click links in text for more info

Communist Party of New Zealand

The Communist Party of New Zealand was a Communist political party in New Zealand which existed from March 1921 until the early 1990s. Although spurred to life by events in Soviet Russia in the aftermath of World War I, the party had roots in pre-existing revolutionary socialist and syndicalist organisations, including in particular the independent Wellington Socialist Party, supporters of the Industrial Workers of the World in the Auckland region, a network of impossiblist study groups of miners on the west coast of the South Island. Never high on the list of priorities of the Communist International, the CPNZ was considered an appendage of the Communist Party of Australia until 1928, when it began to function as a independent national party. Party membership remained small, only topping the 1,000 mark, with its members subjected to government repression and isolated by expulsions from the mainstream labour movement concentrated in the New Zealand Labour Party. During the period of the Sino-Soviet split of the 1960s, the CPNZ sided with the Chinese government headed by Mao Tse-tung.

The party splintered into a multiplicity of tiny political parties after 1966 and no longer exists as an independent group. As the 20th Century dawned, New Zealand was recognised by adherents of International Socialism around the globe as a sort of laboratory test case of social democratic government in practice. One June 1901 pamphlet put to print by J. A. Wayland, proprietor of the mass circulation socialist weekly Appeal to Reason, detailed the ways in which the island nation of 720,000 had passed extensive legislation for the benefit of wage workers, backed by 200 agents of the "Labour Intelligence Department." While the country was declared "no Utopia," New Zealand was said to have "no real want" and "no unemployment problem to solve." Instead trade unions were not formally recognised but were pervasive and had managed to mitigate the class struggle through arbitration laws sanctioned by law, with disputes decided by three member courts of arbitration, each including representatives of capital and the courts as provided in the 1894 Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act.

An extensive system of public works were in existence, governed by the principle of "fair work and fair pay." More than 200 employment bureaus dotted the country. Sweatshops were banned, as was systematic home manufacturing, with mandatory labelling of all products made outside of factories. Wages were high and the 48-hour week said to be a local maximum; the presence of "tramps" had been eliminated through town allotments of small homesteads to poor workers, granted through affordable perpetual leases. The power of eminent domain had been assumed by the New Zealand parliament in 1896, allowing the state to assume ownership of large estates at their assessed price for division into small farms. State finance had been accomplished by a tax on land values and the establishment of a progressive income tax; the national government itself owned and operated the railways and telephone systems and postal savings banks throughout the country before the landmark election of 1891. Workers' compensation insurance to protect against injury was required by law, low cost life insurance had been provided by the state since 1869.

Old age pensions were provided to all New Zealanders 65 years of age or older, resident in the country for at least 25 years."The New Zealanders are collectivists, although they adhere to the old party names of liberals and tories," the American examiners enthused, with the New Zealand Liberal Party reckoned as equivalent to the Fabian socialists of Great Britain. Richard Seddon, Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1893 until his death in 1906, oversaw implementation of an array of social welfare programs as leader of the Liberal Government This idyllic vision – which incidentally paid no attention to the treatment of or conditions endured by the indigenous Polynesian population – proved to be short-lived. With the eruption of World War I in 1914, New Zealand sent soldiers to Allied campaigns in Turkey and France and Flanders. Over 120,000 New Zealanders were enlisted in the New Zealand Expeditionary Force, with about 100,000 men and women serving as soldiers and nurses in Europe, out of a population of 1.14 million.

Of these, about 18,000 were killed in battle and another 41,000 felled by wounds or disease – a casualty rate approaching 60%. Conscription was introduced with the stream of volunteer enthusiasts exhausted; as casualties continued to mount into 1917, public war-weariness set in, fuelling political discontent. A revolutionary socialist movement began to emerge. There were isolated reflections of international radical tendencies present in New Zealand from shortly after the turn of the 20th Century; the New Zealand Socialist Party, founded in 1901, included in its ranks a left wing which eschewed political action, arguing that socialism could only be won by the direct efforts of the organised working class acting through their unions. Others adhered to the theories of Daniel DeLeon, which advocated the use of the ballot box for a revolutionary transformation of society leading to a socialist state governed by revolutionary industrial unions. From 1911 the ideas of syndicalism began to gain a foothold in the Auckland area under the banner of the Industrial Workers of the World, while the anti-political impossibilist ideas of the Socialist Party of Great Britain made their mark upon others.

