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Commonwealth realm

A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state in which Queen Elizabeth II is the reigning constitutional monarch and head of state. Each realm functions as an independent co-equal kingdom from the other realms; as of 2020, there are 16 Commonwealth realms: Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Belize, Grenada, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Solomon Islands and the United Kingdom. All 16 Commonwealth realms are members of the Commonwealth of Nations, an intergovernmental organisation of 54 member states. Elizabeth II is head of the Commonwealth. In 1952, Britain's proclamation of Elizabeth II's accession used the term realms to describe the seven sovereign states of which she was queen—the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Ceylon. Since new realms have been created through independence of former colonies and dependencies and some realms have become republics. There are 16 Commonwealth realms with a combined area of 18.7 million km2 and a population of around 148 million, of which all but about two million live in the six most populous: the United Kingdom, Australia, Papua New Guinea, New Zealand, Jamaica.

The Commonwealth realms are, for purposes of sovereign states. They are united only in their voluntary connection with the institution of the monarchy, the succession, the Queen herself. Political scientist Peter Boyce called this grouping of countries associated in this manner "an achievement without parallel in the history of international relations or constitutional law." Terms such as personal union, a form of personal union, shared monarchy, among others, have all been advanced as definitions since the beginning of the Commonwealth itself, though there has been no agreement on which term is most accurate, or whether personal union is applicable at all. Since the Balfour Declaration of 1926, the realms have been considered "equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs, though united by a common allegiance to the Crown" and the monarch is "equally and explicitly of separate, autonomous realms". Andrew Michie wrote in 1952 that "Elizabeth II embodies in her own person many monarchies: she is Queen of Great Britain, but she is Queen of Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, Ceylon... it is now possible for Elizabeth II to be, in practice as well as theory Queen in all her realms."

Still, Boyce holds the contrary opinion that the crowns of all the non-British realms are "derivative, if not subordinate" to the crown of the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom no longer possesses legislative power over any other country. Since each realm has the same person as its monarch, the diplomatic practice of exchanging ambassadors with letters of credence and recall from one head of state to another does not apply. Diplomatic relations between the Commonwealth realms are thus at a cabinet level only and high commissioners are exchanged between realms. A high commissioner's full title will thus be High Commissioner for Her Majesty's Government in. For certain ceremonies, the order of precedence for the realms' high commissioners or national flags is set according to the chronological order of, when the country became a dominion and the date on which the country gained independence. Conflicts of interest have arisen from this relationship amongst independent states; some have been minor diplomatic matters, such as the monarch expressing on the advice of one of her cabinets views that counter those of another of her cabinets.

More serious issues have arisen with respect to armed conflict, where the monarch, as head of state of two different realms, may be at war and at peace with a third country, or at war with herself as head of two hostile nations. In such cases, viceroys have tended to avoid placing the sovereign directly in the centre of the conflict, meaning that a governor-general may have to take controversial actions on his or her own initiative through exercise of the reserve powers. In recent years, advocates have argued for free movement of citizens among a subset of the Commonwealth realms: the United Kingdom, Canada and New Zealand, which they argue "share the same head of state, the same native language, the same respect for the common law." Opinion on the prospect of the plan coming to fruition is mixed. British Eurosceptics have expressed a preference for a relationship "similar in nature and goals to the EU" between the same four countries: the CANZUK Union without repeating the "mistakes of Europe"—though this possibility has been characterised as "difficult and in some ways far-fetched".

Despite this, public opinion polling conducted by organisations such as CANZUK International and YouGov have indicated widespread support for free movement of goods and people across Canada, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, with support for the proposals ranging from between 58–64% in the United Kingdom, 70–72% in Australia, 75–77% in Canada and 81–82% in New Zealand. The evolution of the Commonwealth realms has resulted in the Crown having both a shared and a separate character, with th

Wayne Cooney

Wayne Cooney is a former association football player who played in the League of Ireland during the 1990s. Born in Birmingham, Cooney started his career at Norwich City before returning to Dublin to sign for Noel King's Shamrock Rovers side in 1988, he became a popular figure with the fans in his 4 years at Rovers. He made a total of 127 appearances scoring 6 times for the Hoops, he moved to Dundalk. After a couple of seasons at Oriel Park, he became Turlough O'Connor's first signing for Bohemians where he scored his debut for Bohs on 3 January 1994 in a 2-0 league win over Cobh Ramblers, he made 4 appearances in European competition for all of them in the 1995 Intertoto Cup. Cooney earned caps for the Republic of Ireland national under-19 team

Are Nakkim

Are Nakkim is a retired Norwegian long-distance runner who specialized in the 10,000 metres. He represented Moss IL during his active career. Are Nakkim attended Boston University, where he ran cross track, he won a silver medal in 10,000 m at the 1990 European Championships. He competed in 3000 metres steeplechase at the 1986 European Championships as well as the World Cross Country Championships in 1989, 1990, 1991 and 1992 without any success. In 10,000 m he became Norwegian champion only once, in 1984, he did win the 3000 m s'chase in 1985–1986 and 5000 m in 1986 and 1988–1990. His personal best time in 10,000 m was 27:32.52 minutes, achieved in July 1990 on Bislett stadion. This is the current Norwegian record. In 5000 m he held the Norwegian record with 13:19.82 minutes until 2000, when it was broken by Marius Bakken. In 3000 m s'chase Nakkim is third with 8:24.13 minutes, only behind Jim Svenøy and Espen Borge