Anointing of Jesus
The anointing of Jesus is one of the relatively few events reported by each of the four Gospels, although the details differ in the accounts. All report the anointing of Jesus with expensive perfume by a woman, who pours over Jesus the contents of a jar of nard. The anointing angers some of the onlookers because the perfume could have sold for a years wages—which the Gospel of Mark enumerates as 300 denarii—and the money given to the poor. Matthews Gospel states that the disciples were indignant and Johns states that it was Judas who was most offended, John adds that he was bothered because Judas was a thief and desired the money for himself. Jesus is described as justifying the action of the woman by stating that the poor will always exist, the identification of the woman is found in John 11, 1-2 Now a man named Lazarus was sick. He was from Bethany, the village of Mary and her sister Martha,2 NIV and King James Version. The event is reported in Matthew 26, Mark 14, Luke 7, when the disciples saw this, they were indignant.
9 “This perfume could have sold at a high price. Aware of this, Jesus said to them, “Why are you bothering this woman and she has done a beautiful thing to me. 11 The poor you will always have with you, but you will not always have me, when she poured this perfume on my body, she did it to prepare me for burial. Truly I tell you, wherever this gospel is preached throughout the world, what she has done will be told, in memory of her. Mark 14, 3-9 While he was in Bethany, reclining at the table in the home of Simon the Leper and she broke the jar and poured the perfume on his head. Some of those present were saying indignantly to one another, “Why this waste of perfume and it could have been sold for more than a year’s wages and the money given to the poor. ”She has done a beautiful thing to me. The poor you will always have with you, and you can help them any time you want, but you will not always have me. 8 She did what she could and she poured perfume on my body beforehand to prepare for my burial.
Truly I tell you, wherever the gospel is preached throughout the world, what she has done will be told, in memory of her. ”Luke 7, 36-50 When one of the Pharisees invited Jesus to have dinner with him, he went to the Pharisee’s house and reclined at the table. A woman in town who lived a sinful life learned that Jesus was eating at the Pharisee’s house. As she stood him at his feet weeping, she began to wet his feet with her tears
The Christ Child, known as Divine Infant, Baby Jesus, Infant Jesus, Child Jesus, the Holy Child, and Santo Niño, refers to Jesus Christ from his nativity to age 12. Upon reaching 13 years-old he was considered to be an adult in accordance with Jewish custom, the canonical Gospels lack any narration of the years between Jesus infancy and the Finding in the Temple when he was twelve. Commonly these are nativity scenes showing the birth of Jesus, with his mother, depictions as a baby with the Virgin Mary, known as Madonna and Child, are iconographical types in Eastern and Western traditions. Other scenes from his time as a baby, of his circumcision, presentation at the temple, the adoration of the Magi, scenes showing his developing years are more rare but not unknown. Saint Joseph, Anthony of Padua, and Saint Christopher are often depicted holding the Christ Child, the Christ Child was a popular subject in European wood sculpture beginning in the 1300s. The popularity of the Christ child was known in Spain under the title Montanesino after the santero sculptor Juan Martínez Montañés who began the trend.
The growth of images being made were quite popular among nobility, while images were used to colonize kingdoms such of Spain. The symbolism of the Child Jesus in art reached its apex during the Renaissance, tàladh Chrìosda is a Scottish carol from Moidart, Scotland. The Catholic priest Father Ranald Rankin, wrote the lyrics for Midnight Mass around the year 1855 and he originally wrote 29 verses in Scottish Gaelic, but the popular English translation is limited to five. The melody, Cumha Mhic Arois, is from the Hebrides and was a sung as a charm for the fisherman away at sea. The rhythm mirrors the rhythm of the surf and it is sung in the Hebrides at Midnight Mass of Christmas Eve. A number of texts, the Infancy Gospels grew up with legendary accounts of the intervening period. These stories were intended to show Jesus as having extraordinary gifts of power and knowledge, one common pious tale has the young Jesus animating sparrows out of clay belonging to his playmates. When admonished for doing so on the Sabbath, he causes the birds to fly away, in the seventeenth century veneration of the Christ Child under the title the Little King of Beaune was promoted by French Carmelites.