All of these tendencies would contribute adherents to the pioneer New Zealand communist movement. Worthy of note were a small network of Marxist study circles were formed during the wartime years, concentra

2017 in Denmark

Events in the year 2017 in Denmark. Monarch – Margrethe II Prime Minister – Lars Løkke Rasmussen 20 March – Denmark makes the last payment on a $1.5 billion loan and thus becomes free of national debt in foreign currencies for the first time since 1834. 21 November – scheduled date for the 2017 Danish local elections 21 November – The Mærsk Tower wins the QAF Award in the Higher Education & Research - Completed Buildings category at the World Architecture Festival. 9 December – Claes Bang wins the award for Best Actor at the 30th European Film Awards. 17 February – Denmark wins the 2017 European Mixed Team Badminton Championships by defeating Russia 3–0 in the final. 3–8 March – Mathias Boe and Carsten Mogensen wins gold in Men's Double at 2015 All England Super Series Premier. 28 March-2 April – Viktor Axelsen wins Men's Single at 2017 India Open. 25–30 April – With two gold medals, three silver medals and five bronze medals, Denmark finishes as the best nation at the 2017 European Badminton Championships.

27 August – Viktor Axelsen wins gold in Men's Single at the 2017 BWF World Championships. 11 June – Jakob Fuglsang wins the Critérium du Dauphiné. 2–6 August – 2017 European Road Championships takes place in Herning. 17–24 September – With two gold medals, one silver medal and two bronze medals, Denmark finishes as the third best nation at the 2017 UCI Road World Championships in Norway. 14 November – Denmark qualifies for the 2018 FIFA World Cup by defeating Ireland 5-1 in the second leg of the play-off round of the 2018 FIFA World Cup qualification after playing 0-0 in the first match. 7 December – F. C. Copenhagen qualifies for the round of 16 in the 2017–18 UEFA Europa League by defeating FC Sheriff Tiraspol in Group F. 7 May – Lucas Bjerregaard and Thorbjørn Olesen wins GolfSixes. 24 September – Lucas Bjerregaard wins Portugal Masters 13–17 December – The 2017 European Short Course Swimming Championships rakes place in Royal Arena in Copenhagen. 30 June - 7 July – Maja Alm wins a gold medal in Women's sprint and a silver medal in Women's long distance and Denmark wins a silver medal in Sprint relay at the 2017 World Orienteering Championships.

20 January – Bruno Amoroso, economist. 23 January – Erland Kolding Nielsen, Director General and CEO of The Danish Royal Library. 26 January – Preben Dabelsteen, badminton player. 13 February – Aage Birch, competitive sailor and Olympic silver medalist. 7 February – Svend Asmussen, jazz musician 17 February – Erland Kops, badminton player 3 June – Niels Helveg Petersen, politician 4 December Thor Munkager, handballer Henning Jensen, footballer 2017 in Danish television

Cecil Brown (journalist)

Cecil Brown was an American journalist and war correspondent who worked with Edward R. Murrow during World War II, he was the author of the book Suez to Singapore, which describes the sinking of HMS Repulse in December 1941. He has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for his contribution to radio. Brown was born September 1907, in New Brighton, Pennsylvania. After graduating from Ohio State University in 1929, Brown left the United States for the Mediterranean and Black Seas where he worked as a seaman, he returned to the United States where he worked as a journalist at several small newspapers. By 1937 he was back in Europe working as a freelancer. CBS hired Brown in 1940 as their correspondent in Rome, where he criticized the regime of Benito Mussolini. In 1941 the Italian government cited Brown's "continued hostile attitude" and expelled him from the country. After his expulsion from Italy, CBS sent Brown to Singapore. In December 1941, while Brown was in Singapore, he was invited to join the Royal Navy battlecruiser HMS Repulse and her consort, the brand-new battleship HMS Prince of Wales as they sailed to counter-attack Japanese invasion forces threatening Malaya, attempting to intercept and destroy convoys.

