Commissar is an English transliteration of the Russian комиссáр, which means commissary. In English, the transliteration "commissar" is used to refer to the political commissars of Soviet and Eastern Bloc armies, while administrative officers are called "commissary"; the word комисса́р is used in Russian for both administrative officials. The title has been used in the Soviet Russia since the time of Peter the Great. Commissaries were used during the Provisional Government for regional heads of administration, but the term commissar is associated with a number of Cheka and military functions in Bolshevik and Soviet government military forces during the Russian Civil War and with the terms People's Commissar for government ministers and political commissar in the military. A People's Commissar was a government official serving in a Council of People's Commissars; this title was first used by the Russian SFSR and copied among the many Soviet and Bolshevik-controlled states in the Russian Civil War.
The government departments headed by a People's Commissar were called People's Commissariat. People's Commissars and People's Commissariats were renamed Ministers and Ministries in 1946 by a decree of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. A political commissar was a high-ranking functionary at a military headquarters who held coequal rank and authority with the military commander of the unit. Political commissars were established to control and improve morale of the military forces by the Communist party, they were in charge of the communist political propaganda and indoctrinating the public with the communist ideology. From 1917 the Bolshevik administration, like the Provisional Government before it, relied on experienced army-officers whose loyalty it distrusted. Trotsky summarised the solution to the issue: "We took a military specialist and we put on his right hand and on his left a commissar " During the early stages of the usage of commissars, no military order might be issued which did not have the prior approval of both the commander and the commissar.
Many lower-level political officers never received the same military training as commanding officers. Prior to becoming a commissar an individual had to be registered as a communist for a minimum of three years and had to attend specific political institutions, many of which never had any military-oriented training. Following the problems encountered in 1941, with dual commanders in units and other political officers were removed from direct command-roles. Political officers were more directly tasked with morale- and regulation-based goals. A political officer's classification was changed to the form of a "Deputy for Political Matters"; the specific position of "Commissar" itself survived only at regimental and front levels, where the Commissars formed the Military Councils with their corresponding military commanders. The voenkom, translated as war commissar, is the head of a military commissariat — a regional office that drafts men for military service, executes plans for military mobilization and maintains records on military reserves.
Until the late 1930s, the People's Militsiya and Internal Troops of the NKVD had no personal ranks, used many various position-ranks instead. In 1935, the Militsiya created a special system of personal ranks, a blend of standard military ranks and position-ranks. From 1943, the Militsiya switched to a new rank insignia introduced in the Soviet Army. Instead of General ranks, top officers used Commissar of Militsiya 3rd, 2nd, 1st rank though they used army-standard Major General, Lieutenant General and Colonel General shoulder boards; these Commissar ranks were replaced by corresponding General ranks in 1975. The GUGB switched to military-style ranks and insignia in 1945, although they replaced Commissar-style ranks with General officer ranks right away. Commissar is linked to titles in a variety of languages, such as commissary in English, commissaire in French and Kommissar in German; the term commissary was used by the British and U. S. military to denote an officer in charge of supplying an army with provisions and equipment.
A similar term in French describes the equivalent of the rank of Major both in the army of the Ancien Régime and the French Revolution. Such officials were not military officers but reported back to the political authorities: the king and the National Assembly, respectively. Various historical German states have used an equivalent title, for several administrators who held responsibility over a territory or area of government; the 26 Baku Commissars Imperial Commissars in the Warhammer 40,000 universe Commissar Order
Swahili Blonde is an experimental musical project formed in Los Angeles, California in 2009. Founded by former WEAVE! Drummer and vocalist Nicole Turley and bassist Laena Myers-Ionita, Duran Duran bassist John Taylor and multi-instrumentalists Stella Mozgawa and Michael Quinn. Former Red Hot Chili Peppers guitarist and Turley's now ex-husband, John Frusciante, performs guitar on the band's recordings, did perform alongside the group at their debut performance, while he was a full-time band member. Swahili Blonde is signed to Manimal Vinyl, they made their live debut at The Echo Club in Los Angeles on July 10, 2010. The band utilizes disorientating chord progressions and obscure rhythms, with songs featuring a variety of instruments; the live band line-up features Nicole Turley, Laena Geronimo, Dante Adrian White-Aliano, Arianna Basco, Heather Cvar. The band included Laena's father, former Devo drummer Alan Myers, until his death in 2013. Swahili Blonde's first digital single, entitled "Elixor Fixor" was released on iTunes on December 13, 2009, with a second, "Dr. Teeth", released in March 2010.
