Common good

In philosophy and political science, the common good refers to either what is shared and beneficial for all or most members of a given community, or alternatively, what is achieved by citizenship, collective action, active participation in the realm of politics and public service. The concept of the common good differs among philosophical doctrines. Early conceptions of the common good were set out by Ancient Greek philosophers, including Aristotle and Plato. One understanding of the common good rooted in Aristotle's philosophy remains in common usage today, referring to what one contemporary scholar calls the "good proper to, attainable only by, the community, yet individually shared by its members." The concept of common good developed through the work of political theorists, moral philosophers, public economists, including Thomas Aquinas, Niccolò Machiavelli, John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, James Madison, Adam Smith, Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill, John Maynard Keynes, John Rawls, many other thinkers.

In contemporary economic theory, a common good is any good, rivalrous yet non-excludable, while the common good, by contrast, arises in the subfield of welfare economics and refers to the outcome of a social welfare function. Such a social welfare function, in turn, would be rooted in a moral theory of the good. Social choice theory aims to understand processes by which the common good may or may not be realized in societies through the study of collective decision rules, and public choice theory applies microeconomic methodology to the study of political science in order to explain how private interests affect political activities and outcomes. The term "common good" escapes a single definition. Most philosophical conceptions of the common good fall into one of two families: substantive and procedural. According to substantive conceptions, the common good is that, shared by and beneficial to all or most members of a given community: particular substantive conceptions will specify what factors or values are beneficial and shared.

According to procedural formulations, by contrast, the common good consists of the outcome, achieved through collective participation in the formation of a shared will. Under one name or another, the common good has been a recurring theme throughout the history of political philosophy; as one contemporary scholar observes, Aristotle used the idea of "the common interest" as the basis for his distinction between "right" constitutions, which are in the common interest, "wrong" constitutions, which are in the interest of rulers. Though these thinkers differed in their views of what the common good consists in, as well as over what the state should do to promote it, they nonetheless agreed that the common good is the end of government, that it is a good of all the citizens, that no government should become the "perverted servant of special interests," whether these special interests be understood as Aristotle's "interest of the rulers," Locke's "private good," Hume's and Madison's "interested factions," or Rousseau's "particular wills."

Though the phrase "common good" does not appear in texts of Plato, the Ancient Greek philosopher indicates that a particular common goal exists in politics and society. For Plato, the best political order is the one which best promotes social harmony and an environment of cooperation and friendship among different social groups, each benefiting from and adding to the common good. In The Republic, Plato's character Socrates contends that the greatest social good is the "cohesion and unity" that "result from the common feelings of pleasure and pain which you get when all members of a society are glad or sorry for the same successes and failures."Plato's student Aristotle, considered by many to be the father of the idea of a common good, uses the concept of "the common interest" as the basis for his distinction between "right" constitutions, which are in the common interest, "wrong" constitutions, which are in the interest of rulers. For Aristotle, the common good is constituted in the good of individuals.

Individual good, in turn, consists in human flourishing—the fulfillment of the human's purpose—which is the right and natural thing for humans to do. On this teleological view, the good stems from objective facts about human purpose. Aristotle is clear that there is greater value in the common good than in the individual good, noting in his Nicomachean Ethics that "even if the end is the same for a single man and for a state, that of the state seems at all events something greater and more complete; when Aristotle discusses the types of political regime in his Politics, he speaks of monarchy (rule by one ma

National Toy Hall of Fame

The National Toy Hall of Fame is an American hall of fame that recognizes the contributions of toys and games that have sustained their popularity for many years. Criteria for induction include: icon status. Established in 1998 under the direction of Ed Sobey, it was housed at A. C. Gilbert's Discovery Village in Salem, United States, but was moved to the Strong National Museum of Play in Rochester, New York, in 2002 after it outgrew its original home. Seventy-two toys have been enshrined in the National Toy Hall of Fame: The following toys were added in 2008:The Stick: Curators praised the stick for its all-purpose, no-cost, recreational qualities, noting its ability to serve either as raw material or an appendage transformed in myriad ways by a child's creativity; the Baby Doll The Skateboard The following toys were added in 2009: The following toys were added in 2010: The following toys were added in 2011: The following toys were added in 2012: The following toys were added in 2013: The following toys were added in 2014: The following toys were added in 2015: The following toys were added in 2016: The following toys were added in 2017: The following toys were added in 2018: Toy Industry Hall of Fame, recognizing the contributions of toy-makers.