On December 10, 1941, at 03:13 GMT, the capital ships of Force Z were subjected to a sustained aerial attack by land-based Japanese bomber aircraft. Repulse was sunk at 04:33 GMT, followed by the crippled Prince of Wales at 05:13 GMT, less than sixty hours after the commencement of the Attack on Pearl Harbor. Of 1309 sailors on board Repulse, Brown was one of only 513 survivors, his experiences in his long journey and dealings with Italian and other censorship authorities led him to write Suez to Singapore, published in 1942. His criticism of the British in Singapore caused him to have his "war corresponent" credentials revoked and made him a persona non grata, he narrowly escaped from Singapore before its fall to the Japanese. He was part of a larger group of reporters known as Murrow's Boys. In September 1943, Brown resigned from CBS after being rebuked by CBS news director Paul White for expressing an editorial opinion during an August 25 news broadcast. Brown had stated that "a good deal of the enthusiasm for this war is evaporating into thin air."

Announcing his resignation Brown said that he could not subscribe to what he characterized as CBS' policy of "non-opinionated" news. After leaving CBS Brown covered the rest of the war at home, in the United States, for the Mutual Network; when World War II ended, Brown continued to work in broadcast journalism as a correspondent for Mutual, NBC and ABC. He retired from broadcasting in 1967 and went to work as a professor of communication arts at Cal Poly Pomona where he worked until he died in 1987. Overseas Press Club: Best Reporter Award 1941: Peabody Award for Outstanding Reporting of the News 1965: Alfred I. duPont Award Bernstein, World War II on the air: Edward R Murrow and the broadcasts that riveted a nation

Al-Adl cemetery

The al-Adl cemetery is one of the earliest and largest resting places in Mecca. It is the second largest cemetery in the city; the graveyard was opened in 1926 and its size is around 50,000 square meters. The cemetery is on Majed Street in Mecca, it is near Masjid Al Haram, located at northeast. The cemetery is near Makkah governorate headquarters, at east side. Many eminent Saudi royals were interred in the al-Adl cemetery, including Prince Nayef, Prince Mansour, Prince Mishari, Prince Majid, Prince Fawwaz, Prince Sattam and Prince Abdullah Al Faisal Al Saud. Prince Fahd bin Saud buried in the cemetery. Abd al-Aziz ibn Abd Allah ibn Baaz, Prince Saud bin Faisal Al Saud and Muhammad bin Saleh Al Othaimeen were buried in the graveyard. Additionally, the cemetery has been used as a resting place for former imams of Masjid Al Haram

Oleh Babaiev

Oleh Meydanovych Babaiev was a Ukrainian politician and an owner of two professional football clubs in the Poltava Oblast. In 2010, he was elected Mayor of Kremenchuk. Babaiev was born in 1965 in Kursk, Russian SFSR, he was of Azerbaijani descent. After completing high school in Kursk in 1982, he studied at the Higher Military-Political College in Minsk and graduated in 1986, he moved to Ukraine, while his parents remained residents of Kursk. In 2000, he graduated from Kiev University. From 1986–1990 Babaiev served in the Soviet Army, he was stationed in the Soviet Union's far east and in Czechoslovakia. After the fall of communism in Eastern Europe, Babaiev's unit withdrew from Czechoslovakia and he was stationed in Kiev. In 1990, he obtained Ukrainian citizenship. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Babaiev served as a reserve officer in the Ukrainian army until 1996 reaching the rank of colonel, he became Chairman of JSC Kremenchukm'yaso in 1998 and President of a football club, FC Vorskla Poltava, in 2005.

He was honorary president of FC Kremin Kremenchuk. Babaiev was elected to the Verkhovna Rada in the 2007 parliamentary election, he was a member of the All-Ukrainian Union "Fatherland", but left the party in late 2010 after he was elected Mayor of Kremenchuk, stating that "The mayor should be apolitical". As mayor, Oleh Babaiev was best known for the recreational projects he promoted within the city. Being an avid sportsman, Babaiev invested to rebuild the aging Soviet-era parks and sports stadiums within the city; some of the most notable parks to be restored under Babaiev's tenure as mayor of Kremenchuk were the October Square renamed Babaiev Square after his honor, the 18-hectare Pridneprovsky Park in the city's center. Babaiev was shot dead on July 26, 2014. According to the Ukrainian Interior Ministry, he was killed in his car in front of his house when an unidentified person fired three shots from a gun with a silencer from another car. 50,000 people attended his funeral, including Kiev mayor Vitaly Klitchko.