The project's debut album, Man Meat, was released on August 2010, mastered by Aaron Funk. Frusciante had worked with Funk in the collaborative group Speed Dealer Moms along with Chris McDonald. In 2014, members Nicole, Laena and Dante released a 4 track digital EP in collaboration with Bosnian Rainbows members Teri Gender Bender and Omar Rodríguez-López under the name Kimono Kult. Nicole wrote and arranged all the music and Teri wrote and performed all vocals, with backing vocals provided by Turley. Although planned for a January November 2013 release, the group's third album, Deities In Decline was pushed back until March 2014, two weeks after Hiding In The Light by Kimono Kult, but has been delayed again until in 2014. Nicole Turley – vocals, drums, omnichord Man Meat recordings: cr-8000, xylophone, sitar, organ, mini-moog, string synth Psycho Tropical Ballet Pink recordings: cr-78, bass, omnichord, dx-7, mini-moog Heather Cvar – backing vocals Arianna Basco – backing vocals Laena Geronimo – violin, bass Dante White-Aliano – bass, guitar John Frusciante – guitar backing vocals on "Red Money" David Bowie/Carlos Alomar cover, co-wrote "Tigress Ritual" Stella Mozgawa – drums, mini-moog, string synth backing vocals on "Red Money" Michael Quinn – cello, drums, guitar John Taylor – bass and co-wrote "Tigress Ritual" Alan Myers – drums, recorded "Watch That Grandad GO" Bauhaus cover for Man Meat bonus tracks Brad Culkins – saxophone on "Zelda Has It", "Scoundrel Days" a-ha cover Adam Payne – drums, percussion Viv Albertine – guitar on "The Golden Corale " Man Meat Psycho Tropical Ballet Pink Deities In Decline And Only The Melody Was Real "Elixor Fixor" "Dr. Teeth" Covers EP VAGENDA Vol. 1 Hiding In The Light Official MySpace
Santigo Tréllez Vivero is a Colombian professional footballer who plays as a striker for Brazilian club São Paulo FC. Born in Medellín, Tréllez started his career with Envigado before moving to hometown club Independiente Medellín. After impressing during the 2007 South American Under-17 Football Championship and the 2007 FIFA U-17 World Cup, he joined Flamengo, but documentation and financial problems limited his appearances. In 2008, Tréllez joined Vélez Sarsfield. After not making his first team breakthrough, he returned to Colombia and Independiente Medellín, agreeing to a contract with the club in January 2011. Tréllez made his debut for the club on 6 February 2011, starting in a 2–1 away loss against Itagüí Ditaires. Late in the month he scored his first senior goals, netting a brace in a 3–3 home draw against Millonarios. On 10 July 2012, Tréllez switched teams and countries again, after signing for Liga MX side San Luis. A regular starter, he was sold to Chiapas and loaned to Monarcas Morelia for one year.
On 14 January 2014, Tréllez was loaned with a buyout clause. He was bought outright by the club in the following year, but was loaned to Libertad on 17 January 2015. Tréllez rescinded with Libertad in July 2015, subsequently signed a one-year contract with Arsenal de Sarandí; the following 12 January, after only two goals in seven matches, he was loaned to La Equidad for one year. On 21 February 2017, Tréllez was announced at Deportivo Pasto. An immediate starter matches. On 17 July 2017, Tréllez signed an 18-month contract with Série A team Vitória, he made his debut for the club three days by starting in a 3–1 home loss against Grêmio, scored his first goals on 3 August in a 3–1 home defeat of Ponte Preta. On 19 August 2017, Tréllez scored the only goal in an away success over Corinthians, ending the club's 34-match unbeaten run. On 26 November, he scored another brace against Ponte, netting twice in the 3–2 away win but being booked and subsequently suspended for the last round. On 27 January 2018, it was announced that São Paulo has reached an agreement with Vitória for the signing of Tréllez.
