William Owen Smith
William Owen Smith was a lawyer from a family of American missionaries who participated in the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii. He served as attorney general for the entire duration of the Provisional Government of Hawaii and the Republic of Hawaii. Smith was born August 1848, in Kōloa on the island of Kauaʻi, his parents were Melicent Knapp Smith, a teacher. His parents were in the tenth set of missionaries to Hawaii from the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions who arrived in 1842, his sister Charlotte Elizabeth "Lottie" Smith married Alfred Stedman Hartwell, a former general in the American Civil War, on January 10, 1872. His brother Jared Knapp Smith carried on his father's medical practice, his sister Melicent Lena Smith married William Waterhouse. Waterhouse was mayor of Pasadena, California, 1904–1906, he attended Daniel Dole's missionary school at Kōloa, Punahou School from 1863 to 1866, Massachusetts Agricultural College. On his return, he worked as a clerk in his brother-in-law Hartwell's law office.
He was sheriff on Kauaʻi in 1870 and Maui from 1872 to 1874. While working at the Lāhainā Courthouse, on April 24, 1873, he planted a banyan tree to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the arrival of Christian missionaries on the island. On March 23, 1876, he married Mary Abbey Hobron, they had five children: Clarence Hobron Smith, Ethel Frances Smith born November 17, 1879, Pauline Melicent Smith, Anna Katherine Smith, Lorrin Knapp Smith. He founded the law firm of Smith, Thurston & Kinney with Lorrin A. Thurston and William Ansel Kinney in Honolulu in 1887, he acted as deputy attorney general, was elected as a representative from Maui to the legislature of the Hawaiian Kingdom from 1878 to 1884. He helped draft the 1887 Constitution of the Kingdom of Hawaii, which King Kalākaua was forced to sign, giving it the name "Bayonet Constitution", his law partner Thurston became minister in the new cabinet. In the 1887 and 1888 sessions he was elected to the upper House of Nobles. In 1892 he was elected as representative from Kauaʻi.
He was a member of the Committee of Safety that organized the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii on January 14, 1893. On January 17, he was appointed to the executive council of the Provisional Government of Hawaii under president Sanford B. Dole, the son of his former teacher. Dole's stepmother, Charlotte Close Knapp, was the widow of Smith's uncle Horton Owen Knapp, a missionary teacher himself on Kauaʻi. Smith was Attorney General of Hawaii from the creation of Provisional Government through the Republic of Hawaii. On December 18, 1895 he became a member of the board of health, its president, he had no formal training except for having a brother as practicing physicians. His brother Jared Knapp Smith was shot dead on September 24, 1897, it was suspected to be in retaliation for ordering patients suspected of leprosy to have tests that might send them to exile in Kalaupapa. Similar tensions had ignited the Leper War on Kaua'i four years earlier, his former law partner Kinney was appointed special prosecutor.
A native Hawaiian suspect Kapea Kaʻahea was arrested, tried on November 13, 1897, found guilty of murder in the first degree. Instead of waiting for next scheduled term of the circuit court, a special session had been called. Honolulu English-language newspapers said "there seems no doubt of the guilt of the chief prisoner" before the trial; the objections brought to the Supreme Court of Hawaii were rejected on February 3, 1898. Kapea was hanged on April 11, 1898; the rushed nature of the prosecution was thought to be an attempt to show the United States that the government was in firm control. Only a few months in July 1898, the Newlands Resolution annexed the islands. Of the four executions for capital punishment between 1889 and 1903 in Hawaii, all four were of non-whites within a four-month period. In August 1898, Smith offered to resign, but although now annexed, the old republic government continued to operate. On March 20, 1899, Smith was replaced as attorney general by Henry Ernest Cooper and returned to private practice.