In the late nineteenth century devotion to the Holy Child of Remedy developed in Madrid
Crown of thorns
According to three of the canonical Gospels a woven crown of thorns was placed on the head of Jesus during the events leading up to the crucifixion of Jesus. It was one of the instruments of the Passion, employed by Jesus captors both to cause him pain and to mock his claim of authority. It is mentioned in the gospels of Matthew and John and is alluded to by the early Church Fathers, such as Clement of Alexandria, Origen. In centuries, relics believed by many to be all or part of the Crown of Thorns have been venerated, a few writers of the first six centuries AD speak of a relic known to be still in existence and venerated by the faithful. St. Cassiodorus, when commenting on Psalm lxxxvi, speaks of the crown of thorns among the relics which are the glory of the earthly Jerusalem. There, he says, we may behold the thorny crown, from these fragments of evidence and others of date, it is likely that a purported crown of thorns was venerated at Jerusalem from the fifth century for several hundred years.
Francois de Mély supposed that the crown was not transferred to Byzantium until about 1063. Eight of these are said to have been there at the consecration of the basilica of Aachen by Pope Leo III. The presence of the Pope at the consecration is a legend, four were given to Saint-Corneille of Compiègne in 877 by Charles the Bald. Hugh the Great, Duke of the Franks, sent one to the Anglo-Saxon King Athelstan in 927, on the occasion of marriage negotiations. Another was presented to a Spanish princess about 1160, and again another was taken to Andechs Abbey in Germany in the year 1200. In 1238, Baldwin II, the Latin Emperor of Constantinople, anxious to support for his tottering empire, offered the crown of thorns to Louis IX. It was in the hands of the Venetians as security for a heavy loan, new reliquaries were provided for the relic, one commissioned by Napoleon, another, in jewelled rock crystal and more suitably Gothic, was made to the designs of Eugene Viollet-le-Duc. In 2001, when the treasures from the Sainte-Chapelle were exhibited at the Louvre.
Pope John Paul II translated it personally to the Sainte-Chapelle during World Youth Day, the relic can only be seen on the first Friday of every month, when it is brought out for a special veneration mass, as well as each Friday during Lent. See Feast of the Crown of Thorns, the Catholic Encyclopedia said, Authorities are agreed that a sort of helmet of thorns must have been plaited by the Roman soldiers, this band of rushes being employed to hold the thorns together. None of these now remain at Paris, some small fragments of rush are preserved. This reaches the height of fifteen or twenty feet and is growing in abundance by the wayside around Jerusalem
Flight into Egypt
The flight into Egypt is a biblical event described in the Gospel of Matthew. The episode is shown in art, as the final episode of the Nativity of Jesus in art. Within the narrative tradition, iconic representation of the Rest on the Flight into Egypt developed after the 14th century, when the Magi come in search of Jesus, they go to Herod the Great in Jerusalem and ask where to find the newborn King of the Jews. Herod becomes paranoid that the child will threaten his throne, Herod initiates the Massacre of the Innocents in hopes of killing the child. But an angel appears to Joseph in a dream and warns him to take Jesus, after a time the holy family returns from Egypt. The text states that Herod had died, Herod is believed to have died in 4 BC, and while Matthew does not mention how, the Jewish historian Josephus vividly relates a gory death. It is, however, to Judah that they are described as initially returning, although upon discovering that Archelaus had become the new king, they went instead to Galilee.