List of toys and children's media awards National Toy Hall of Fame at Strong National Museum of Play, Rochester, NY Raggedy Ann Inducted in the National Toy Hall of Fame in 2002

Eduard Glaser

Eduard Glaser was an Austrian Arabist and archaeologist. He was one of the first Europeans to explore South Arabia, he collected thousands of inscriptions in Yemen that are today held by the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna, Austria. Of the travellers to the Orient in the 19th century, Eduard Glaser is considered the most important scholar to have studied Yemen, he contributed to the advancement of historical and cultural research, revealed its ancient history and documented its written and oral traditions. Yemen fascinated him, incited his imagination, he returned there on three other occasions. In Yemen, Glaser disguised himself as a Muslim with the assumed name of Faqih Hussein bin Abdallah el Biraki Essajah, meaning, "the scholar Hussein bin Abdallah from Prague." Eduard Glaser was born in the Bohemian village of Deutsch Rust on 15 March 1855, into a Jewish merchant family. He moved to Prague at the age of sixteen. In order to earn his livelihood, he began working as a private tutor in the home of an aristocratic family while, at the same time, he studied mathematics at the Polytechnic in Prague, along with physics, geology, geography and Arabic which he accomplished in 1875.

Certain publications concerning the journeys of Livingstone in Africa in the last quarter of the 19th century inspired within him a similar drive and ambition to set out on a journey in quest of ancient cultures. In Vienna, Glaser concluded his studies in Arabic and enrolled thereafter in an astronomy class. From 1877 Glaser, served as an assistant in the observatory in Vienna for a period of three years. An important turning point in his academic education came in 1880, when Glaser enrolled in David Heinrich Müller's class for the study of Sabaean grammar, the founder of South Arabian studies in Austria. Müller suggested to him that he travel to Yemen, offering him a stipend, to be provided by the Academy of Sciences of Vienna for the purpose of copying down Sabaean inscriptions. Though his position in the observatory gave him a sense of financial security, he preferred to resign from that post in 1880 – wishing instead to dedicate the remainder of his life to the study of South Arabia's ancient history.

When it became clear to him that his mission would be delayed on account of technical and personal problems, he resorted to his "French connections." A scholarship from the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres in Paris enabled him to travel to Yemen in 1882. The condition of his French sponsors was that they would receive the results of his findings the inscriptions that he had been so fortunate to have copied down. On 11 October 1882, he arrived at the port of Hodeida. Since Glaser had to wait for many months in Sana'a before he could receive a permit enabling him to travel in Yemen, the French doubted whether he would deliver the promised inscriptions, and, so they cut off their financial support to him in 1883. During this most troubling time, he wrote to Kaiser Franz Josef I, describing the importance of his mission and mentioning his financial hardships; the Kaiser allotted him out of his own personal fund the humble sum of 800 dollars. Despite such a gift, Glaser was compelled to shorten his stay in Yemen.

From 1895, until his death, Glaser lived in Munich. He dedicated most of his time preparing his scientific material for publications; the Turkish government was interested in Glaser's comments on Arabia many years after he had left the region, while in 1907 Glaser was asked by the museum in Constantinople to help in cataloguing their collection of Sabaean inscriptions. After his death Müller made sure that a great portion of Glaser's scientific legacy would be purchased by the Academy of Sciences in Vienna; the collection is known by the name of Der Corpus Glaserianum or Sammlung Eduard Glaser, 1944–1961. A small portion of Eduard Glaser's manuscript collection was purchased by Dropsie College in Philadelphia in 1923; the legacy left by Glaser from Yemen alone amounts to some 990 copies and imprints of Sabaean inscriptions, 17 volumes of diaries and 24 manuscripts. The Sabaean inscriptions were deciphered by Hayyim Habshush for Glaser, which the former had transliterated in the Hebrew-Assyrian script for easy comprehension.

Emperor Wilhelm I purchased Glaser's manuscripts for the Prussian library in Berlin. The stones with the Sabaean inscriptions and the sculptures were a donation by the publisher Rudolph Mosse. Glaser's collections contributed much in preserving Vienna's reputation as fore-runner in the study of South Arabia. In 1922 in Vienna, the German-Czech scholar Adolf Grohmann published a comprehensive work entitled Südarabien als Wirtschaftsgebiet, in which he draws principally from the comments left by Eduard Glaser during his tours in South Arabia. In addition to his knowledge of Latin and most of the major European languages, Glaser showed himself proficient in both classical and colloquial Arabic, knew many of its dialects, his natural inquisitiveness led him to analyse the historical processes and relevant cultural influences giving him the tools needed to investigate the Yemen – a land that he saw as the ideal place for finding basic similarities between the rites of the indigenous peoples and those of the ancient Israelites.

He hoped to identify the geographical names mentioned in the Bible. Glaser was an expert in th