The Commonwealth Games is an international multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations. The event was first held in 1930, has taken place every four years since then; the Commonwealth Games were known as the British Empire Games from 1930 to 1950, the British Empire and Commonwealth Games from 1954 to 1966, British Commonwealth Games from 1970 to 1974. Athletes with a disability are included as full members of their national teams, making the Commonwealth Games as the first inclusive international multi-sport event, it is the world's first multi-sport event which inducts equal number of women’s and men’s medal events and was implemented in the 2018 Commonwealth Games. With such unique features, the World Economic Forum called the event significant, their creation was inspired by the Inter-Empire Championships, as a part of the Festival of Empire, which were held in London, United Kingdom in 1911. Melville Marks Robinson founded the games as the British Empire Games which were first hosted in Hamilton in 1930.
During the 20th and 21st centuries, the evolution of the games movement has resulted in several changes to the Commonwealth Games. Some of these adjustments include the creation of the Commonwealth Winter Games for snow and ice sports for the commonwealth athletes, the Commonwealth Paraplegic Games for commonwealth athletes with a disability and the Commonwealth Youth Games for commonwealth athletes aged 14 to 18; the first edition of the winter games and paraplegic games were held in 1958 and 1962 with their last edition held in 1966 and 1974 and the first youth games were held in 2000. The 1942 and 1946 Commonwealth Games were cancelled because of the Second World War; the Commonwealth Games are overseen by the Commonwealth Games Federation, which controls the sporting programme and selects the host cities. The games movement consists of international sports federations, Commonwealth Games Associations, organising committees for each specific Commonwealth Games. There are several rituals and symbols, such as the Commonwealth Games flag and Queen's Baton, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies.
Over 5,000 athletes compete at the Commonwealth Games in more than 15 different sports and more than 250 events. The first and third-place finishers in each event receive Commonwealth Games medals: gold and bronze, respectively. Apart from many Olympic sports, the games include some sports which are played predominantly in Commonwealth countries but which are not part of the Olympic programme, such as lawn bowls, netball and squash. Although there are 54 members of the Commonwealth of Nations, 71 teams participate in the Commonwealth Games, as a number of dependent territories compete under their own flags; the four Home Nations of the United Kingdom—England, Scotland and Northern Ireland—also send separate teams. Nineteen cities in nine countries have hosted the event. Australia has hosted the Commonwealth Games five times. Two cities have hosted Commonwealth Games more than once: Auckland and Edinburgh. Only six countries have attended every Commonwealth Games: Australia, England, New Zealand and Wales.
Australia has been the highest achieving team for twelve games, England for seven, Canada for one. The most recent Commonwealth Games were held in Gold Coast from 4 to 15 April 2018; the next Commonwealth Games are to be held in Birmingham from 27 July to 7 August 2022. A sporting competition bringing together the members of the British Empire was first proposed by John Astley Cooper in 1891, he wrote a letter, published in The Times suggesting a "Pan-Britannic-Pan-Anglican Contest and Festival every four years as a means of increasing goodwill and good understanding of the British Empire". John Astley Cooper Committees were formed in Australia, New Zealand and South Africa in order to promote the idea and inspired Pierre de Coubertin to start the international Olympic Games movement. In 1911, the Festival of the Empire was held at The Crystal Palace in London to celebrate the coronation of George V and as part of it, an Inter-Empire Championship was held. Teams from Australia, South Africa, the United Kingdom competed in athletics, boxing and swimming events.
Canada won the championships and was presented with a silver cup, 2 feet 6 inches high and weighed 340 ounces. However, the 1911 championships brought some criticism, most notably by a correspondent of the Auckland Star, who described them as a "grievous disappointment" that were "not worthy of the title of'Empire Sports'". Melville Marks Robinson, who went to the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam to serve as the manager of the Canadian track and field team lobbied for the proposal of organising the first British Empire Games in Hamilton in 1930; the 1930 British Empire Games were the first of what become known as the Commonwealth Games, were held in Hamilton, in the province of Ontario in Canada from 16–23 August 1930. Eleven countries sent a total of 400 athletes to the Hamilton Games; the opening and closing ceremonies as well as athletics took place at Civic Stadium, with Lord Willingdon starting the Games. The participant nations were Australia, British Guyana, England, Northern Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa and Wales.
The Hamilton Games featured six sports: athletics, lawn bowls, rowing and diving and wrestling and ran at a cost of $97,973. Women competed in only the aquatic events. Canadian triple j
Vero cells are a lineage of cells used in cell cultures. The'Vero' lineage was isolated from kidney epithelial cells extracted from an African green monkey; the lineage was developed on 27 March 1962, by Yasumura and Kawakita at the Chiba University in Chiba, Japan. The original cell line was named "Vero" after an abbreviation of verda reno, which means "green kidney" in Esperanto, while vero itself means "truth" in Esperanto; the Vero cell lineage is continuous and aneuploid, meaning that it has an abnormal number of chromosomes. A continuous cell lineage can be replicated through many cycles of division and not become senescent. Vero cells are interferon-deficient. However, they still have the Interferon-alpha/beta receptor, so they respond when recombinant interferon is added to their culture media; the whole genome sequence of a Vero cell line was determined by Japanese investigators in 2014. Chromosome 12 of Vero cells has a homozygous ~9-Mb deletion, causing the loss of the type I interferon gene cluster and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors CDKN2A and CDKN2B in the genome.