Historically, Archelaus was such a violent and aggressive king that in the year 6 AD he was deposed by the Romans, in response to complaints from the population. Galilee was ruled by a much calmer king, Herod Antipas, Matthew 2,15 cites Hosea 11,1 as prophetically fulfilled in the return of Joseph and Jesus from Egypt. and out of Egypt I called My son. Matthews use of Hosea 11,1 has been explained in several ways, a sensus plenior approach states that the text in Hosea contains a meaning intended by God and acknowledged by Matthew, but unknown to Hosea. A typological reading interprets the fulfillment as found in the history of Israel. Matthews use of typological interpretation may be seen in his use of Isaiah 7,14 and 9,1, the Septuagint reading may be explained as having been made to conform to the plurals of Hosea 11,2, they and them. See Hermeneutics and Jewish exegesis, in these tales the family is joined by Salome as Jesus nurse. The most important of these is the church of Abu Serghis, the Gospel of Luke does not recount this event, relating instead that the Holy Family went to the Temple in Jerusalem, and directly home to Nazareth.
Followers of the liberal and unorthodox Jesus Seminar thus conclude that both Lukes and Matthews birth and infancy accounts are fabrications, a theme of Matthew is likening Jesus to Moses for a Judean audience, and the Flight into Egypt illustrates just that theme. The Flight into Egypt was a subject in art, showing Mary with the baby on a donkey, led by Joseph. Before about 1525, it formed part of a larger cycle, whether of the Nativity. The family are often accompanied by angels, and in earlier images sometimes an older boy who may represent James the Brother of the Lord, interpreted as a son of Joseph, by a previous marriage
The Via Dolorosa is a street within the Old City of Jerusalem, believed to be the path that Jesus walked on the way to his crucifixion. The winding route from the Antonia Fortress west to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre—a distance of about 600 metres —is a celebrated place of Christian pilgrimage, the current route has been established since the 18th century, replacing various earlier versions. It is today marked by nine Stations of the Cross, there have been fourteen stations since the late 15th century, the Via Dolorosa is the modern remnant of one of the two main east-west routes through Aelia Capitolina, as built by Hadrian. Beginning around 1350, Franciscan friars conducted official tours of the Via Dolorosa, from the onset of Franciscan administration, the development of the Via Dolorosa was intimately linked to devotional practices in Europe. The Friars Minor were ardent proponents of devotional meditation as a means to access, the hours and guides they produced, such as Meditaciones vite Christi, were widely circulated in Europe.
Throughout the fourteenth century, a number of events, marked by stations on the Via Dolorosa, emerged in devotional literature, the first stations to appear in pilgrimage accounts were the Encounter with Simon of Cyrene and the Daughters of Jerusalem. In his book, The Stations of the Cross, Herbert Thurston notes and this negotiation of stations, between the European imagination and the physical site would continue for the next six centuries. Only in the 19th century was there general accord on the position of the first, fifth, archaeological discoveries in the 20th century now indicate that the early route of the Via Dolorosa on the Western hill was actually a more realistic path. The equation of the present Via Dolorosa with the route is based on the assumption that the Praetorium was adjacent to the Antonia Fortress. Furthermore, it is now confirmed by archaeology that prior to Hadrians 2nd-century alterations, the courtyard contained a raised platform of around 2 square metres. A survey of the ruins of the Praetorium, long thought to be the Roman barracks and these findings together correspond perfectly with the route as described in the Gospels and matched details found in other ancient writings.