Tricolor Paulista paid R$6 million to Rubro-Negro Baiano to sign with them new forward, under a four-year contract Tréllez is the son of the Colombian international footballer John Jairo Tréllez. As of match played on 18 October 2019 Monarcas MoreliaCopa MX: Apertura 2013Atlético NacionalCategoría Primera A: 2014-I Santiago Tréllez – Liga MX stats at MedioTiempo.com Santiago Trellez at BDFA Santiago Tréllez at Soccerway
Jan van Kessel the Younger or Jan van Kessel II, known in Spain as Juan Vanchesel el Mozo or el Joven, was a Flemish painter who after training in Antwerp worked in Spain. Known for his portraits he became a court painter to the King and Queen of Spain. A few landscapes and mythological and allegorical scenes have been attributed to him, he was believed to have been active as a still life painter, but this is now no longer accepted. Jan van Kessel the Younger was born in Antwerp as the son of Jan van Kessel the Elder and Maria van Apshoven, he was a scion of the famous Flemish dynasty of painters of the Brueghel family. His father was the son of Hieronymus van Kessel the Paschasia Brueghel. Jan van Kessel the Younger was thus, through his paternal grandmother, the great-grandson of Jan Brueghel the Elder and great-great-grandson to Pieter Brueghel the Elder; as his mother was the daughter of the painter Ferdinand van Apshoven the Elder, he was related to the van Apshoven family of artists. His brother Ferdinand was a painter.
He trained under his father Jan van Kessel the Elder. Rather than becoming a master in the Antwerp Guild of Saint Luke, he moved to Madrid in or before 1679. In Madrid he became a painter to the court and gained a reputation through his portraits; the artists gained recognition at court under the reign of Charles II of Spain for the portraits he made of Queen Marie Louise d'Orléans, first wife of Charles II. In 1686 he became the painter of the Queen, he is said to have received a commission from the Queen to paint scenes on the ceiling of her chambers in the Royal Alcazar of Madrid. Upon the death of the first wife of Charles II, van Kessel continued to serve as a portrait painter at the court and gained the favour of the king's new wife, Maria Anna of Neuburg. With the change of ruling dynasty from the Habsburgs to the Bourbons following the accession to the throne of Philip V of Spain in 1700, the artist's popularity at court went into decline; this was due to his continued close relationship with the widowed former Queen, whom he accompanied in her exile in Toledo with the title of furrier's aid.
He did not join her in her exile to Bayonne in 1706 due to his precarious health. Instead, van Kessel returned to Madrid; the new king was not happy with his work due to the ascendancy of French tastes at the Bourbon court. The artist had become well-off by that time, he is believed to have died in Madrid in 1708. He is said to have painted portraits, flower pieces, still lifes, game pieces, art galleries and landscapes; some art historians have questioned whether the attribution to Jan van Kessel the Younger of still lifes. Such attribution may have been caused in certain instances by confusion with other artists with a similar name all active in the 17th century. In addition to his father, there was another Antwerp painter with the name Jan van Kessel who painted still lifes, while in Amsterdam there was a Jan van Kessel known as a landscape painter. To complicate things further, because his father had an uncle called Jan van Kessel, his father is sometimes referred to as Jan van Kessel II and Jan van Kessel the Younger as Jan van Kessel III.