Smith was elected to one term of the Territory of Hawaii Senate from 1907 to 1909. Smith was a trustee of the Kamehameha Schools, founded from the estate of Bernice Pauahi Bishop, from 1884 to 1886 and from 1897 to 1929, he was a trustee of the Lunalilo Estate, the Alexander Young Estate and the Honolulu Children's Hospital. He was on the board of the Guardian Trust Company, Bishop Trust Company, Inter-Island Steam Navigation Company and Alexander & Baldwin. Despite his role in the overthrow, deposed Queen Liliʻuokalani selected him to be a founding trustee of her own estate when she made her will in December 1909, her personal assets were left in a trust to benefit orphans. On November 30, 1915, Prince Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole challenged the will in court, saying she was "of weakened mind" under the influence of the trustees; this was known as case 23 Haw. 457 in the Supreme Court of Hawaii. The feisty Queen demanded a public hearing of her sanity in February 1916; the firm, now Smith, Warren & Sutton defended Liliʻuokalani.
His law partners at the time were Edwin White Sutton. Liliʻuokalani's charity still operates today, his daughter Ethel Frances Smith married Henry Alexander Baldwin, known as "Harry" Baldwin who became the congressional delegate for Hawaii. Daughter Anna Katherine Smith married Harry's brother Samuel Alexander Baldwin (188
USS Boston (1884)
The fifth USS Boston was a protected cruiser and one of the first steel warships of the "New Navy" of the 1880s. In some references she is combined with Atlanta in others as the Boston class. Boston was laid down on 15 November 1883 by John Roach & Sons, Pennsylvania, launched on 4 December 1884, commissioned on 2 May 1887 at the New York Navy Yard, Captain Francis M. Ramsay in command. Boston was ordered as part of the "ABCD" ships, the others being the cruisers Atlanta and Chicago and the dispatch vessel Dolphin. All were ordered from John Roach & Sons of Chester, Pennsylvania. However, when Secretary of the Navy William C. Whitney refused to accept Dolphin, claiming her design was defective, the Roach yard went bankrupt and Boston was completed at the New York Navy Yard, which had little experience with steel-hulled ships. As-built armament included two 8-inch /30 caliber Mark 1 guns, six 6-inch /30 caliber Mark 2 guns, two 6-pounder guns, two 3-pounder Hotchkiss revolving cannon, two 1-pounder Hotchkiss revolving cannon, two.45 caliber Gatling guns.
The 8-inch guns were in open barbettes with gun shields added later. Armor protection was light, with 2-inch gun shields and conning tower, a 1.5-inch deck extending 100 feet over the machinery spaces. The engineering plant included eight coal-fired cylindrical boilers producing 100 psi steam and a horizontal compound engine producing 3,500 ihp driving one shaft. Like the other "ABCD" ships, Boston was built with a sail rig to increase cruising range removed; the ship carried up to 490 tons of coal, with a cruising range as built of 3,390 nmi at 10 kn. In 1900–01 Boston was rebuilt and the 6-inch guns were converted to rapid firing with brass case ammunition replacing powder bags. During her service with the Oregon Naval Militia 1911-16 she retained her original pair of 8"/30 guns and three of the 6"/30 guns, with a single 4-inch /40 caliber gun added. All armament was removed prior to her conversion to a freighter in 1917. Boston, being the second cruiser of the New Navy completed, was not ready for active service until 1888.
She made a cruise to Guatemala and Haiti to protect American citizens. She joined the Squadron of Evolution on 30 September 1889 and cruised to the Mediterranean and South America from 7 December 1889 to 29 July 1890, along the east coast in 1891. Boston departed New York on 24 October 1891 for the Pacific via Cape Horn, arriving at San Francisco on 2 May 1892. Except for a prospective Pacific Squadron commanding officer's cruise to the Hawaiian Islands from 11 August 1892 to 10 October 1893, she remained on the West Coast until laid up at Mare Island Navy Yard on 4 November 1893. Recommissioned on 15 November 1895, Boston joined the Asiatic Squadron at Yokohama, Japan on 25 February 1896, she remained in the Orient protecting American interests for the next four years and during the Spanish–American War took part in the Battle of Manila Bay on 1 May 1898 and the capture of Manila on 13 August 1898. From 4 October to 23 December and other ships deployed to Taku in China to protect American interests in the wake of a coup d'etat by the Empress Dowager Cixi.
