Common Era is one of the notation systems for the world's most used calendar era. BCE is the era before CE. BCE and CE are alternatives to AD system respectively; the Dionysian era distinguishes eras using AD and BC. Since the two notation systems are numerically equivalent, "2020 CE" corresponds to "AD 2020" and "400 BCE" corresponds to "400 BC". Both notations refer to the Gregorian calendar; the year-numbering system used by the Gregorian calendar is used throughout the world today, is an international standard for civil calendars. The expression has been traced back to 1615, when it first appeared in a book by Johannes Kepler as the Latin annus aerae nostrae vulgaris, to 1635 in English as "Vulgar Era"; the term "Common Era" can be found in English as early as 1708, became more used in the mid-19th century by Jewish religious scholars. In the 20th century, the use of CE and BCE was popularized in academic and scientific publications as a culturally neutral term, it is used by some authors and publishers who wish to emphasize sensitivity to non-Christians by not explicitly referencing Jesus as "Christ" and Dominus through use of the abbreviation "AD".
The year numbering system used with Common Era notation was devised by the Christian monk Dionysius Exiguus in the year 525 to replace the Era of Martyrs system, because he did not wish to continue the memory of a tyrant who persecuted Christians. He attempted to number years from an initial reference date, an event he referred to as the Incarnation of Jesus. Dionysius labeled the column of the table in which he introduced the new era as "Anni Domini Nostri Jesu Christi"; this way of numbering years became more widespread in Europe with its use by Bede in England in 731. Bede introduced the practice of dating years before what he supposed was the year of birth of Jesus, the practice of not using a year zero. In 1422, Portugal became the last Western European country to switch to the system begun by Dionysius; the term "Common Era" is traced back in English to its appearance as "Vulgar Era" to distinguish dates on the Ecclesiastic calendar in popular use from dates of the regnal year, the year of reign of a sovereign used in national law.
The first use of the Latin term anno aerae nostrae vulgaris discovered so far was in a 1615 book by Johannes Kepler. Kepler uses it again, as ab Anno vulgaris aerae, in a 1616 table of ephemerides, again, as ab anno vulgaris aerae, in 1617. A 1635 English edition of that book has the title page in English – so far, the earliest-found use of Vulgar Era in English. A 1701 book edited by John LeClerc includes "Before Christ according to the Vulgar Æra, 6". A 1716 book in English by Dean Humphrey Prideaux says, "before the beginning of the vulgar æra, by which we now compute the years from his incarnation." A 1796 book uses the term "vulgar era of the nativity". The first known use of "Christian Era" is as the Latin phrase annus aerae christianae on the title page of a 1584 theology book. In 1649, the Latin phrase annus. A 1652 ephemeris is the first instance found so far of the English use of "Christian Era"; the English phrase "common Era" appears at least as early as 1708, in a 1715 book on astronomy it is used interchangeably with "Christian Era" and "Vulgar Era".
A 1759 history book uses common æra in a generic sense. The first use found so far of the phrase "before the common era" is in a 1770 work that uses common era and vulgar era as synonyms, in a translation of a book written in German; the 1797 edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica uses the terms vulgar era and common era synonymously. In 1835, in his book Living Oracles, Alexander Campbell, wrote: "Anno Domini; the Catholic Encyclopedia in at least one article reports all three terms being understood by the early 20th century. The phrase "common era", in lower case appeared in the 19th century in a generic sense, not to refer to the Christian Era, but to any system of dates in common use throughout a civilization. Thus, "the common era of the Jews", "the common era of the Mahometans", "common era of the world", "the common era of the foundation of Rome"; when it did refer to the Christian Era, it was sometimes qualified, e.g. "common era of the Incarnation", "common era of the Nativity", or "common era of the birth of Christ".
