles of up to 3,500 kilograms are referred to as Light commercial vehicles, confusingly though, parts of the UK government refer to these as Light Goods Vehicles, with the term LGV appearing on tax discs for these smaller vehicles. Tax discs use the term HGV for vehicles over 3.5 tonnes and it is necessary to have an appropriate European driving licence to drive a large goods vehicle in the European Union. This licence can be obtained at 18 years of age and is the replacement for the HGV Class 3 in the UK, Category C allows the holder to drive any large goods vehicle with a trailer having a maximum authorised mass of up to 750 kilograms.
This is effectively the new HGV Class 2 in the UK, Category C+E, allows the holder to drive any large goods vehicle with a trailer having a maximum authorised mass of over 750 kilograms. This licence could only be obtained after 6 months experience with a Class 2 truck and this is the new Class 1 licence. Drivers who passed a Category B test before 1 January 1997, will have received Categories C1 and C1+E through the Implied Rights issued by the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency. All UK LGV licence holders must undergo a medical examination and eye test on application, at age 45. On reaching 65 years of age, an examination must be performed on an annual basis. In Canadas province of Ontario, drivers holding a Class A licence can drive tractor-trailers where the weight of the towed vehicle exceeds 4.6 tonnes. Drivers holding a Class B, C or D licence can drive trucks weighing 11 tonnes, hGVs and their drivers are covered by strict regulations in many jurisdictions, for example to improve safety, limit weight to that which will not excessively wear the transport infrastructure.
The heavy weight of these leads to severe consequences for other road users in crashes
A truck is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo. Trucks vary greatly in size and configuration, smaller varieties may be similar to some automobiles. Commercial trucks can be large and powerful, and may be configured to mount specialized equipment, such as in the case of fire trucks and concrete mixers. Modern trucks are powered by diesel engines, although small to medium size trucks with gasoline engines exist in the US. In the European Union, vehicles with a gross mass of up to 3.5 t are known as light commercial vehicles. Trucks and cars have an ancestor, the steam-powered fardier Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot built in 1769. However, steam wagons were not common until the mid-1800s, the roads of the time, built for horse and carriages, limited these vehicles to very short hauls, usually from a factory to the nearest railway station. The first semi-trailer appeared in 1881, towed by a tractor manufactured by De Dion-Bouton. In 1895 Karl Benz designed and built the first truck in history using the internal combustion engine, that year some of Benzs trucks were modified to become the first bus by the Netphener, the first motorbus company in history.
A year later, in 1896, another internal combustion engine truck was built by Gottlieb Daimler, other companies, such as Peugeot, Renault and Büssing, built their own versions. The first truck in the United States was built by Autocar in 1899 and was available with optional 5 or 8 horsepower motors, trucks of the era mostly used two-cylinder engines and had a carrying capacity of 3,300 to 4,400 lb. In 1904,700 heavy trucks were built in the United States,1000 in 1907,6000 in 1910, after World War I, several advances were made, pneumatic tires replaced the previously common full rubber versions. Electric starters, power brakes,4,6, and 8 cylinder engines, closed cabs, the first modern semi-trailer trucks appeared. Touring car builders such as Ford and Renault entered the heavy truck market, although it had been invented in 1890, the diesel engine was not common in trucks in Europe until the 1930s. In the United States, it took longer for diesel engines to be accepted. The word truck might come from a back-formation of truckle, meaning small wheel or pulley, from Middle English trokell, another possible source is the Latin trochus, meaning iron hoop.
In turn, both sources emanate from the Greek trokhos, meaning wheel, from trekhein, the first known usage of truck was in 1611, when it referred to the small strong wheels on ships cannon carriages. In its extended usage it came to refer to carts for carrying heavy loads and its expanded application to motor-powered load carrier has been in usage since 1930, shortened from motor truck, which dates back to 1901
A passenger is a person who travels in a vehicle but bears little or no responsibility for the tasks required for that vehicle to arrive at its destination or otherwise operate the vehicle. Passengers are people who ride on buses, passenger trains, ships, historically, the concept of the passenger has existed for as long as man has been able to create means of transportation capable of carrying more people than were needed to operate the vessel. Crew members, as well as the driver or pilot of the vehicle, are not considered to be passengers. In railway parlance, passenger, as well as being the end user of a service, is a categorisation of the type of rolling stock used, in the British case, there are several categories of passenger train. These categories include, Express passenger, which long distance. Semi-fast express passenger, a type of service that is high speed, local passenger, the lowest category of British passenger train, which provides a service that stops at all stations between major destinations, for the benefit of local populations.
In transportation, a no pax trip is a trip without passengers, for example, no-pax flights are freight and positioning flights. In most jurisdictions, laws have been enacted that dictate the legal obligations of the owner of a vehicle or vessel, or of the driver or pilot of the same, towards the passengers. In other situations, guest statutes may limit the ability of passengers to sue the driver of the vehicle over an accident, many places require cars to be outfitted with measures specifically for the protection of passengers, such as passenger-side air bags. With respect to passengers on vehicles or vessels, both national laws and international treaties require that the carrier act with a certain standard of care. The number of passengers that a vehicle or vessel may legally carry is defined as its seating capacity, revenue passenger Media related to Passengers at Wikimedia Commons
A take-home vehicle, or company car is a vehicle which companies or organisations lease or own and which employees use for their personal and business travel. There are three reasons which explain why the provision of a company car for private use as a benefit may be attractive for both the employee and the employer. The first reason is that companies can supply the fringe benefit at lower costs than the employee is able to achieve on their own –, the tax system may encourage the provision of cars over monetary remuneration from the perspective of both the employer and employee. Thirdly, firms may want the employee to drive in a car of certain minimum standard or have access to a vehicle at all times. The use of cars is widespread in some regions. For example, business registrations account for roughly 50% of all car sales in the EU, police departments are among frequent participants in take-home vehicle programs, allowing officers to take home the police cars they use while on duty. It is considered to be a benefit by the departments.
It has been viewed by some departments as a crime-fighting tool, there is a straightforward distortion in consumer markets as consumers through tax incentives are being encouraged to consume more car services than they would have been otherwise. There is a tax loss resulting from the subsidy. Studies have shown that the subsidy encourages consumers to buy more, in many areas, fuel costs are covered by the benefit, so that the marginal cost of driving may approach zero. In these areas consumers are encouraged to more frequently and farther than they otherwise would. Emissions of CO2 and other gases are clearly higher as a result. When issued by a government agency, concern has been brought up by citizens and this has led some cities to cutting or reducing the number of employees to whom vehicles are offered. In Sacramento, the issuing of take-home vehicles has come under scrutiny as the city has faced a budget deficit. In the city of Baltimore, the use of vehicles by city employees has been questioned due to the distance that city employees drive them to their homes.
Baltimores former mayor Sheila Dixon was criticized for having three tax-funded take-home vehicles parked at her house and she defended herself by saying she might need the vehicles if there were an emergency. In Dallas, the city was having trouble obtaining data in attempting to determine the cost of vehicles to taxpayers. The city of Los Angeles was criticized for issuing take-home vehicles to utility employees while raising rates to customers, the city of Evansville, Indiana reduced the number of take-home vehicles offered to city employees, but allowed public safety employees to keep theirs