The Commonwealth Heritage List is a heritage register established in 2003, which lists places under the control of the Australian government, on land or in waters directly owned by the Crown. Such places must have importance in relation to the natural or historic heritage of Australia, including those of cultural significance to Indigenous Australians. National heritage sites on the list are protected by the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999; the Commonwealth Heritage List, together with the Australian National Heritage List, replaced the former Register of the National Estate in 2003. Under the EPBC Act, the National Heritage List includes places of outstanding heritage value to the nation, the Commonwealth Heritage List includes heritage places owned or controlled by the Commonwealth. Places protected under the Act include federally owned telegraph stations, defence sites, migration centres, customs houses, national institutions such as Parliament and High Court buildings, memorials and marine areas.
All places on this list can be found on the online Australian Heritage Database, along with other places on other Australian and world heritage listings. In 2004, a new heritage management system was introduced by the Australian Government to protect Australia’s heritage places. Key elements are amendments to the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, which include explicit requirements for cultural heritage protection, the creation of an Australian National Heritage List and a Commonwealth Heritage List and the establishment of the Australian Heritage Council under the Australian Heritage Council Act 2003; the Register of the National Estate was lost its statutory power. The National Heritage List is to include a small number of places of outstanding heritage significance to Australia; the Commonwealth Heritage criteria for a place are any or all of the following: the place has significant heritage value because of the place's importance in the course, or pattern, of Australia's natural or cultural history the place has significant heritage value because of the place's possession of uncommon, rare or endangered aspects of Australia's natural or cultural history the place has significant heritage value because of the place's potential to yield information that will contribute to an understanding of Australia's natural or cultural history the place has significant heritage value because of the place's importance in demonstrating the principal characteristics of: a class of Australia's natural or cultural places.
As of 28 September 2017, the Commonwealth Heritage List comprised 398 heritage places as follows: Cultural heritage Natural heritage Commonwealth Heritage This article incorporates text by Commonwealth of Australia available under the CC BY 4.0 license. Official site
British Columbia Ferry Services Inc. operating as BC Ferries, is a former provincial Crown corporation, now operating as an independently managed, publicly owned company. BC Ferries provides all major passenger and vehicle ferry services for coastal and island communities in the Canadian province of British Columbia. Set up in 1960 to provide a similar service to that provided by the Black Ball Line and the Canadian Pacific Railway, which were affected by job action at the time, BC Ferries has become the largest passenger ferry line in North America and the second largest in the world, operating a fleet of 36 vessels with a total passenger and crew capacity of over 27,000, serving 47 locations on the B. C. coast. As BC Ferries provides an essential link from mainland British Columbia to the various islands, parts of the mainland without road access, on its routes, it is subsidized by the Government of British Columbia and the Government of Canada; the inland ferries operating on British Columbia's rivers and lakes are not run by BC Ferries.
The responsibility for their provision rests with the British Columbia Ministry of Transportation, which contracts operation to various private sector companies. In the summer of 1958, a strike by employees of CP Steamships and the Black Ball Line caused the Social Credit government of W. A. C. Bennett to decide that the coastal ferry service in B. C. needed to be government-owned, so it set about creating BC Ferries. Minister of Highways Phil Gaglardi was tasked with overseeing the new Crown corporation and its rapid expansion. BC Ferries' first route, commissioned in 1960, was between Swartz Bay, north of Sidney on Vancouver Island, Tsawwassen, a part of Delta, using just two vessels; these ships were the MV Sidney. The next few years saw a dramatic growth of the B. C. ferry system as it took over operations of the Black Ball Line and other major private companies providing vehicle ferry service between Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland. As the ferry system expanded and started to service other small coastal communities, BC Ferries had to build more vessels, many of them in the first five years of its operations, to keep up with the demand.
Another method of satisfying increasing demand for service was BC Ferries' unique "stretch and lift" program, involving seven vessels being cut in half and extended, five of those vessels cut in half again and elevated, to increase their passenger and vehicle-carrying capacities. The vast majority of the vessels in the fleet were built in B. C. waters, with only two foreign purchases and one domestic purchase. In the mid-1980s, BC Ferries took over the operations of the saltwater branch of the B. C. Ministry of Transportation and Highways, which ran ferry services to small coastal communities; this action increased the size of BC Ferries' fleet and its geographical service area. The distinctive "dogwood on green" flag that BC Ferries used between 1960 and 2003 gave the service its popular nickname "the Dogwood Fleet". At its inception, BC Ferries was a division of the British Columbia Toll Highways and Bridges Authority, a provincial Crown corporation. Through successive reorganizations, it evolved into the British Columbia Ferry Authority and the British Columbia Ferry Corporation, both of which were provincial Crown corporations.
