A commodity market is a market that trades in the primary economic sector rather than manufactured products, such as cocoa and sugar. Hard commodities are mined, such as oil. Investors access about 50 major commodity markets worldwide with purely financial transactions outnumbering physical trades in which goods are delivered. Futures contracts are the oldest way of investing in commodities. Futures are secured by physical assets. Commodity markets can include physical trading and derivatives trading using spot prices, forwards and options on futures. Farmers have used a simple form of derivative trading in the commodity market for centuries for price risk management. A financial derivative is a financial instrument whose value is derived from a commodity termed an underlier. Derivatives are either over-the-counter. An increasing number of derivatives are traded via clearing houses some with central counterparty clearing, which provide clearing and settlement services on a futures exchange, as well as off-exchange in the OTC market.
Derivatives such as futures contracts, Exchange-traded Commodities, forward contracts have become the primary trading instruments in commodity markets. Futures are traded on regulated commodities exchanges. Over-the-counter contracts are "privately negotiated bilateral contracts entered into between the contracting parties directly". Exchange-traded funds began to feature commodities in 2003. Gold ETFs are based on "electronic gold" that does not entail the ownership of physical bullion, with its added costs of insurance and storage in repositories such as the London bullion market. According to the World Gold Council, ETFs allow investors to be exposed to the gold market without the risk of price volatility associated with gold as a physical commodity. Commodity-based money and commodity markets in a crude early form are believed to have originated in Sumer between 4500 BC and 4000 BC. Sumerians first used clay tokens sealed in a clay vessel clay writing tablets to represent the amount—for example, the number of goats, to be delivered.
These promises of time and date of delivery resemble futures contract. Early civilizations variously used rare seashells, or other items as commodity money. Since that time traders have sought ways to standardize trade contracts. Gold and silver markets evolved in classical civilizations. At first the precious metals were valued for their beauty and intrinsic worth and were associated with royalty. In time, they were used for trading and were exchanged for other goods and commodities, or for payments of labor. Gold, measured out became money. Gold's scarcity, its unique density and the way it could be melted and measured made it a natural trading asset. Beginning in the late 10th century, commodity markets grew as a mechanism for allocating goods, labor and capital across Europe. Between the late 11th and the late 13th century, English urbanization, regional specialization and improved infrastructure, the increased use of coinage and the proliferation of markets and fairs were evidence of commercialization.
The spread of markets is illustrated by the 1466 installation of reliable scales in the villages of Sloten and Osdorp so villagers no longer had to travel to Haarlem or Amsterdam to weigh their locally produced cheese and butter. The Amsterdam Stock Exchange cited as the first stock exchange, originated as a market for the exchange of commodities. Early trading on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange involved the use of sophisticated contracts, including short sales, forward contracts, options. "Trading took place at the Amsterdam Bourse, an open aired venue, created as a commodity exchange in 1530 and rebuilt in 1608. Commodity exchanges themselves were a recent invention, existing in only a handful of cities."In 1864, in the United States, corn and pigs were traded using standard instruments on the Chicago Board of Trade, the world's oldest futures and options exchange. Other food commodities were added to the Commodity Exchange Act and traded through CBOT in the 1930s and 1940s, expanding the list from grains to include rice, mill feeds, eggs, Irish potatoes and soybeans.
Successful commodity markets require broad consensus on product variations to make each commodity acceptable for trading, such as the purity of gold in bullion. Classical civilizations built complex global markets trading gold or silver for spices, cloth and weapons, most of which had standards of quality and timeliness. Through the 19th century "the exchanges became effective spokesmen for, innovators of, improvements in transportation and financing, which paved the way to expanded interstate and international trade."Reputation and clearing became central concerns, states that could handle them most developed powerful financial centers. In 1934, the US Bureau of Labor Statistics began the computation of a daily Commodity price index that became available to the public in 1940. By 1952, the Bureau of Labor Statistics issued a Spot Market Price Index that measured the price movements of "22 sensitive basic commodities whose markets are presumed to be among the first to be influenced by changes in economic conditions.