There was another member of the van Kessel family, called Jan Thomas van Kessel who worked principally as a genre painter. As van Kessel signed his paintings, his oeuvre has been reconstructed based on stylistic grounds. Van Kessel's main duty as a court painter was to paint portraits of the royal family and in particular the queen, his portrait style was described by his contemporary Antonio Palomino as close to that of his fellow Flemish painter Anthony van Dyck. Upon his arrival in Spain he seems to have followed the style of royal portraiture introduced by Diego Velázquez and continued by Claudio Coello; these portraits were characterized by their simplicity of shapes and color which included hardly any props or symbols and set off the sitter against a neutral background. This influence of the local Spanish portrait tradition is visible in the Portrait of Maria Anna of Neuburg, he abandoned this style in the Portrait of Maria Anna of Neuburg by adding more color and a view into a landscape in the background.
This work forms a pair with the Portrait of Charles II of Spain. The two oval works had been part of a larger square painting representing flower garlands which would have encircled the oval portrait, he had commenced his innovation of Spanish court portraiture in the Portrait of Maria Nicolasa de la Cerda in which he used vivid color and played with the contrast between a clear light and placed shadows. Some portrait paintings have been attributed to him on stylistic grounds by comparing it to his signed paintings; this is the case of the Portrait of Marie Louise d’Orléans, still listed as by an unknown painter on the Prado Museum website. Van Kessel was a specialist of the genre of group portraits. An example is the Portrait of a family in a garden in the Prado Museum, which depicts a Flemish gentleman with his family; the symbolic intent of the work is to praise family family virtues such as fidelity. The guitar playing man symbolises the dog the virtue of fidelity; the mature woman surrounded by the small children symbolizes the virtue of charity while the young couple holding hands represent conjugal love.
The painting includes a self-portrait of the artist, leaning out of a window in the background to the right. A slig
Jürgen Neukirch was a German mathematician known for his work on algebraic number theory. Neukirch received his diploma in mathematics in 1964 from the University of Bonn. For his Ph. D. thesis, written under the direction of Wolfgang Krull, he was awarded in 1965 the Felix-Hausdorff-Gedächtnis-Preis. He completed his habilitation one year later. From 1967 to 1969 he was guest professor at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, after which he was a professor in Bonn. In 1971 he became a professor at the University of Regensburg, he is known for his work on the embedding problem in algebraic number theory, the Báyer–Neukirch theorem on special values of L-functions, arithmetic Riemann existence theorems and the Neukirch–Uchida theorem in birational anabelian geometry. He gave a simple description of the reciprocity maps in local and global class field theory. Neukirch wrote three books on class field theory, algebraic number theory, the cohomology of number fields: Neukirch, Jürgen.
Class Field Theory. Grundlehren der Mathematischen Wissenschaften. 280. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3-540-15251-2. Neukirch, Jürgen. Algebraic Number Theory. Grundlehren der Mathematischen Wissenschaften. 322. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-540-65399-8. Zbl 0956.11021. Neukirch, Jürgen. Cohomology of Number Fields. Grundlehren der Mathematischen Wissenschaften. 323. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3-540-37888-X. Zbl 1136.11001. Neukirch, Jürgen. Class Field Theory — The Bonn Lectures. Springer. ISBN 978-3-642-35436-6. Jürgen Neukirch at the Mathematics Genealogy Project On Neukirch's death Literature by and about Jürgen Neukirch in the German National Library catalogue
Matilda Kinnon "Tillie"' Paul Tamaree was a Tlingit translator, civil rights advocate and Presbyterian church elder. Matilda Kinnon was born in Victoria, British Columbia, the younger daughter of a Tlingit mother named Kut-XooX, a Scottish father named James Kinnon, employed by the Hudson's Bay Company; when her mother fell ill with tuberculosis, she arranged to bring Tillie and her sister north to be raised by Tlingit relatives. Aided by a clansman, Kut-Xoox traveled by canoe with her two daughters along the Inside Passage, a journey of 600 miles. After her mother's death, young Tillie was raised by a maternal aunt, Xoon-sel-ut, her uncle, Chief Snook of the Naanya.aayi, a clan of the Stikeen-quann, near Wrangell, Alaska. Her adoptive family gave her the name Kah-thli-yudt, soon shortened to "Kah-tah-ah."Tillie lived in Wrangell until she was 12 years old, when she received a marriage proposal from a Christian Tsimishian chief, Abraham Lincoln. Her uncle consented to the marriage, they arranged that she would travel south to Lincoln's home in Prince Rupert, British Columbia with the understanding that no marriage would take place against her will.