Following this, Boston remained in the Philippines assisting in their pacification until 8 June 1899. Boston returned to San Francisco on 9 August 1899 and went out of commission at Mare Island Navy Yard on 15 September 1899, she remained out of commission until 11 August 1902 and rejoined the Pacific Squadron. On 7 November 1903, Boston was the first ship of the Pacific Squadron to arrive near Panama to support that country's newly declared independence, she cruised in South America and the US West Coast. From 16 to 25 June 1905, she helped represent the Navy at the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition at Portland and from 23 April – 10 May 1906 she helped care for the victims of the San Francisco earthquake and fire. In April 1907 she carried a Honduran peace delegation, she went out of commission again at Puget Sound Navy Yard on 10 June 1907. From 15 June 1911 to September 1916, she served as a training vessel with the Oregon Naval Militia. With the United States declaration of war on Germany in April 1917, Boston was loaned to the United States Shipping Board from 24 May 1917 – June 1918.
Boston was converted to a freighter by Seattle Construction & Drydock in 1917–1918. Her guns were most removed when she was laid up at Bremerton between September 1916 and March 1917. On 18 June 1918, she was recommissioned at Mare Island Navy Yard as a receiving ship and towed to Yerba Buena Island, where she served as a receiving ship until 1940, she was renamed Despatch, the sixth U. S. Navy ship to bear that name, on 9 August 1940, thus freeing her original name for use on the new heavy cruiser Boston. From 1940 to October 1945, she was used as a radio school; the old ship was redesignated IX-2 on 17 February 1941. Despatch was towed to sea and sunk off San Francisco on 7 April 1946. Boston was one of a few U. S. Navy ships to have served in the Spanish–American War and both world wars, her 60-year career was one of the longest in the history of the U. S. Navy. At the time of the Second World War and Olympia were the only surviving ships from the Battle of Manila Bay. Both of Boston's 8-inch guns were placed at the new Seattle Naval Hospital in 1942.
After the hospital closed, the guns went with the site to the new Firlands Sanitar
James A. King
James Anderson King was a ship's master who became a politician of the Republic of Hawaii. James Anderson King was born in Bridge of Allan, Scotland in December 4, 1832, he arrived in the Kingdom of Hawaii during the 1860s, just after the American Civil War, worked as ship's master on merchant vessels. He sailed the Kona Packet on trading voyages to Alaska and Japan; when Samuel Gardner Wilder arranged to buy the steamship Likelike, King was put in charge. As Wilder grew his fleet, Captain King was made superintendent of all shipping operations, he married daughter of Robert Grimes Davis. She was the great-granddaughter of Oliver Holmes, an early settler and Governor of Oʻahu, who had married into Hawaiian nobility, her uncle William Heath Davis moved to Alta California in the 1830s. After the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii, King was made minister of the interior for the Provisional Government of Hawaii on January 17, 1893, he served as minister of Interior of the Republic of Hawaii until his death.
On June 3, 1896 he acted as minister of finance until the end of the month when he was replaced by Henry E. Cooper. King died October 1899, while trying to teach a six-year-old son how to swim in the ocean, he had an elaborate state funeral at ʻIolani Palace with burial at Oahu Cemetery with Masonic rituals of Freemasonry on October 23, 1899. His son Samuel Wilder King became governor of the Territory of Hawaii
1887 Constitution of the Kingdom of Hawaii
The 1887 Constitution of the Kingdom of Hawaii was a legal document prepared by anti-monarchists to strip the Hawaiian monarchy of much of its authority, initiating a transfer of power to American and native Hawaiian elites. It became known as the Bayonet Constitution for the use of intimidation by the armed militia which forced King Kalākaua to sign it or be deposed. On June 30, 1887, a meeting of residents including the armed militia of the Honolulu Rifles, a group of white soldiers that were secretly the Hawaiian League’s military arm, politicians who were members of the Reform Party of the Hawaiian Kingdom, demanded from King Kalākaua the dismissal of his Cabinet, headed by the controversial Walter M. Gibson, their concerns about Gibson stemmed from the fact. The meeting was called to order by Sanford B. Dole (cousin of 9-year-old James Dole and chaired by Peter Cushman Jones, the president of the largest sugarcane plantation agency in Hawaii; the Hawaiian League and Americans controlled a vast majority of the Kingdom of Hawaii’s wealth.