As such, it serves as one early indication of impending changes in business activity." A commodity index fund is a fund whose assets are invested in financial instruments based on or linked to a commodity index. In just about every case the index is in fact a Commodity Futures Index; the first such index was the Dow Jones Commodity Index, which began in 1933. The first investable commodity futures index was the Goldman Sachs Commodity Index, created in 1991
Camp Pendleton is a 325-acre state military reservation in Virginia Beach, named after Brigadier General William N. Pendleton, who served as Robert E. Lee's chief of artillery during the Civil War, it lies on the Atlantic coast east of Naval Air Station Oceana. The facility was laid out in 1911, with construction beginning in 1912, as the State Rifle Range for the use of the state militia. Between 1922 and 1942, it was named after the serving Governor of Virginia, being firstly named Camp Trinkle Camp Byrd, Camp Pollard, Camp Peery, Camp Price. During both World Wars, the base was federalized. In World War I it was used by the U. S. Navy for coastal artillery training and during World War II it was controlled by U. S. Army, who first applied the name Camp Pendleton; the Camp Pendleton-State Military Reservation Historic District was designated a historic district and listed on the National Register of Historic Places on September 26, 2005. The camp was about 400 acres in size; the original 1912 construction related to the rifle range, but most of those buildings were demolished prior to World War II.
A second major construction phase began in 1919, during which the U. S. Navy focused on improvements to the rifle range; those buildings have been demolished, but the layout of both the first and second phase remains. The third and final phase of construction was the responsibility of the U. S. Army during World War II. At the time it was listed on the National Register, Camp Pendleton had 108 buildings in a condition good enough to qualify them as contributing properties; the operation and maintenance of Camp Pendleton is funded by the federal government through the National Guard Bureau, its primary purpose is the training of personnel and organizations of the Virginia National Guard, as well as other states' National Guard units and components of the U. S. Armed Forces; when the facilities are not used by military organizations and local civilian agencies conduct training at the site. Its facilities include a small arms range, helicopter landing strip, barracks, dining halls, maintenance garages, training fields, a chapel.
Other tenants include the Military Sealift Command, whose facilities are leased to the federal government by the State of Virginia, the 203rd RED HORSE of the Virginia Air National Guard. On March 3, 2001, 18 members of the 203rd RED HORSE and 3 aviators from the Florida Army National Guard died when their aircraft, a Florida ARNG C-23 Sherpa, crashed over Georgia, it is considered the worst peacetime National Guard crash and the worst National Guard loss of life in Virginia since World War II. In 1991 the United States Department of Defense began the Youth Challenge Program; the Virginia implementation of that program is the Commonwealth Challenge, a program with a military structure operated by the Virginia National Guard on Camp Pendleton for at risk 16 to 18 year olds. It focuses on developing, "...values, skills and self-discipline." The at risk youths come from all parts of Virginia. The Camp Pendleton program is 5 1/2 months long and offers a GED program. There are three phases: 2 weeks of indoctrination, 20 weeks of the core program, a 12-month post-graduation program.
Community service is part of the program. Classes start each June; the only cost to the participant are for personal items. So far 30 classes and over 3000 cadets have graduated from the Virginia program. In 2010 Virginia removed funding for the program, but it was restored by the then-governor. Since shortly after World War II a 2,000 square feet home on the camp has served as a vacation spot for the presiding governor of Virginia; the architecture of this home is in the same style as the rest of the camp. It has vinyl siding; the "cottage" was built in 1915 and served as the commanding officer's residence. Since the summer of 2004, the United States Naval Sea Cadet Corps has conducted summer and winter boot camps at Camp Pendleton; when the facility was created it was in a remote, sparsely populated area. Since the City of Virginia Beach has grown and developed around it, leading to concerns over safety issues. Over time, hundreds of acres of land belonging to the camp have been sold to the city of Virginia Beach.