The new research indicates the crucifixion site is around 20 metres from the traditionally accepted site. Whereas the names of roads in Jerusalem are translated into English and Arabic for their signs. The Arabic name is the translation of way of pain, scholars are now fairly certain that Pilate carried out his judgements at Herods Palace at the southwest side of the city, rather than at this point in the citys northeast corner. Archaeological studies have confirmed that the Roman pavement, at these two stations, was built by Hadrian as the flooring of the eastern of two Forums. The three northern churches were built after the site was partially acquired in 1857 by Marie-Alphonse Ratisbonne. The Convent, which includes the Church of Ecce Homo, was the first part of the complex to be built, and contains the most extensive archaeological remains. Prior to Ratisbonnes purchase, the site had lain in ruins for centuries, the Crusaders had previously constructed a set of buildings here
Cleansing of the Temple
The cleansing of the Temple narrative tells of Jesus expelling the merchants and the money changers from the Temple, and occurs in all four canonical gospels of the New Testament. In the Gospel of John Jesus refers to the Temple as my Fathers house, the narrative occurs near the end of the Synoptic Gospels and near the start in the Gospel of John. Some scholars believe that these refer to two incidents, given that the Gospel of John includes more than one Passover. Jerusalem was packed with Jews who had come for Passover, perhaps numbering 300,000 to 400,000 pilgrims, and making a whip of cords, he drove them all out of the temple, with the sheep and oxen. And he poured out the coins of the money-changers and overturned their tables, and he told those who sold the pigeons, Take these things away, do not make my Fathers house a house of trade. In Mark 12,40 and Luke 20,47 Jesus accused the Temple authorities of thieving, dove sellers were selling doves that were sacrificed by the poor who could not afford grander sacrifices and specifically by women.
According to Mark 11,16, Jesus put an embargo on people carrying any merchandise through the Temple—a sanction that would have disrupted all commerce and this occurred in the outermost court of the gentiles. Matthew 21, 14–16 says the Temple leaders questioned Jesus if he was aware the children were shouting Hosanna to the Son of David, Jesus responded by saying from the lips of children and infants you have ordained praise. Claims about the Temple cleansing episode in the Gospel of John can be combined with historical sources to obtain an estimate of when it occurred. Temple expansion and reconstruction was ongoing, and it was in constant reconstruction until it was destroyed in 70 AD by the Romans. Given that it had taken 46 years of construction to that point and it is possible that the complex was only a few years completed when the future Emperor Titus destroyed the Temple in 70 AD. David Landry suggests that the importance of the episode is signaled by the fact that within a week of this incident, matthew and Luke agree that this is the event that functioned as the trigger for Jesus death.
The Gospel of Mark uses the phrase, Then he taught them, as Jesus references the prophet Jeremiah. Has this house which bears my name become in your eyes a den of thieves, I too see what is being done, says the Lord. As with other parts of Jesuss story, there are a number of embellishments to the narrative of the incident that are regarded as legendary or polemical by scholars. Yeshu was likewise accused of robbing the shem hamphoras, the name of god’ from the Holy of Holies. The cleansing of the Temple is a commonly depicted event in the Life of Christ, an Introduction to the New Testament, Doubleday ISBN 0-385-24767-2 Brown, Raymond E. The New Jerome Biblical Commentary, Prentice Hall ISBN 0-13-614934-0 Ched Myers, Binding the Strong Man, A political reading of Marks story of Jesus, Orbis ISBN 0-88344-620-0 Miller, the Complete Gospels, Polebridge Press, ISBN 0-06-065587-9 Media related to Cleansing of the Temple at Wikimedia Commons
Kiss of Judas
The kiss occurs in the Garden of Gethsemane after the Last Supper and leads directly to the arrest of Jesus by the police force of the Sanhedrin. More broadly, a Judas kiss may refer to an act appearing to be an act of friendship, the gospels of Matthew and Mark both use the Greek verb καταφιλέω, which means to kiss firmly, passionately, tenderly, or warmly. It is the verb that Plutarch uses to describe a famous kiss that Alexander the Great gave Bagoas. The compound verb has the force of an emphatic, ostentatious salute, according to Matthew 26,50, Jesus responded by saying, Friend, do what you are here to do. Elaine Pagels and Karen King have speculated that Jesus and Judas were actually in agreement with each other, john Dear notes that Luke 22,48 quotes Jesus saying, are you betraying the Son of Humanity with a kiss. Probably the best known is from Giottos cycle in the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua, there is a version called The Taking of Christ by Caravaggio or one of his disciples. A sixth-century Byzantine Mosaic in Ravenna, a fresco by Barna da Siena.