An adapted translation of Common Era into Latin as Era Vulgaris was adopted in the 20th century by some followers of Aleister Crowley, thus the abbreviation "e.v." or "EV" may sometimes be seen as a replacement for AD. Although Jews have their own Hebrew calendar, they use the Gregorian calendar, without the AD prefix; as early as 1825, the abbreviation VE was in use among Jews to denote years in the Western calendar. As of 2005, Common Era notation has been in use for Hebrew lessons for more than a century. In 1856, Rabbi and historian Morris Jacob Raphall used the abbreviations CE and BCE in his book Post-Biblical History of
In-Young Ahn is a South Korean scientist. She is known for being the first South Korean woman to visit Antarctica and the first Asian woman to become an Antarctic station leader, she is a benthic ecologist and is working as a principal research scientist for Korea Polar Research Institute. Ahn graduated from Seoul National University in 1982 and received her PhD in Coastal Oceanography from the State University of New York at Stony Brook in 1990. Ahn started her research at the Korean Polar Research Institute on July 1, 1991. Ahn was in charge of environmental monitoring program at the King Sejong Station from 1996 to 2011, conducted field surveys to obtain scientific data necessary for designation of the Antarctic Specially Protected Area near the Korean station. Ahn has served as a representative and a National Contact Point of the Committee for Environmental Protection at the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings from 1997 through 2014, until she was designated as the overwintering officer-in-charge.
Ahn served as the vice president of the Korea Polar Research Institute from May 2010 to June 2012. She served as Vice President of the Korean Society of Oceanography in 2010–2011, Korea Federation of Women's Science & Technology Associations in 2014 and 2015, she was expedition leader of the 28th overwintering team of the South Korean King Sejong Antarctic station, where she served as the station chief for about a year. Ahn's research interests include Antarctic marine benthic ecology with special interests on benthic invertebrates and monitoring on Antarctic coastal marine ecosystems, she has studied the Antarctic clam Laternula elliptica, a dominant marine bivalve around Antarctic Continent. Ahn's current research includes studies on the impacts of glacier retreat on nearshore marine benthic communities around the King Sejong Station, she is an adjunct professor at the University of Science & Technology, a principal research scientist at the Korean Polar Institute, which forms part of Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology.
The South Korean government awarded Ahn a Medal of Science & Technology Merit for outstanding accomplishment in Antarctic Research in April 2001. She was further awarded a Commendation from the South Korean Ministry of Environment in June 2008 for her contribution in the designation of Antarctic Specially Protected Area near the King Sejong station. In 2016, she additionally received South Korea's Prime Minister's award in recognition of her achievement as the station leader at King Sejong station. Ahn, In-Young, et al. "First record of massive blooming of benthic diatoms and their association with megabenthic filter feeders on the shallow seafloor of an Antarctic fjord: Does glacier melting fuel the bloom?" Ocean Science Journal 51. 2: 273–279. HW Moon, WMRW Hussin, HC Kim, In-Young Ahn*. "The Impacts of climate change on Antarctic nearshore mega-epifaunal benthic assemblages in a glacial fjord on King George Island: Responses and implications." Ecological Indicators 57: 280–292. Ahn, In-Young, et al.
"Influence of glacial runoff on baseline metal accumulation in the Antarctic limpet Nacella concinna from King George Island." Marine Pollution Bulletin 49: 119–141. Ahn, In-Young, et al. "Growth and seasonal energetics of the Antarctic bivalve Laternula elliptica from King George Island, Antarctica." Marine Ecology Progress Series 257: 99–110. Ahn, In-Young, et al. "Baseline heavy metal concentrations in the Antarctic clam, Laternula elliptica in Maxwell Bay, King George Island, Antarctica." Marine Pollution Bulletin 32.8: 592–598. Ahn, In-Young. "Enhanced particle flux through the biodeposition by the Antarctic suspension-feeding bivalve Laternula elliptica in Marian Cove, King George Island." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 171.1: 75–90. In-Young Ahn publications indexed by Google Scholar In-Young Ahn on ResearchGate
Ladins Dolomites is a minor political party representing the Ladin-speaking minority in South Tyrol. The party, whose original name was Ladins Political Movement, was founded in the early 1990s by Carlo Willeit, who led it in the 1993 provincial election and in 1998 provincial election. After that, the party failed to have any elects both in the 2008 elections. In 2008, the party took its current name. In the 2013 provincial election LD ran within a three-party list, along with the Citizens' Union for South Tyrol and We South Tyroleans; the coalition won 2.1% of the vote and Andreas Pöder, leader of the Citizens' Union, was its sole elect to the Provincial Council. In Ladin areas the coalition did worse than LD alone in 2008. Official website