Lorrin A. Thurston, the main instigator of the subsequent overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy, prepared a list of demands to the king; the meeting insisted a new constitution be written. On the next morning, July 1, 1887, a shipment of arms was discovered from a neutral Australian ship; the Honolulu Rifles took control and arrested and hanged Gibson. Kalākaua called in US Minister George W. Merrill, the British, French and Japanese representatives and requested help, but they all suggested that he should comply with any demands, which he did. Thurston became the powerful interior minister although Englishman William Lowthian Green was nominally head of the Cabinet as Minister of Finance. Gibson was exiled to San Francisco. Over less than a week, the new constitution was drafted by a group of lawyers, including Thurston, William Ansel Kinney, William Owen Smith, George Norton Wilcox, Edward Griffin Hitchcock. All were associated with the Hawaiian League, which had explicitly wanted the end of the kingdom and its annexation by the United States since its inception.
Kalākaua signed the document July 1887, despite arguments over the scope of the changes. It stripped the king of most of his personal authority, empowering the legislature and cabinet of the government, it has since become known as the "Bayonet Constitution" because of the threat of force used to gain Kalākaua's cooperation. While Thurston and Dole denied this use of coercion and threats, Queen Liliuokalani asserted that Kalakaua’s life was threatened: "He signed that constitution under absolute compulsion."The new constitution was never ratified in the Hawaiian Kingdom's legislature. The 1887 constitution replaced the previous absolute veto, allowed to the king, to one that two-thirds of the legislature of the Hawaiian Kingdom could override, it took away the power of the king to act without the consent of his cabinet and gave the legislature, controlled by the white Americans by this time, the power to dismiss the cabinet instead of the king. It removed language from the 1864 constitution implying that the king was above the law, replacing it with language that the king was required to obey his laws to the level of his subjects.
The cabinet was now allowed to vote in the legislature, but to reduce the king's influence, he was not allowed to appoint legislators to any other government post. The legislature gained the authority to imprison those that disrespected, published false reports or comments about or threatened or assaulted any of its members; the constitution removed the monarch's power to appoint members of the House of Nobles, instead making it a body elected by the wealthy landowners to six-year terms and enlarging it to 40 members. Qualifications to serve as a noble or representative now came to include high property and income requirements as well, which stripped all of the native population of the ability to serve in the legislature; the 1887 constitution had attempted to limit profligate spending, which had become a problem under Kalakaua's reign, namely with the costly construction and maintenance of Iolani Palace. The constitution stipulated that the King was required to appoint a Minister of Finance to oversee government spending and submit an annual budget proposal to the legislature.
The 1887 constitution made significant changes to voting requirements. It allowed foreign resident aliens to vote, not just naturalized citizens. Asians, including subjects who enjoyed the right to vote, were denied suffrage. Hawaiian and European males were granted full voting rights only if they met the economic and literacy thresholds; the 1864 constitution required that voters generate annual income of at least US$75 or own private property worth at least US$150. The wealth requirements were removed during the short reign of Lunalilo in 1874; that change was kept for the lower house. However, the 1887 constitution required an income of $600 or taxable property of US$3000 to vote for the upper house; that excluded an estimated two thirds of the Hawaiian population. Only white males, wealthy from the sugar industry, retained suffrage with the Bayonet Constitution. Allocating the government’s power to the Cabinet and promptly appointing their members to the Cabinet, securing the disenfranchisement of their opposition, the Hawaiian League seized complete control over th
United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps referred to as the United States Marines or U. S. Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting expeditionary and amphibious operations with the United States Navy as well as the Army and Air Force; the U. S. Marine Corps is one of the four armed service branches in the U. S. Department of Defense and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States; the Marine Corps has been a component of the U. S. Department of the Navy since 30 June 1834, working with naval forces; the USMC operates installations on land and aboard sea-going amphibious warfare ships around the world. Additionally, several of the Marines' tactical aviation squadrons Marine Fighter Attack squadrons, are embedded in Navy carrier air wings and operate from the aircraft carriers; the history of the Marine Corps began when two battalions of Continental Marines were formed on 10 November 1775 in Philadelphia as a service branch of infantry troops capable of fighting both at sea and on shore.