A sculpture representing the Kiss of Judas appears on the Passion façade of the Sagrada Família basilica in Barcelona, the kiss of Judas in art Bargain of Judas Chronology of Jesus Jesus predicts his betrayal Kiss of death Life of Jesus in the New Testament Grubb, Nancy. New York City, Abbeville Publishing Group, media related to Kiss of Judas at Wikimedia Commons
Gospel of Luke
The Gospel According to Luke, called the Gospel of Luke, or simply Luke, is the third of the four canonical Gospels. It tells of the origins, ministry, resurrection, Luke is the second-longest of the four gospels, and together with Acts of the Apostles, the pair make up a two-volume work from the same pen, called Luke–Acts. The cornerstone of Luke-Acts theology is salvation history, the understanding that Gods purpose is seen in the way he has acted. The gospels sources are the Gospel of Mark, the collection called the Q source, and a collection of material called the L source. Luke-Acts does not name its author, the most probable date for its composition is around 80–100 AD, and there is evidence that it was still being revised well into the 2nd century. Autographs of Luke and the other Gospels have not been preserved, as is typical for ancient documents, the gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles make up a two-volume work which scholars call Luke–Acts. The author is not named in either volume and he admired Paul, but his theology was significantly different from Pauls on key points and he does not represent Pauls views accurately.
The eclipse of the attribution to Luke the companion of Paul has meant that an early date for the gospel is now rarely put forward. Luke-Acts is a history of the Founder of the church and his successors. All three authors anchor the histories of their respective peoples by dating the births of the founders and narrate the stories of the founders births from God, each founder taught authoritatively, appeared to witnesses after death, and ascended to heaven. Crucial aspects of the teaching of all three concerned the relationship between rich and poor and the question of whether foreigners were to be received into the people. The author used as his sources the gospel of Mark, the collection called the Q source. Mark, written around 70 AD, provided the narrative outline, for these Luke turned to Q, which consisted mostly, although not exclusively, of sayings. Mark and Q account for about 64% of Luke, the remaining material, known as the L source, is of unknown origin and date. Most Q and L-source material is grouped in two clusters, Luke 6, 17-8,3 and 9, 51-18,14, Luke was written to be read aloud to a group of Jesus-followers gathered in a house to share the Lords supper.
The author assumes an educated Greek-speaking audience, but directs his attention to specifically Christian concerns rather than to the Greco-Roman world at large. He begins his gospel with a preface addressed to Theophilus, the name means Lover of God, here he informs Theophilus of his intention, which is to lead his reader to certainty through an orderly account of the events that have been fulfilled among us. He did not, intend to provide Theophilus with a justification of the Christian faith – did it happen
Adoration of the Shepherds
The Adoration of the Shepherds, in the Nativity of Jesus in art, is a scene in which shepherds are near witnesses to the birth of Jesus in Bethlehem, arriving soon after the actual birth. It is often combined in art with the Adoration of the Magi, the Annunciation to the Shepherds, when they are summoned by an angel to the scene, is a distinct subject. Ghirlandaio shows a procession of Magi about to arrive with their gifts, the shepherds are described as hurrying to Bethlehem to visit Jesus, and making widely known what they had been told concerning him, before they finally return to their flocks. They praise God for all the things that they had heard and seen, robert Gundry notes that the statement appeals to eyewitness testimony combined with heavenly revelation. This combination is first found in the 6th century Monza ampullae made in Byzantine Palaestina Prima, in Renaissance art, drawing on classical stories of Orpheus, the shepherds are sometimes depicted with musical instruments. A charming but atypical miniature in the La Flora Hours in Naples shows the shepherds playing to the Infant Jesus, many artists have depicted the Adoration of the Shepherds. C.
