Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins University is a private research university in Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1876, the university was named for its first benefactor, the American entrepreneur and philanthropist Johns Hopkins, his $7 million bequest —of which half financed the establishment of Johns Hopkins Hospital—was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States up to that time. Daniel Coit Gilman, inaugurated as the institution's first president on February 22, 1876, led the university to revolutionize higher education in the U. S. by integrating teaching and research. Adopting the concept of a graduate school from Germany's ancient Heidelberg University, Johns Hopkins University is considered the first research university in the United States. Over the course of several decades, the university has led all U. S. universities in annual research and development expenditures. In fiscal year 2016, Johns Hopkins spent nearly $2.5 billion on research. Johns Hopkins is organized into 10 divisions on campuses in Maryland and Washington, D.
C. with international centers in Italy and Singapore. The two undergraduate divisions, the Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts and Sciences and the Whiting School of Engineering, are located on the Homewood campus in Baltimore's Charles Village neighborhood; the medical school, the nursing school, the Bloomberg School of Public Health are located on the Medical Institutions campus in East Baltimore. The university consists of the Peabody Institute, the Applied Physics Laboratory, the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, the School of Education, the Carey Business School, various other facilities. Johns Hopkins was a founding member of the American Association of Universities. Johns Hopkins University is cited as among the world's top universities; the university is ranked 10th among undergraduate programs at National Universities in U. S. News & World Report latest rankings, 10th among global universities by U. S. News & World Report in its 2019 rankings, as well as 12th globally in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings.
Over the course of more than 140 years, 37 Nobel laureates and 1 Fields Medalist have been affiliated with Johns Hopkins. Founded in 1883, the Blue Jays men's lacrosse team has captured 44 national titles and joined the Big Ten Conference as an affiliate member in 2014. On his death in 1873, Johns Hopkins, a Quaker entrepreneur and childless bachelor, bequeathed $7 million to fund a hospital and university in Baltimore, Maryland. At that time this fortune, generated from the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States; the first name of philanthropist Johns Hopkins is the surname of his great-grandmother, Margaret Johns, who married Gerard Hopkins. They named their son Johns Hopkins. Samuel named one of his sons for his father and that son would become the university's benefactor. Milton Eisenhower, a former university president, once spoke at a convention in Pittsburgh where the Master of Ceremonies introduced him as "President of John Hopkins."
Eisenhower retorted that he was "glad to be here in Pittburgh." The original board opted for an novel university model dedicated to the discovery of knowledge at an advanced level, extending that of contemporary Germany. Building on the Humboldtian model of higher education, the German education model of Wilhelm von Humboldt, it became dedicated to research. Johns Hopkins thereby became the model of the modern research university in the United States, its success shifted higher education in the United States from a focus on teaching revealed and/or applied knowledge to the scientific discovery of new knowledge. The trustees worked alongside four notable university presidents – Charles W. Eliot of Harvard, Andrew D. White of Cornell, Noah Porter of Yale College and James B. Angell of Michigan, they each vouched for Daniel Coit Gilman to lead the new University and he became the university's first president. Gilman, a Yale-educated scholar, had been serving as president of the University of California prior to this appointment.
In preparation for the university's founding, Gilman visited University of Freiburg and other German universities. Gilman launched what many at the time considered an audacious and unprecedented academic experiment to merge teaching and research, he dismissed the idea that the two were mutually exclusive: "The best teachers are those who are free and willing to make original researches in the library and the laboratory," he stated. To implement his plan, Gilman recruited internationally known luminaries such as the mathematician James Joseph Sylvester. Gilman focused on the expansion of graduate support of faculty research; the new university fused advanced scholarship with such professional schools as medicine and engineering. Hopkins became the national trendsetter in doctoral programs and the host for numerous scholarly journals and associations; the Johns Hopkins University Press, founded in 1878, is the oldest American university press in continuous operation. With the completion of Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1889 and the medical school in 1893, the university's research-focused mode of instruction soon began attracting world-renowned faculty members who would become major figures in the emerging field of acad
A chancellor is a leader of a college or university either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system. In most Commonwealth and former Commonwealth nations, the chancellor is a ceremonial non-resident head of the university. In such institutions, the chief executive of a university is the vice-chancellor, who may carry an additional title, such as "president & vice-chancellor"; the chancellor may serve as chairman of the governing body. In many countries, the administrative and educational head of the university is known as the president, principal or rector. In the United States, the head of a university is most a university president. In U. S. university systems that have more than one affiliated university or campus, the executive head of a specific campus may have the title of chancellor and report to the overall system's president, or vice versa. In both Australia and New Zealand, a chancellor is the chairman of a university's governing body.
