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Common Brittonic

Common Brittonic was an ancient Celtic language spoken in Britain. It is variously known as Old Brittonic and Common or Old Brythonic. By the sixth century AD, this language of the Celtic Britons was starting to split into the various Neo-Brittonic languages: Welsh, Cornish and the Pictish language. Common Brittonic is a form of Insular Celtic, descended from Proto-Celtic, a hypothetical parent language that, by the first half of the first millennium BC, was diverging into separate dialects or languages. There is some evidence that the Pictish language may have had close ties to Common Brittonic, might have been either a sister language or a fifth branch. Evidence from Welsh shows a great influence from Latin on Common Brittonic during the Roman period, so in terms related to the Church and Christianity, which are nearly all Latin derivatives. Common Brittonic was replaced in most of Scotland by Middle Irish and south of the Firth of Forth by Old English. Brittonic was replaced by English throughout England.

O'Rahilly's historical model suggests the possibility that there was a Brittonic language in Ireland before the arrival of Goidelic languages there, but this view has not found wide acceptance. No documents written in Common Brittonic have been found, but a few inscriptions have been identified; the Bath curse tablets, found in the Roman reservoir at Bath, contain about 150 names, about half of which are undoubtedly Celtic. There is an inscription on a metal pendant discovered in 1979 in Bath, which seems to contain an ancient Brittonic curse: Adixoui Deuina Deieda Andagin Uindiorix cuamenai or maybe Adixoui Deiana Deieda Andagin Uindiorix cuamiinai The affixed – Deuina, Andagin, Uindiorix – I have bound An alternative translation taking into account case marking is: May I, Windiorix for/at Cuamena defeat the worthless woman, oh divine Deieda. There is a tin/lead sheet with part of 9 lines of text; this seems to contain Brittonic names. British toponyms are another type of evidence, recorded in Latinised forms by Ptolemy's Geography.

The place names of Roman Britain were discussed by Rivet and Smith in their book of that name published in 1979. They show; some English place names still contain elements derived from Common Brittonic. Some Brittonic personal names are recorded. Tacitus' Agricola noted. Comparison with what is known of the Gaulish language suggests a close relationship with Brittonic. Pritenic is a modern term, coined to label the language of the inhabitants of prehistoric Scotland during Roman rule in southern Great Britain. Within the disputed P-Celtic vs. Q-Celtic division of the Celtic languages, "Pritenic" would thus be either a sister or daughter language of Common Brittonic, both deriving from a common P-Celtic language spoken around the 1st century BC; the evidence for the language consists of place-names, tribal names and personal names recorded by Greek and Latin writers in accounts of northern Britain. These names have been discussed by Kenneth H. Jackson, in The Problem of the Picts, who considered some of them to be Pritenic but had reservations about most of them.

Katherine Forsyth reviewed these names and considers more of them to be Celtic, still recognizing that some names of islands and rivers may be pre-Indo-European. The rarity of survival of Pritenic names is due to Dál Riatan and Norse settlement in the area; the dialect position of Pritenic has been discussed by Koch. Their conclusions are that Common Brittonic had split by the 1st century; the Roman frontier between Britannia and Pictland is to have increased the split. By the 8th century, Bede considered Welsh/British to be separate languages. Common Brittonic was used with Latin following the Roman conquest of Britain in 43 AD, at least in major settlements. A number of Latin words were borrowed by Brittonic speakers; the Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain during the 6th century marked the beginning of a decline in the language, as it was replaced by Old English. Some Brittonic speakers migrated to Galicia. By 700, Brittonic was restricted to North West England and Southern Scotland, Wales and Devon, Brittany.

In these regions, it evolved into Cumbric, Welsh and Breton, respectively. The early Common Brittonic vowel inventory is identical to that of Proto-Celtic. /ɨ/ and /ʉ/ have not developed yet. Notes: The central mid vowels /ə/ and /ɵ̞/ were allophonic developments of /i/ and /u/, respectively. Through comparative linguistics, it is possible to reconstruct the declension paradigms of Common Brittonic: Notes: The dative dual and plural represent the inherited instrumental forms, which replaced the inherited dative dual and plural, from Proto-Celtic *toutābom, *toutābos. Notes: Neuter 2nd declension stems deviate from the paradigm as such:Notes: Dual is same as singular All other declensions same as regular 2nd declension paradigm Common Brittonic survives today in a few English place names and river names. However, some of these may be pre-Celtic; the bes

St Andrew's Church, Bridport

St Andrew's Church is a former Church of England church in Bridport, England. It was built in 1858-60 to the designs of Thomas Talbot Bury and has been a Grade II listed building since 1975. St Andrew's was built in the parish of Bradpole to serve the outlying part of the village and the growing population within the north-east region of Bridport; as Bradpole's Holy Trinity Church was an inconvenient distance for some residents and filled to capacity for services, a chapel of ease was proposed for the area. Through the efforts of the vicar of the parish, Rev. A. Broadley, the cost of the church was raised by private subscription, including a £500 donation from Miss Strong, grants from the Diocesan Church Building Society and Incorporated Society in London; the tender of Messrs Chick and Son of Beaminster was accepted for £1,079 and the foundation stone laid by the Bishop of Salisbury, Rev. Walter Kerr Hamilton, on 21 August 1858; the masonry work was undertaken by Mr. Gibbs of Bradpole. St Andrew's was consecrated by the Bishop of Salisbury on 27 September 1860.

It continued to serve the parish until the church was made redundant on 1 August 1978 and sold to a private owner for light industrial use as a workshop and store. St Andrew's is built of coursed and squared limestone, sourced from quarries in Powerstock, ashlar dressings of Ham stone, in an Early English style, it has a roof of blue slate, with a bellcote containing three openings. Built to accommodate 300 persons, the interior is made up of a five-bay nave, measuring 80 by 26 feet, a two-bay chancel, measuring 24 by 18 feet, a lean-to vestry and organ chamber; the church's original furnishings included benches of stained deal, a carved communion table of oak, donated by the Bishop of Salisbury, a pulpit and font of Ham stone. The chancel's fittings were carved from oak, with the floor laid with encaustic tiles from Mintons and Poole potteries; the mural decorations of the chancel were created by friends. The church's stained glass windows were created by Butler of London. Another stained glass window was installed in 1868, created by Heaton and Bayne.

In their 2002 inspection of the interior, Historic England recorded that "extensive" alterations and removals had taken place. The font had been removed but other features, including the pulpit and altar, remained; some stained glass remained in the chancel, although other examples had either been donated to the Stained Glass Museum of Ely Cathedral in 1979 or installed in St John's Church at West Bay

FMW Summer Spectacular

Summer Spectacular was a major annual professional wrestling event produced by Frontier Martial-Arts Wrestling during the month of August. The supercard was first held in 1990 in response to World Wrestling Federation's August event SummerSlam; the event would return and be held for two consecutive years in 1993 and 1994. The 1996 edition was subtitled "Shiodome Legend", which would become the event's name for the 1997 edition; this would be the last edition as FMW began producing pay-per-view events in 1998. The event was considered one of the FMW's four big supercards of the year, along with FMW Anniversary Show, Fall Spectacular and Year End Spectacular