After her decision not to marry, when she was no longer under the care of the Tsimishian, she went to live with a Methodist minister and his wife, missionaries at Port Simpson, British Columbia. There, she was schooled in Christian worship, her family arranged for her return to Wrangell and she was admitted to Amanda McFarland's Presbyterian Home and School for Girls, where she started using the name "Tillie Kinnon." While at the McFarland School, Tillie worked as an interpreter for clergyman S. Hall Young in and around Wrangell, she married Louis Francis Paul and in 1882 the two became the first Native couple to be commissioned by the Presbyterian Board of Home Missions to found a new missionary school. Located in Klukwan, the school served 64 men and women; the couple opened a second school in the Tongass region of Alaska. Paul died in 1886 drowned while scouting for a new school location. However, a contemporary biographer of Tillie Paul's, Mary Lee Davis, suggests that his death was a suspicious one.
Paul's death left Tillie with three young sons to care for on her own. She moved to Sitka, Alaska to work at Sitka Industrial Training School, invited by Sheldon Jackson, a missionary and the General Agent of Education for the Alaskan Territory. There, she performed a range of tasks, acting as an interpreter, supervising sewing classes, serving as a nurse in the boy's hospital ward, becoming matron of the girl's dormitory. During her years in Sitka, she worked with a fellow teacher, Fanny Willard, to create a writing system for Tlingit language and together they compiled a Tlingit dictionary, she published several articles about Tlingit culture in the Presbyterian newspaper, The North Star and lectured on Tlingit culture in Sitka as a member of the Society of Alaskan Natural History and Ethnology. Tillie learned to play the organ, becoming proficient enough to accompany school and church events; some of her translated hymns and prayers are still in use among Tlingit Christians today. Tillie traveled on behalf of the Presbyterian Church, attending its General Assembly in New York City at least twice.
In 1902, she was invited to address the Assembly on the subject of women's role in the church. In 1931, Tillie Paul was the first woman ordained as an elder in the Alaska Northwest Synod of the Presbyterian Church, in the first year that Presbyterian women could be so ordained. In 1905, Tillie founded the New Covenant Legion, a Christian temperance organization intended to reach Native communities considered at risk from alcohol abuse, with George Beck, a student at the Sitka school; the New Covenant Legion in turn became the Alaska Native Brotherhood and Alaska Native Sisterhood, the first advocacy organizations for Alaska Native rights. Tillie's sons, William Paul and Louis Paul, were leaders in the ANB as were many of the students Tillie taught at the Sitka school. While her sons are given credit for transforming the ANB from a service organization to a political one, Tillie's influence in shaping these leaders was recognized by her contemporaries. In November 1922, Tillie assisted a Tlingit relative, Charlie Jones, to vote, after he was refused by election officials in Wrangell.
Both were charged with felonies: Charlie Jones for "falsely swearing to be a citizen" and voting illegally and Tillie for aiding and abetting him. Her son William, by this time an attorney, defended them both at a trial that took place in Ketchikan, Alaska in 1923; the case hinged on the definition of Native citizenship, until 1915, had been determined by the Dawes Act of 1887. That act required Native people to sever tribal ties. By 1915, the Alaska Territory had passed the Alaska Citizenship Act, it only recognized Native people as citizens under strict conditions, including the endorsement of at least five white citizens, certain testing requirements, as well as proof that they had "adopted the habits of civilization." William Paul argued that Jones fulfilled the requirements of citizenship under Dawes, insofar as he owned a house, paid taxes, made charitable contributions, "lived like a white person." Judge Thomas Reed ruled. This meant that the territorial government could not add procedures such as endorsement by white citizens, testing, or obtaining a certificate of citizenship if the requirements for citizenship under Dawes were met.