In the Pacific theater of World War II the Corps took the lead in a massive campaign of amphibious warfare, advancing from island to island. As of 2017, the USMC has around some 38,500 personnel in reserve, it is the smallest U. S. military service within the DoD. As outlined in 10 U. S. C. § 5063 and as introduced under the National Security Act of 1947, three primary areas of responsibility for the Marine Corps are: Seizure or defense of advanced naval bases and other land operations to support naval campaigns. This last clause derives from similar language in the Congressional acts "For the Better Organization of the Marine Corps" of 1834, "Establishing and Organizing a Marine Corps" of 1798. In 1951, the House of Representatives' Armed Services Committee called the clause "one of the most important statutory – and traditional – functions of the Marine Corps", it noted that the Corps has more than not performed actions of a non-naval nature, including its famous actions in Tripoli, the War of 1812, numerous counter-insurgency and occupational duties, World War I, the Korean War.
While these actions are not described as support of naval campaigns nor as amphibious warfare, their common thread is that they are of an expeditionary nature, using the mobility of the Navy to provide timely intervention in foreign affairs on behalf of American interests. The Marine Band, dubbed the "President's Own" by Thomas Jefferson, provides music for state functions at the White House. Marines from Ceremonial Companies A & B, quartered in Marine Barracks, Washington, D. C. guard presidential retreats, including Camp David, the Marines of the Executive Flight Detachment of HMX-1 provide helicopter transport to the President and Vice President, with the radio call signs "Marine One" and "Marine Two", respectively. The Executive Flight Detachment provides helicopter transport to Cabinet members and other VIPs. By authority of the 1946 Foreign Service Act, the Marine Security Guards of the Marine Embassy Security Command provide security for American embassies and consulates at more than 140 posts worldwide.
The relationship between the Department of State and the U. S. Marine Corps is nearly as old as the corps itself. For over 200 years, Marines have served at the request of various Secretaries of State. After World War II, an alert, disciplined force was needed to protect American embassies and legations throughout the world. In 1947, a proposal was made that the Department of Defense furnish Marine Corps personnel for Foreign Service guard duty under the provisions of the Foreign Service Act of 1946. A formal Memorandum of Agreement was signed between the Department of State and the Secretary of the Navy on 15 December 1948, 83 Marines were deployed to overseas missions. During the first year of the MSG program, 36 detachments were deployed worldwide; the Marine Corps was founded to serve as an infantry unit aboard naval vessels and was responsible for the security of the ship and its crew by conducting offensive and defensive combat during boarding actions and defending the ship's officers from mutiny.
Continental Marines manned raiding parties, both at ashore. America's first amphibious assault landing occurred early in the Revolutionary War on 3 March 1776 as the Marines gained control of Fort Montague and Fort Nassau, a British ammunition depot and naval port in New Providence, the Bahamas; the role of the Marine Corps has expanded since then. The Advanced Base Doctrine of the early 20th century codified their combat duties ashore, outlining the use of Marines in the seizure of bases and other duties on land to support naval campaigns. Throughout the late 19th and 20th centuries, Marine detachments served aboard Navy cruisers and aircraft carriers. Marine detachments served in their traditional duties as a ship's landing force, manning the ship's weapons and providing shipboard security. Marine detachments were augmented by members of the ship's company for landing parties, such as in the First Sumatran Expedition of 1832, continuing in the Caribbean and Mexican campaigns of the early 20th centuries.
Marshal-Admiral The Marquis Tōgō Heihachirō, OM, GCVO, was a gensui or admiral of the fleet in the Imperial Japanese Navy and one of Japan's greatest naval heroes. As Commander-in-Chief of the Combined Fleet during the Russo-Japanese War he confined the Russian Pacific Fleet to Port Arthur before winning a decisive victory over a relieving fleet at Tsushima. Tōgō was termed by Western journalists as "the Nelson of the East". Tōgō was born as Tōgō Nakagoro on 27 January 1848 in the Kajiya-chō district of the city of Kagoshima in Satsuma domain, to a noble family in feudal Japan, the third of four sons of Togo Kichizaemon, a samurai serving the Shimazu daimyō as comptroller of the revenue, master of the wardrobe, district governor, Hori Masuko, a noblewoman from the same clan as her husband. Kajiya-chō was one of Kagoshima's samurai housing-districts, in which many other influential figures of the Meiji period were born, such as Saigō Takamori and Ōkubo Toshimichi, they rose to prominent positions under the Meiji Emperor because the Shimazu clan had been a decisive military and political factor in the Boshin War against the Tokugawa shogunate during the Meiji Restoration.