The role of Camp Pendleton is changing, as more National Guard training takes place at the much larger Fort Pickett, lessening the importance of Camp Pendleton. This has led to repeated requests by the City authorities to convert it to other uses, including complete or partial conversion to a state park; the findings of a report completed at the behest of the Virginia General Assembly on November 22, 1998 were that it was not feasible at that time to convert Camp Pendleton to a state park because of the demands of long-term planning, coordination with the federal government, environmental reclamation. National Register of Historic Places listings in Virginia Beach, Virginia Camp Pendleton State Military Reservation: Virginia National Guard Geocaching info on Camp Pendleton US Army info on Camp Pendleton
Kate is an upcoming action thriller directed by Cedric Nicolas-Troyan. A female assassin, who after being poisoned and given less than 24 hours to live, must go on a manhunt through the streets of Tokyo and befriends a daughter of a past target. Mary Elizabeth Winstead Woody Harrelson Michiel Huisman Tadanobu Asano Jun Kunimura Miyavi Miku Martineau Kazuya Tanabe Ava Caryofyllis In October 2017, Netflix acquired Umair Aleem’s script Kate, with David Leitch, Kelly McCormick, Bryan Unkeless and Scott Morgan producing the film. In December 2018, Cedric Nicolas-Troyan signed on to direct the film. In April 2019, Mary Elizabeth Winstead was cast to lead the film. In July 2019, Woody Harrelson joined the cast. In September, Michiel Huisman, Tadanobu Asano and Jun Kunimura were among new additions to the cast. In November 2019, it was announced that the all-female Japanese rock band Band-Maid would appear in the film. Filming commenced on September 16, 2019 and concluded in November 2019. Shooting locations include Thailand, Tokyo and Los Angeles, California.
Kate on IMDb
Necroscope II: Wamphyri! is the second book in the Necroscope series by British writer Brian Lumley. It was released in 1988; the spirit of Harry Keogh resides in Harry Jr.. When his infant son sleeps, Harry can roam the Continuum and speak to the dead, but is losing control as the son "reels" his father's spirit back in. Harry discovers that Thibor had infected a pregnant woman, which results in a lesser breed of vampire; this youth, Yulian Bodescu, retains many vampire abilities: hypnotism, increased lust, bodily transformation and creating thralls. Harry contacts Faethor Ferenczy, a master manipulator, not ready to die but was forced to when he was pinned beneath an unmovable column; when Faethor died, a small worm like creature left his body, killed. Harry discovers that the creature is the "true" vampire and source of the Wamphyri power and when the two beings are merged, they are Wamphyri. Faethor tells Harry about. Thibor was to watch over Faethor's castle and servants while gone, but after disobeying him, Faethor had him chained underneath the earth.
Yulian is creating thralls out of his family, Thibor uses telepathy to tell him that Harry Jr. is a great enemy. Yulian sets out to kill the infant, Harry informs E-Branch that Thibor has a piece of dead skin left behind, which could be used to further Yulian's mutation. E-Branch teams up with the current Russian head to destroy Thibor's remains and a "finger mutation" left behind in Castle Ferenczy. After destroying the remains of Thibor, Alec Kyle is captured by rogue Russian agents believing him to be a spy. With the assistance of Zek Foener they mindwipe him and steal his knowledge of British E-Branch and Harry Keogh. Zek Foener learns she vows never to use her talents for the Russians again; as Yulian prepares to murder Harry Jr, using powers he learned from his father's mind, slips through the Möbius Continuum to E-Branch HQ with Brenda while the dead rise to slaughter Yulian Bodescu. Harry Jr. releases his fathers consciousness, drawn to inhabit the now mindless body of Alec Kyle. Enraged at what the Russians have done to Alec Kyle, Harry destroys the Russian HQ.