The chancellor is assisted by a deputy chancellor. The chancellor and deputy chancellor are drawn from the senior ranks of business or the judiciary; some universities have a visitor, senior to the chancellor. University disputes can be appealed from the governing board to the visitor, but nowadays, such appeals are prohibited by legislation, the position has only ceremonial functions; the vice-chancellor serves as the chief executive of the university. Macquarie University in Sydney is a noteworthy anomaly as it once had the unique position of Emeritus Deputy Chancellor, a post created for John Lincoln upon his retirement from his long-held post of deputy chancellor in 2000; the position was not an honorary title, as it retained for Lincoln a place in the University Council until his death in 2011. Canadian universities and British universities in Scotland have a titular chancellor similar to those in England and Wales, with day-to-day operations handled by a principal. In Scotland, for example, the chancellor of the University of Edinburgh is Anne, Princess Royal, whilst the current chancellor of the University of Aberdeen is Camilla, Duchess of Rothesay.
In Canada, the vice-chancellor carries the joint title of "president and vice-chancellor" or "rector and vice-chancellor." Scottish principals carry the title of "principal and vice-chancellor." In Scotland, the title and post of rector is reserved to the third ranked official of university governance. The position exists in common throughout the five ancient universities of Scotland with rectorships in existence at the universities of St Andrews, Aberdeen and Dundee, considered to have ancient status as a result of its early connections to the University of St Andrews; the position of Lord Rector was given legal standing by virtue of the Universities Act 1889. Rectors appoint a rector's assessor a deputy or stand-in, who may carry out their functions when they are absent from the university; the Rector chairs meetings of the university court, the governing body of the university, is elected by the matriculated student body at regular intervals. An exception exists at Edinburgh, where the Rector is elected by staff.
In Finland, if the university has a chancellor, he is the leading official in the university. The duties of the chancellor are to promote sciences and to look after the best interests of the university; as the rector of the university remains the de facto administrative leader and chief executive official, the role of the chancellor is more of a social and historical nature. However some administrative duties still belong to the chancellor's jurisdiction despite their arguably ceremonial nature. Examples of these include the appointment of new docents; the chancellor of University of Helsinki has the notable right to be present and to speak in the plenary meetings of the Council of State when matters regarding the university are discussed. Despite his role as the chancellor of only one university, he is regarded as the political representative of Finland's entire university institution when he exercises his rights in the Council of State. In the history of Finland the office of the chancellor dates all the way back to the Swedish Empire, the Russian Empire.
The chancellor's duty was to function as the official representative of the monarch in the autonomous university. The number of chancellors in Finnish universities has declined over the years, in vast majority of Finnish universities the highest official is the rector; the remaining universities with chancellors are University of Åbo Akademi University. In France, chancellor is one of the titles of the rector, a senior civil servant of the Ministry of Education serving as manager of a regional educational district. In his capacity as chancellor, the rector awards academic degrees to the university's gradua
Interstate 695 (Maryland)
Interstate 695 is a 51.46-mile-long full beltway Interstate Highway extending around Baltimore, United States. I-695 is designated the McKeldin Beltway, but is colloquially referred to as either the Baltimore Beltway or 695; the route is an auxiliary route of I-95, intersecting that route southwest of Baltimore near Arbutus and northeast of the city near White Marsh. It intersects other major roads radiating from the Baltimore area, including I-97 near Glen Burnie, the Baltimore–Washington Parkway near Linthicum, I-70 near Woodlawn, I-795 near Pikesville, I-83 in the Timonium area; the 19.37-mile portion of the Baltimore Beltway between I-95 northeast of Baltimore and I-97 south of Baltimore is MD 695, is not part of the Interstate Highway System, but is signed as I-695. This section of the route includes the Francis Scott Key Bridge that crosses over the Patapsco River; the bridge and its approaches are maintained by the Maryland Transportation Authority while the remainder of the Baltimore Beltway is maintained by the Maryland State Highway Administration.
The Baltimore Beltway was first planned in 1949 by Baltimore County. The length of the route from MD 2 south of Baltimore clockwise to U. S. Route 40 northeast of the city opened in stages from 1955 to 1962, providing an Interstate bypass of Baltimore, it was the first beltway in the United States to be built as part of the Interstate Highway System. Plans were made to finish the remainder of the route, with a diversion to the Windlass Freeway and the Patapsco Freeway, opened in 1973, following the cancellation of a more outer route, to follow what is today MD 702; the Outer Harbor Crossing over the Patapsco River, dedicated to Francis Scott Key, who wrote The Star-Spangled Banner, its approaches were finished in 1977, completing the route around Baltimore. The approaches to the bridge were two lanes to accommodate a tunnel, proposed to run under the river. There are future plans for I-695. In addition, the northeastern interchange with I-95 has been reconstructed in 2014 to accommodate express toll lanes that were added to I-95, construction took place in 2016 to remove I-695's carriageway crossovers here.