Some of these do so along the lines of urging the listener to come to Bethlehem, the modern Calypso Carol has the lines Shepherds swiftly from your stupor rise / to see the Saviour of the world, and the chorus O now carry me to Bethlehem. Angels We Have Heard on High says, Come to Bethlehem, O Come, All Ye Faithful has a verse which runs, Other carols which mention the adoration of the shepherds include Silent Night, What Child Is This. Infant Holy, Infant Lowly, I Wonder as I Wander, the German carol Vom Himmel hoch, da komm ich her contains several stanzas on the subject of following the shepherds and celebrating the newborn baby
Gospel of Matthew
The Gospel According to Matthew is the first book of the New Testament. The narrative tells how the Messiah, rejected by Israel, most scholars believe the Gospel of Matthew was composed between AD80 and 90, with a range of possibility between AD70 to 110. The title Son of David identifies Jesus as the healing and miracle-working Messiah of Israel, as Son of Man he will return to judge the world, an expectation which his disciples recognise but of which his enemies are unaware. As Son of God he is God revealing himself through his son, the gospel reflects the struggles and conflicts between the evangelists community and the other Jews, particularly with its sharp criticism of the scribes and Pharisees. The original versions of the Gospel of Matthew and the gospels are lost. The oldest relatively complete extant manuscripts of the Bible are the Codex Vaticanus and the Codex Sinaiticus, besides these, there exist manuscript fragments ranging from a few verses to whole chapters. P104 and P67 are notable fragments of Matthew, in the process of recopying, variations slipped in, different regional manuscript traditions emerged, and corrections and adjustments were made.
The Gospel of Matthew is anonymous, the author is not named within the text, the consensus is that Papias does not describe the Gospel of Matthew as we know it, and it is generally accepted that Matthew was written in Greek, not in Aramaic or Hebrew. The majority view of scholars is that Mark was the first gospel to be composed. The author of Matthew did not, simply copy Mark, an additional 220 verses, shared by Matthew and Luke but not found in Mark, from a second source, a hypothetical collection of sayings to which scholars give the name Quelle, or the Q source. The author had at his disposal the Greek scriptures, both as book-scrolls and in the form of collections, and, if Papias is correct. The majority view among scholars is that Matthew was a product of the last quarter of the 1st century, the Christian community to which Matthew belonged, like many 1st-century Christians, were still part of the larger Jewish community, hence the designation Jewish Christian to describe them. The author of Matthew wrote for a community of Greek-speaking Jewish Christians located probably in Syria, alone among the gospels, alternates five blocks of narrative with five of discourse, marking each off with the phrase When Jesus had finished.
The Gospel of Matthew begins with the words The Book of Genealogy of Jesus Christ, John baptizes Jesus, and the Holy Spirit descends upon him. Jesus prays and meditates in the wilderness for forty days, and is tempted by Satan and his early ministry by word and deed in Galilee meets with much success, and leads to the Sermon on the Mount, the first of the discourses. The sermon presents the ethics of the kingdom of God, introduced by the Beatitudes and it concludes with a reminder that the response to the kingdom will have eternal consequences, and the crowds amazed response leads into the next narrative block. From the authoritative words of Jesus the gospel turns to three sets of three miracles interwoven with two sets of two stories, followed by a discourse on mission and suffering. Opposition to Jesus comes to a head with accusations that his deeds are done through the power of Satan, Jesus in turn accuses his opponents of blaspheming the Holy Spirit
Miracles of Jesus
The miracles of Jesus are the supernatural deeds attributed to Jesus in Christian and Islamic texts. The majority are faith healing, resurrection of the dead, in the Synoptic Gospels, Jesus refuses to give a miraculous sign to prove his authority. To many Christians and Muslims, the miracles are actual historical events, including liberal Christians, consider these stories to be figurative. Since the Enlightenment scholars have taken a highly skeptical approach to claims about miracles, in most cases, Christian authors associate each miracle with specific teachings that reflect the message of Jesus. The three types of healings are cures where an ailment is cured, exorcisms where demons are cast away, karl Barth said that, among these miracles, the Transfiguration of Jesus is unique in that the miracle happens to Jesus himself. In Matthew 10,8 he advised his disciples to heal the sick without payment and stated, freely ye received and it is not always clear when two reported miracles refer to the same event.