Necroscope pages at Brian Lumley's website Necropaedia: A Guide to the Necroscope series
Dharmapala Kamboja was the last ruler of Kamboja Pala dynasty of Bengal. He ruled Dandabhukti-mandala in Vardhamana-bhukti in the first quarter of eleventh century and was contemporary of Rajendra Chola of Chola dynasty of Deccan. One king named Dharmapala ruling in Dandabhukti finds mention in the Tirmulai Inscription of Rajendra Chola which he issued in his 13th regnal year. Scholars identify this Dharmapala of the Tirmulai Inscription with the Dharmapala of the Kamboja-Pala Dynasty ruling in Dandabhukti in the first quarter of the 11th century, it has been suggested that when threatened by Pala rulers of Bengal, this last ruler of the Kamboja-Pala Dynasty of Bengal, might have sought help from Rajendra Chola of the Chola Dynasty. Chidambaram Inscription Tamil language, found in Chidambaram refers to one Kamboja ruler who made a beautiful stone gift as a curio to Rajendrasoladevar which with latter's permission, was embedded in front row of the edirambalam of the Nataraja temple:Rajendra sola devarku Kambosha-rajan katchiyaaga kattina kallu, idu udaiyar rajendra sola devar tiruvaai molindaruli udaiyar tiruchrirramblam udaiyar koyilil mun vaittadu indakkallu tiruvedir ambalattu tiru kkai sarattil tiru mum pattikku melai ppattiyille vaittadu'.
Though K. A. Nilakanta Sastri links Kamboja king of Chidambram inscription to Cambodia. Many other scholars say that Kamboja of Chidambram inscriptions is this Dharampala of Kamboj lineage, ruling in Dandbhukti-mandala of west Bengal during early 11th century and was therefore a contemporary of Rajendra Chola. Karandai plates of about 1020 issued by Rajendra Chola in the eighth year of his reign states that a Kamboja king solicited friendship of Rajendra Chola by sending him for the protection of his royalty a victorious war-chariot with which he had defeated the armies which opposed him in battle; the inscription issued in the eighth year of his reign contains a significant verse in its separate Sanskrit section and it refers to one Kamboja Raja:Kamboja-rajo ripu-raja sena-jaitrena yen= ajayad=ahaveshu | tarn prahinot prartthita-mitra-bhavo yennai ratham ||. The above inscription says that, in order to seek Chola's friendship, Kamboja king presented to Rajendra Chola a chariot with which he had won his enemies in many battles.
The Kamboja king mentioned in the Karandai plates is believed to be Dharmapala of the Kamboja-Pala Dynasty of Bengal. There can be doubt that Dharmapala of the Tirumalai Inscription of king Rajendra Chola is the Kamboja king Dharmapala of Dandabhukti, a scion of the Kamboja dynasty to which Nayapalaa and Rajyapala of the Irda Copper Plate grant and the Kalanda Copper Plate grant belonged; when threatened by the Pala ruler Mahpala-I, this Kamboja Dharmapala appears to have sought friendship and help with Rajendra Chola against the Pala ruler by forming an alliance with Rajendra Chola and presenting him a valuable Ratha as a token of friendship. As a consequence, Rajendra Chola led his victorious northern expedition to the banks of the Ganges and met Dharmapala in Dandabhukti; this demonstrates Kamboja rulers' weakened position and Rajendra Chola's political influence in Bengal. Some scholars, think that “Kamboja king sent his ratha as a friendly present to Rajendra Chola to avoid war with the latter"
Verónica Abigail Colindres García is a female Salvadoran race walker. She won a silver medal for the 20 km at the 2009 Pan American Race Walking Cup in San Salvador, with a time of 1:39:45. Colindres represented El Salvador at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, where she competed in the women's 20 km race walk, she finished and completed the race in thirty-eighth place by six seconds behind Brazil's Tânia Spindler, with a seasonal best time of 1:36:52. Colindres was elevated to a higher position, when Greek race walker and former Olympic champion Athanasía Tsoumeléka had been disqualified from the competition, after she was tested positive for CERA, an advanced version of the blood-booster erythropoietin. Verónica Colindres at World Athletics NBC Olympics Profile