As a youth, Tōgō was educated to become a samurai warrior. He changed his name to Heihachirō in a religious and patriotic ceremony held when he turned 13, in which samurai tradition called for youth to adopt a change in name. Tōgō's first experience at war was during the Bombardment of Kagoshima, in which Kagoshima was shelled by the Royal Navy to punish the Satsuma daimyō for the death of Charles Lennox Richardson on the Tōkaidō highway the previous year, the Japanese refusal to pay an indemnity in compensation. Tōgō, aged 15 at the time, was part of a gun crew manning one of the cannons defending the port; the following year, Satsuma established a navy, in which Tōgō enlisted in 1866 at age 17. Two of his brothers enlisted. In January 1868, during the Boshin War, Tōgō was assigned to the paddle-wheel steam warship Kasuga, which participated in the Battle of Awa, near Osaka, against the navy of the Tokugawa Bakufu, the first Japanese naval battle between two modern fleets; as the conflict spread to northern Japan, Tōgō participated as a third-class officer aboard the Kasuga in the last battles against the remnants of the Bakufu forces, the Battle of Miyako Bay and the Battle of Hakodate in 1869.
After the civil war ended in the autumn 1869, Tōgō, on the instructions of the Satsuma clan, first travelled to the treaty port of Yokohama to study English. He resided in Yokohama with Daisuke Shibata, a government official reputedly proficient in English and received additional pronunciation coaching from Charles Wagman, Japan correspondent of The Illustrated London News. Tōgō made rapid progress in his studies and in 1870 secured a place at the newly established Imperial Japanese Navy Training School at Tsukiji, Tokyo. On 11 December 1870 he was formally appointed a cadet on the Japanese ironclad flagship Ryūjō at anchor in Yokohama harbour. In February 1871, Tōgō and eleven other Japanese officer cadets were selected to travel to Britain to further their naval studies. Between extensive practical sea training and an extended voyage to Australia, Tōgō lived and studied in Britain for a period of seven years. Arriving in April 1871 after a journey of 80 days at the port of Southampton, Tōgō first traveled to London, at that time the most populous city in the world.
According to contemporary accounts of the cadet's first days in England, many things were strange to Japanese eyes at that time. Tōgō was sent for some weeks to a boarding house in the major naval port of Plymouth, to gain some understanding of the British Royal Navy. Subsequently, he studied history and engineering at a naval preparatory school in Portsmouth under the direction of a tutor and local clergyman in order to prepare for admission to Royal Naval College at Dartmouth. After the British Admiralty decided in 1872 that no places were to be made available at Dartmouth for the Japanese cadets, Tōgō was able gain admission as a cadet on HMS Worcester, the training ship of the Thames Nautical Training College moored at Greenhithe. Tōgō found his cadet rations "inadequate": "I swallowed my small rations in a moment. I formed the habit of dipping my bread in my tea and eating a great deal of it, to the surprise of my English comrades." Tōgō's comrades called him "Johnny Chinaman", being unfamiliar with the "Orient" and not knowing the difference between Asiatic peoples.
"The young samurai did not like that, on more than one occasion he would threaten to put an end to it by blows." Gunnery training for the college was held aboard HMS Victory, at the time moored in Portsmouth harbour. Tōgō is recorded to have attended Trafalgar Day observances on the deck of the ship in 1873. After two years of training, Tōgō was to graduate second in his class. During 1875, Tōgō circumnavigated the world as an ordinary seaman on the British training ship Hampshire, leaving in February and staying seventy days at sea without a port call until reaching Melbourne. Tōgō "observed the strange animals on the Southern continent". Rounding Cape Horn on his return voyage, Tōgō had sailed thirty thousand miles before returning to England in September 1875. During the autu
Lorrin A. Thurston
Lorrin Andrews Thurston was an American lawyer and businessman born and raised in the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi. The grandson of two of the first Christian missionaries to Hawaii, Thurston played a prominent role in the overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom that replaced Queen Liliʻuokalani with the Republic of Hawaii, dominated by American interests, he published the Pacific Commercial Advertiser, owned other enterprises. From 1906 to 1916 he and friends lobbied with national politicians to create a National Park to preserve the Hawaiian Volcanoes, he was born on July 1858, in Honolulu, Hawaii. His father was mother Sarah Andrews. On his father's side he was grandson of Asa and Lucy Goodale Thurston, who were in the first company of American Christian Missionaries to the Hawaiian Islands in 1820. On his mother's side, he was the grandson of another early missionary, Lorrin Andrews, his father was speaker of the house of representatives of the Kingdom of Hawaii but died when Lorrin was only a year and a half old in December 1859.