Although African green monkeys were classified as Cercopithecus aethiops, they have been placed within the genus Chlorocebus, which includes several species. The genome analysis indicated that the Vero cell lineage is derived from a female Chlorocebus sabaeus. Vero cells are used for many purposes, including: screening for the toxin of Escherichia coli, first named "Vero toxin" after this cell line, called "Shiga-like toxin" due to its similarity to Shiga toxin isolated from Shigella dysenteriae as host cells for growing viruses, it is useful for counting hemorrhagic fever viruses by plaque assays. Vero E6 known as Vero C1008 This line is a clone from Vero 76. Vero E6 cells show some contact inhibition, so are suitable for propagating viruses that replicate slowly. Research strains transfected with viral genes:Vero F6 is a cell transfected with the gene encoding HHV-1 entry protein glycoprotein-H. Vero F6 was transfected via a concatenated plasmid with the gH gene after a copy of the HHV-1 glycoprotein-D promoter region.
In Vero lineage F6, expression of gH is under the control of the promoter region of gD. HeLa cells Immortalised cell line Cellosaurus entry for Vero Cellosaurus entry for Vero 76 Cellosaurus entry for Vero C1008 Cellosaurus entry for Vero F6
Hotel Pod Orłem is a historical hotel building on Gdańska Street N°14, in the city of Bydgoszcz. The building stands near Dworcowa Street; the hotel has a "U" shape, with irregular and uneven corners. Its footprint is delineated by the Park Casimir the Great Bydgoszcz to the east. Hotels in this location date back to the beginning of the 19th century, when an inn was built by the Gliszczyński family en route to Gdańsk. In 1822, a carpenter of the Gliszczyńskis' built a new building called the Hotel "The Eagle" next to the old one. Hotel "The Eagle" is one of the first hotels built in the suburb of Bydgoszcz officially called Bromberg. Around 1850, August Friedrich Bernhardt, a baker, bought a nearby piece of land. Between 1875 and 1879, his newly created company was taken over by his son Emil Bernhardt, who had returned from Switzerland where he had taken hotel and catering courses. In 1880 Emil Bernhardt married Louise Müller, daughter of a landlord in the vicinity of Schneidemühl, who had a substantial dowry.
A part of this dowry was invested in the construction of Emil Bernhardt's house, located at Gdansks street 16. In 1893 Emil Bernhardt commissioned a Bromberg-born architect, Józef Święcicki, to realize his new hotel project; this building was to stretch under a huge sculpture of an eagle with spread wings. Święcicki's design was based on similar projects from Munich. As a signature, Święcicki hid his self-portrait among the row of allegorical heads adorning the façade; the property was built between 1894 and 1896. When completed, the building became the largest and most modern hotel in Bromberg, with an extensively detailed façade and interior decoration. In the hotel's basement, the restaurant was adorned with vaults supported by columns and wall paintings modelled after the latest Munich fashions, with niches for seating. From the beginning, the building has been equipped with electric lighting, steam heating, a hydraulic lift; the facility combined the functions of a residential area, a hotel, a commercial space.
Communication between the different areas was provided by 4 network of corridors. In 1899, the hotel was leased to the Berlin businessman Rudolf Trillhose. In 1920, Bromberg rejoined the territory of the Second Polish Republic and renamed Bydgoszcz, the building was sold to Polish landlord and tradesman Stefan Majewicz for the then-astronomical sum of 1.25 millionDeutsche Mark. During the interwar period, a modernization of the hotel was carried out; this renovation work was achieved in 1926 under the direction of Bydgoszcz architect Theophilus Biernacki. In those years, receptions, chamber music and other entertainment were performed in two different halls. "Column" Hall was famous for its daily concerts of popular music, played by the Bydgoszcz orchestra, the restaurant "Pod Orłem" was one of the best in terms of design and drinks. It was here that banquets in honour of Marshal Piłsudski, President Wojciechowski and General Haller were given. In the 1930s, social elite met at its "Club of the angular Table", among them Adam Grzymała-Siedlecki, Konrad Fiedler, Jan Piechocki, Marian Turwid, Henry Kuminek, Stanisław Leśniewski.
During the Nazi occupation, the hotel was taken by the Nazis and renamed "Danzinger Hoff". From 1939 to 1945, the south-west corner of the building was rebuilt so as to widen the Gdanska street. After the invasion of Bydgoszcz by Soviet troops, the building was returned to its former owners, who resumed the hotel business as a partnership under the leadership of Stanislaw Lipowicz. In October 1945, the hotel was "nationalized" and referred to as the "Society of Workers' Universities". A few more modifications were performed in particular to the attics. In 1952, the Polish state travel agency "Orbis" took ownership of the "Pod Orłem" hotel; the times when Orbis was managing the hotel were treasured in the memory of the inhabitants of Bydgoszcz. Refined cuisine was praised, a number of prominent guests visited the hotel, such as Arthur Rubinstein and Krzysztof Penderecki), the hotel was a substitute for international contacts in the times when Poland was cut off from the western world. Since 1974, the property is registered on the list of Polish heritage monuments.
In 1987, a major overhaul of the building was carried out, awarded in 1993 by the Minister of Culture as one of the best restored building. At the beginning of the 1990s, heirs from the Majewicz and Kosicki families claimed ownership of the hotel. In 2003, the hotel ranked in the top 20 of the most business friendly hotels in Poland; the building has a basement. Its overall shape consists of two wings; the edifice has been erected with Neobaroque references to Rome's Baroque forms. Among the numerous elements that adorn the front, the large-size sculpture of the eagle with outstretched wings which tops the façade is the hotel symbol; the "Pod Or