In 2003, the Government of British Columbia announced that BC Ferries, in debt, would be reorganized into a private corporation, implemented through the passage of the Coastal Ferry Act. The single voting share of BC Ferries Corporation is held by the provincial government's BC Ferry Authority, which operates under the rules of the Act. During the 1990s, the NDP government commissioned a series of three fast ferries to improve ferry service between the Mainland and Vancouver Island; the ships proved problematic when they suffered many technical issues and cost double what was expected. The fast ferries were sold off for $19.4 million in 2003. A controversy began in July 2004 when BC Ferries, under a new American CEO, announced that the company had disqualified all Canadian bids to build three new Coastal class ships, only the proposals from European shipyards were being considered; the contract was estimated at $542 million for the three ships, each designed to carry 370 vehicles and 1600 passengers.
The argument for domestic construction of the ferries was that it would employ numerous British Columbia workers, revitalize the sagging B. C. shipbuilding industry, entitle the provincial government to a large portion of the cost in the form of taxes. BC Ferries CEO David Hahn claimed that building the ferries in Germany would "save $80 million and could lead to lower fares."On September 17, 2004, BC Ferries awarded the vessel construction contract to Germany's Flensburger shipyard. The contract protected BC Ferries from any delays through fixed schedule contract. Coastal Renaissance entered service in March 2008, while Coastal Inspiration was delivered the same month and entered service in June; the third ship, Coastal Celebration, is now in service as well. On August 18, 2006, BC Ferries commissioned Flensburger to build a new vessel for its Inside Passage route, with the contract having many of the same types of terms as that for the Coastal Class vessels; the new northern service vessel, Northern Expedition, has been delivered.
In fiscal year 2011, BC Ferries reported a loss of $16.5 million due to declining ridership, with vehicle traffic dropping 3.5% and passenger traffic dropping 2.8%. Increased fares were to blame for the drop in ridership, warnings came that there would be cutbacks in the service on a numb
L'Almanach des Muses was a French-language poetry magazine published in France. Almanach des Muses was founded in 1765 by Sautreau de Marsy; the magazine was much in vogue during the second half of the 18th century. The aim of the Almanach des Muses was to go beyond what previous almanacs had attempted by presenting to its readership a selection of recent poetry, with critical notes and information about the literary scene. Appearing annually, the Almanach des Muses published a number of lesser-known writers such as Parny, Pierre Légier, Roucher, Colardeau or Berquin, Legouvé, Arnault, well-known writers such as Boufflers, Dorat, de Fontanes, La Harpe, the work of eminent figures such as Chamfort and Baculard d'Arnaud, above all Voltaire whose writings appeared 200 times between 1765 and 1819. During the French Revolution, it printed "La Marseillaise" in 1793 and Sade's eulogy to Marat in 1794. To be published in the Almanach des Muses, like Millevoye and Marceline Desbordes-Valmore, was to have "arrived" on the literary scene.
The Almanach des Muses was both much imitated. Mercier and Champcenetz never hesitated to attack it, dubbing it L'Almanach des Buses. On the other hand, German language literary magazine Göttinger Musenalmanach, first published in 1769, was modelled on the magazine; the decline in reputation was slow but steady, it ceased publication in 1833, superseded by the literary magazine as we know it today. Sautreau de Marsy was the editor until 1793. Étienne Vigée kept it going from 1794 to 1820, succeeded in turn by Justin Gensoul and Jean-Pierre Lesguillon. Frédéric Lachèvre, Bibliographie sommaire de l'Almanach des muses, Paris, L. Giraud-Badin, 1928. Jean-Pierre de Beaumarchais, Dictionnaire des œuvres littéraires de langue française, Bordas, 1994. ISBN 2-04-018550-X Georges Grente, Dictionnaire des lettres françaises, Paris, A. Fayard, 1951. Catriona Seth, « Les Muses de l'Almanach. La poésie au féminin dans l'Almanach des muses, 1789-1819 », Masculin/Féminin dans la poésie et les poétiques du XIXe siècle, sous la direction de Christine Planté, Lyon, P. U. de Lyon, 2002, p. 105-119..
Catriona Seth, « L'élégie dans l'Almanach des muses, évolution d'une sensibilité », Cahiers Roucher-André Chénier n° 25, p. 49-61. Catriona Seth, « Les illustrations de l'Almanach des Muses », Poésie et illustration, sous la direction de Lise Sabourin, Nancy, PUN, 2009. Catriona Seth, « Les sciences dans l'Almanach des Muses », Cahiers Roucher – André Chénier n°28