He moved to Maui with his mother. He gave himself the Hawaiian nickname Kakina. In 1872, he attended Punahou School known as Oahu College, where he played baseball with the sons of Alexander Cartwright, he was expelled shortly before graduation. After working as a translator for a law firm and clerk at the Wailuku Sugar Company, he attended law school at Columbia University, he became partners in a law firm with William Owen Smith. He married Margaret Clarissa Shipman in February 1884, they had a son Robert Shipman Thurston on February 1, 1888. Margaret died in childbirth on May 5, 1891. On April 5, 1894, Lorrin Thurston married Harriet Potter of Michigan, they had a daughter Margaret Charter in 1895, a son Lorrin Potter Thurston in 1900. Lorrin Andrews Thurston died on May 11, 1931. In 1919, Robert Thurston married Evelyn M. Scott, Margaret Charter married William Twigg-Smith. Lorrin Thurston was influential in the business world of Hawaii, he followed his father and became a member of the legislature of the Hawaiian Kingdom in 1886.
Thurston inherited the conservative thinking of the missionaries, which put him at odds with Hawaiian royalty as well as immigrants such as Greek hotelier George Lycurgus who enjoyed lifestyles filled with gambling and liquor. The Missionary Party would change its name to the Reform Party in 1887, as it grew to include business owners. In July 1887 Thurston authored what is called the "Bayonet Constitution" because it was imposed under threat by the Honolulu Rifle Company militia, it limited the executive power of the monarch King Kalākaua. Thurston became the powerful Interior Minister, with Englishman William Lowthian Green as minister of finance, as the old cabinet of Walter M. Gibson was ousted. Voting rights and membership of the legislature were based on property ownership, resulting in effective control by wealthy Americans and Europeans, he served in the cabinet until June 1890 when he was replaced by Charles N. Spencer. Queen Liliʻuokalani tried to recover power with a new constitution.
In 1892 Thurston led the Annexation Club adopting the more dramatic title Committee of Safety, which planned for making Hawaii a territory of the United States. In 1893 the Committee of Safety was supported by the U. S. Military in an overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom, the resulting Provisional Government of Hawaii was controlled by Thurston's committee. Thurston headed the commission sent to Washington, D. C. to negotiate with Benjamin Harrison for American annexation. Liliʻuokalani and Crown Princess Victoria Kaʻiulani traveled to Washington and made it clear the new government did not have the support of the majority of the Hawaiian population; as news spread of the force used, the proposed treaty was not ratified. A century in the Apology Resolution of 1993, the U. S. Congress apologized for the involvement of the United States Marine Corps in the overthrow, the controversy continues to modern times. In March 1893 Grover Cleveland became president, disavowed the treaty. Thurston helped draft another constitution, the Republic of Hawaiʻi was declared on July 4, 1894.
He appointed Sanford B. Dole to the office of President of the Republic. A series of attempted revolts called. In 1897 William McKinley became Thurston's commission again lobbied for annexation; the Spanish–American War in April 1898 increased American interest in the Pacific, due to battles in the Philippines. By July 1898 the annexation formed the Territory of Hawaii and Thurston retired from political office to run his business affairs. In 1898 he purchased the Pacific Commercial Advertiser newspaper; as principal owner and publisher after 1900, he promoted the pineapple industries. He headed the Hawaiian Promotion Committee, but his conservative values objected to the hula which he called "suggestive" and "indecent", his fortunes rose as a result of the 1898 annexation by the United States, since it removed all duties from shipments to the largest market. Thurston is credited with promoting the development of Hawaiʻi's sugarcane plantations and railroads and bringing the first electric street cars to Honolulu.