On January 19, 2015, a memorial to Oleh Babaiev was unveiled in Kremenchuk. The building of the memorial was financed by the slain mayor's friends. Babaiev's parents opened the memorial; the memorial is located in one of the city parks that the mayor was instrumental in restoring

Universal suffrage

Universal suffrage gives the right to vote to all adult citizens, regardless of wealth, gender, social status, ethnicity, or any other restriction, subject only to minor exceptions. In its original 19th-century usage by reformers in Britain, universal suffrage was understood to mean only universal manhood suffrage. There are variations among countries in terms of specifics of the right to vote. In most countries, universal adult suffrage followed about a generation after universal male franchise. Notable exceptions in Europe were France, where women could not vote until 1944, Switzerland. In the first modern democracies, governments restricted the vote to those with property and wealth, which always meant a minority of the male population. In some jurisdictions, other restrictions existed, such as requiring voters to practice a given religion. In all modern democracies, the number of people who could vote has increased progressively with time. In the 19th century in Europe, Great Britain and North America, there were movements advocating "universal suffrage".

In the United States, after the principle of "one man, one vote" was established in the early 1960s by U. S. Supreme Court under Earl Warren, the U. S. Congress together with the Warren Court continued to protect and expand the voting rights of all Americans African Americans, through Civil Rights Act of 1964, Voting Rights Act of 1965 and several Supreme Court rulings. In addition, the term "suffrage" is associated with women's suffrage. France, under the 1793 Jacobin constitution, was the first major country to enact suffrage for all adult males, though it was never formally used in practice. Elsewhere in the Francophone world, the Republic of Haiti legislated for universal male suffrage in 1816; the Second French Republic instituted adult male suffrage after the revolution of 1848. Following the French revolutions, movements in the Western world toward universal suffrage occurred in the early 19th century, focused on removing property requirements for voting. In 1867 Germany enacted suffrage for all adult males.

In the United States following the American Civil War, slaves were freed and granted rights of citizens, including suffrage for adult males. In the late-19th and early-20th centuries, the focus of the universal suffrage movement came to include the extension of the right to vote to women, as happened from the post-Civil War era in several Western states and during the 1890s in a number of British colonies. On 19 September 1893 the British Governor of New Zealand, Lord Glasgow, gave assent to a new electoral act, which meant that New Zealand became the first British-controlled colony in which women had the right to vote in parliamentary elections; this was followed shortly after by the colony of South Australia in 1894, the second to allow women to vote, but the first colony to permit women to stand for election as well. Twelve years the autonomous Russian territory known as Grand Duchy of Finland became the first territory in the world to implement unrestricted universal suffrage, as women could stand as candidates, unlike in New Zealand, without indigenous ethnic exclusion, like in Australia.

It lead to the election of the world's first female members of parliament the following year. Federal states and colonial or autonomous territories prior to World War I have multiple examples of early introduction of universal suffrage. However, these legal changes were effected with the permission of the British, Russian or other government bodies, which were considered the sovereign nation at the time. For this reason, New Zealand and Finland all have different dates of achieving independent nationhood; the First French Republic adopted universal male suffrage in 1792. Greece recognized full male suffrage in 1830. Spain recognized it in the Constitution of 1869 and France and Switzerland have continuously done so since the 1848 Revolution. Upon independence in the 19th century, several Latin-American countries and Liberia in Africa extended suffrage to all adult males, but subsequently restricted it based on property requirements; the German Empire implemented full male suffrage in 1871. In the United States, the Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1870 during the Reconstruction era, provided that "The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude."

This amendment aimed to guarantee the right to vote to African Americans, many of whom had been enslaved in the South prior to the end