For example, in the Healing the Centurions servant, the Gospels of Matthew, the Gospel of John has a similar but slighty different account at Capernaum, and states that it was the son of a royal official who was cured at a distance. The largest group of miracles mentioned in the New Testament involve cures, the Gospels give varying amounts of detail for each episode, sometimes Jesus cures simply by saying a few words, at other times employs material such as spit and mud. Generally they are referred to in the Synoptic Gospels but not in the Gospel of John, the canonical Gospels tell a number of stories of Jesus healing blind people. The earliest is a story of the healing of a man in Bethsaida in the Gospel of Mark. The Mark Gospel has an account of the healing of a man named Bartimaeus, the Gospel of Luke tells the same story of Jesus healing an unnamed blind man, but moves the event in the narrative to when Jesus approaches Jericho. The Gospel of John describes an episode in which Jesus heals a man blind from birth, placed during the Festival of Tabernacles, Jesus mixes spittle with dirt to make a mud mixture, which he places on the mans eyes.
He asks the man to wash his eyes in the Pool of Siloam, when the man does this, he is able to see. When asked by his disciples whether the cause of the blindness was the sins of the father or his mother. ( A story in which Jesus cures a leper appears in Mark 1, 40-45, Matthew 8, 1-4 and Luke 5, Healing the paralytic at Capernaum appears in Matthew 9, 1-8, Mark 2, 1-12 and Luke 5, 17-26. The Synoptics state that a paralytic was brought to Jesus on a mat, Jesus told him to get up and walk, Jesus told the man that his sins were forgiven, which irritated the Pharisees. Jesus is described as responding to the anger by asking whether it is easier to say that someones sins are forgiven, or to tell the man to get up and walk. Mark and Luke state that Jesus was in a house at the time, a similar cure is described in the Gospel of John as the Healing the paralytic at Bethesda and occurs at the Pool of Bethesda
Fresco is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly-laid, or wet lime plaster. Water is used as the vehicle for the pigment to merge with the plaster, and with the setting of the plaster, the fresco technique has been employed since antiquity and is closely associated with Italian Renaissance painting. Buon fresco pigment mixed with water of temperature on a thin layer of wet, fresh plaster, for which the Italian word for plaster. Because of the makeup of the plaster, a binder is not required, as the pigment mixed solely with the water will sink into the intonaco. The pigment is absorbed by the wet plaster, after a number of hours, many artists sketched their compositions on this underlayer, which would never be seen, in a red pigment called sinopia, a name used to refer to these under-paintings. Later, new techniques for transferring paper drawings to the wall were developed. The main lines of a drawing made on paper were pricked over with a point, the paper held against the wall, if the painting was to be done over an existing fresco, the surface would be roughened to provide better adhesion.
This area is called the giornata, and the different day stages can usually be seen in a large fresco, buon frescoes are difficult to create because of the deadline associated with the drying plaster. Once a giornata is dried, no more buon fresco can be done, if mistakes have been made, it may be necessary to remove the whole intonaco for that area—or to change them later, a secco. An indispensable component of this process is the carbonatation of the lime, the eyes of the people of the School of Athens are sunken-in using this technique which causes the eyes to seem deeper and more pensive. Michelangelo used this technique as part of his trademark outlining of his central figures within his frescoes, in a wall-sized fresco, there may be ten to twenty or even more giornate, or separate areas of plaster. After five centuries, the giornate, which were nearly invisible, have sometimes become visible, and in many large-scale frescoes. Additionally, the border between giornate was often covered by an a secco painting, which has fallen off.
One of the first painters in the period to use this technique was the Isaac Master in the Upper Basilica of Saint Francis in Assisi. A person who creates fresco is called a frescoist, a secco or fresco-secco painting is done on dry plaster. The pigments thus require a medium, such as egg. Blue was a problem, and skies and blue robes were often added a secco, because neither azurite blue nor lapis lazuli. By the end of the century this had largely displaced buon fresco