Communism is a philosophical, political, economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of a communist society, namely a socioeconomic order structured upon the ideas of common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes and the state. Communism includes a variety of schools of thought which broadly include Marxism and anarchism as well as the political ideologies grouped around both. All of these share the analysis that the current order of society stems from its economic system and mode of production, capitalism; the two classes are the proletariat —who must work to survive and who make up the majority within society—and the bourgeoisie —a minority who derives profit from employing the working class through private ownership of the means of production. According to this analysis, revolution would put the working class in power and in turn establish social ownership of the means of production, the primary element in the transformation of society towards communism.
Along with social democracy, communism became the dominant political tendency within the international socialist movement by the 1920s. While the emergence of the Soviet Union as the world's first nominally communist state led to communism's widespread association with the Soviet economic model and Marxism–Leninism, some economists and intellectuals argued that in practice the model functioned as a form of state capitalism, or a non-planned administrative or command economy. Communism derives from the French communisme which developed out of the Latin roots communis and the suffix isme, it was in use as a term designating various social situations before it came to be associated with more modern conceptions of an economic and political organization. Semantically, communis can be translated to "of or for the community" while isme is a suffix that indicates the abstraction into a state, action or doctrine, so communism may be interpreted as "the state of being of or for the community"; this semantic constitution has led to various usages of the word in its evolution, but it came to be most associated with Marxism, most embodied in The Communist Manifesto which proposed a particular type of communism.
One of the first uses of the word in its modern sense is in a letter sent by Victor d'Hupay to Restif de la Bretonne around 1785 in which d'Hupay describes himself as an auteur communiste. Years Restif would go on to use the term in his writing and was the first to describe communism as a form of government. John Goodwyn Barmby is credited with the first use of the term in English, around 1840. Communism is distiguished from socialism since the 1840s; the modern definition and usage of socialism settled by the 1860s, becoming the predominant term among the group of words associationist, co-operative and mutualist, used as synonyms. Instead, communism fell out of use during this period. An early distinction between communism and socialism was that the latter aimed to only socialise production while the former aimed to socialise both production and consumption. However, Marxists employed socialism in place of communism by 1888 which had come to be considered an old-fashion synonym for socialism.
It was not until 1917 after the Bolshevik Revolution that socialism came to refer to a distinct stage between capitalism and communism, introduced by Vladimir Lenin as a means to defend the Bolshevik seizure of power against traditional Marxist criticism that Russia's productive forces were not sufficiently developed for socialist revolution. A distinction between communist and socialist as descriptors of political ideologies arose in 1918 after the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party renamed itself to the All-Russian Communist Party, where communist came to mean socialists who supported the politics and theories of Bolshevism and Marxism–Leninism, although communist parties continued to describe themselves as socialists dedicated to socialism. Both communism and socialism accorded with the adherents' and opponents' cultural attitude towards religion. In Christian Europe, communism was believed to be the atheist way of life. In Protestant England, communism was too culturally and aurally close to the Roman Catholic communion rite, hence English atheists denoted themselves socialists.
Friedrich Engels argued that in 1848, at the time when The Communist Manifesto was first published, that "socialism was respectable on the continent, while communism was not". The Owenites in England and the Fourierists in France were considered respectable socialists while working-class movements that "proclaimed the necessity of total social change" denoted themselves communists; this latter branch of socialism produced the communist work of Étienne Cabet in France and Wilhelm Weitling in Germany. While democrats looked to the Revolutions of 1848 as a democratic revolution which in the long run ensured liberty and fraternity, Marxists denounced 1848 as a betrayal of working-class ideals by a bourgeoisie indifferent to the legitimate demands of the proletariat. According to Richard Pipes, the idea of a classless, egalitarian society first emerged in Ancient Greece; the 5th-century Mazdak movement in Persia has been described as "communistic" for challenging the enormous privileges of the noble classes and the clergy, for criticizing the institution of p
The Portsmouth Naval Memorial, sometimes known as Southsea Naval Memorial, is a war memorial in Portsmouth, England, on Southsea Common beside Clarence Esplanade, between Clarence Pier and Southsea Castle. The memorial commemorates 25,000 British and Commonwealth sailors who were lost in the World Wars, around 10,000 sailors in the First World War and 15,000 in the Second World War; the memorial features a central obelisk, with names of the dead on bronze plaques arranged around the memorial according to the year of death. To commemorate sailors who had died at sea in the First World War and had no known grave, an Admiralty committee recommended building memorials at the three main naval ports in Great Britain: Chatham and Portsmouth. Identical memorials at all three sites were designed by Sir Robert Lorimer, with sculpture by Henry Poole. A separate memorial in Lowestoft commemorates the lost from the Royal Naval Patrol Service; the Royal Naval Division War Memorial is on Horseguards Parade in London.
The memorial is made with a prominent central obelisk topped by a metal finial. Steps lead up to a plinth bearing bronze inscription plaques fixed to the obelisk's base bearing the names of the lost; each corner projects as a buttress, surmounted by a statue of a reclining lion, beneath a stepped base to the obelisk. The four-sided obelisk tapers to a stepped top with an elaborate finial with corner ships prows and bronze supports to a verdigris copper ball; the memorial was unveiled on 15 October 1924 by Duke of York. The memorial was extended to a design by Sir Edward Maufe. Names of those lost in the Second World War are recorded on panels set into the low walls of an enclosure added to the north, leading to a barrel-vaulted pavilion on each side. Additional sculpture was created by Charles Wheeler, William McMillan, Esmond Burton; the additions were unveiled by the Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother, on 29 April 1953. The memorial is maintained by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission, it became a listed building in 1972, was upgraded to Grade I in May 2016 for the centenary of the Battle of Jutland.
Plymouth Naval Memorial Chatham Naval Memorial Portsmouth Naval Memorial, Commonwealth War Graves Commission Historic England. "Royal Naval War Memorial, Clarence Esplanade". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 9 March 2015. Memorials in Southsea – Portsmouth Naval Memorial
Dean Francis Mooney is an English former professional footballer who played in the Football League as a forward. Mooney went abroad to Norway in 1978 to play 3rd Division football with Haugar, joining fellow Englishmen Dennis Burnett and Barry Salvage. Mooney was a great hit from the start and was the club's top scorer for the two season he was at the club. After winning promotion to the second division in 1978, Haugar went all the way to the Norwegian Cup Final in 1979, Mooney put them 1-0 up against Viking FK with a trademark header. A dubious penalty and an own-goal turned the match around after half-time, in what was to be Mooney's last game for the club, he joined GAIS for the 1980 season, in which he played 21 matches and scored seven goals