Starting at the zero milepost in Baltimore, I-695, which at this point is called MD 695 and is maintained by the Maryland Transportation Authority, is four lanes wide. The route passes over Curtis Creek on a pair of drawbridges here, which have 58 feet of vertical navigational clearance and provide access for tall ships to a U. S. Coast Guard base further upstream. Continuing west through industrial areas into Anne Arundel County, the route encounters the northern terminus of MD 10 at a directional interchange, where maintenance switches to the Maryland State Highway Administration; the interchange includes access to the next interchange, with MD 2, a major north–south route between Baltimore and the southern suburbs, in Glen Burnie. This interchange has access to northbound MD 2 in both directions and from northbound MD 2 to the westbound direction. Beyond MD 2, I-695 encounters I-895 Spur, a short connector to I-895. Past this interchange, I-695 comes to an interchange with the northern terminus of I-97, which terminates on the Beltway.
At this point, the route becomes I-695. The route continues west as a six-lane freeway, it interchanges with MD 648, where 132,330 vehicles travel I-695 every day, before turning northwest and intersecting MD 170 and passing over MTA Maryland's Baltimore Light RailLink. The route encounters the Baltimore–Washington Parkway at a cloverleaf interchange where the route’s signage changes from east–west to north–south at this interchange, it turns more to the north from here and heads into commercial areas, interchanging with MD 168 and Hammonds Ferry Road. Past this interchange, the route crosses the Patapsco River into Baltimore County and soon encounters a partial interchange with I-895 with access only from the southbound direction of I-695 to I-895 northbound and from I-895 southbound to the northbound direction of I-695. Past this interchange, I-695 heads north, interchanging with Hollins Ferry Road in Lansdowne before passing under CSX’s Baltimore Terminal Subdivision and coming to an interchange with US 1 Alt. in Arbutus.
A short distance I-695 comes to a semidirectional interchange with I-95. I-695 widens to nine lanes past interchange with I-95, with five lanes in the southbound direction and four lanes in the northbound direction. Running northwest, it crosses over Amtrak’s Northeast Corridor and comes to a partial interchange with US 1, with a southbound exit and northbound entrance. From here, it continues northwest through residential areas of Catonsville to an interchange with MD 372. Narrowing to eight lanes total, with four lanes in each direction, beyond MD 372, the route continues through suburban neighborhoods before coming to an interchange with MD 144. At this
A community college is a type of educational institution. The term can have different meanings in different countries: many community colleges have an “open enrollment” for students who have graduated from high school; the term refers to a higher educational institution that provides workforce education and college transfer academic programs. Some institutions maintain athletic dormitories similar to their university counterparts. In Australia, the term "community college" refers to small private businesses running short courses of a self-improvement or hobbyist nature. Equivalent to the American notion of community colleges are Tertiary and Further Education colleges or TAFEs. There are an increasing number of private providers, which are colloquially called "colleges". TAFEs and other providers carry on the tradition of adult education, established in Australia around the mid-19th century, when evening classes were held to help adults enhance their numeracy and literacy skills. Most Australian universities can be traced back to such forerunners, although obtaining a university charter has always changed their nature.
In TAFEs and colleges today, courses are designed for personal development of an individual and/or for employment outcomes. Educational programs cover a variety of topics such as arts, languages and lifestyle, they are scheduled to run two, three or four days of the week, depending on the level of the course undertaken. A Certificate I may only run for 4 hours twice a week for a term of 9 weeks. A full-time Diploma course might have classes 4 days per week for a year; some courses may be offered in the weekends to accommodate people working full-time. Funding for colleges may come from government grants and course fees. Many are not-for-profit organisations; such TAFES are located in metropolitan and rural locations of Australia. Education offered by TAFEs and colleges has changed over the years. By the 1980s many colleges had recognised a community need for computer training. Since thousands of people have increased skills through IT courses; the majority of colleges by the late 20th century had become Registered Training Organisations.
They offer individuals a nurturing, non-traditional education venue to gain skills that better prepare them for the workplace and potential job openings. TAFEs and colleges have not traditionally offered bachelor's degrees, instead providing pathway arrangements with universities to continue towards degrees; the American innovation of the associate degree is being developed at some institutions. Certificate courses I to IV, diplomas and advanced diplomas are offered, the latter deemed equivalent to an undergraduate qualification, albeit in more vocational areas; some TAFE institutes have become higher education providers in their own right and are now starting to offer bachelor's degree programs. In Canada, colleges are adult educational institutions that provide higher education and tertiary education, grant certificates and diplomas; as well, in Ontario, the 24 colleges of applied arts and technology have been mandated to offer their own stand-alone degrees as well as to offer joint degrees with universities through "articulation agreements" that result in students emerging with both a diploma and a degree.
Thus, for example, the University of Guelph "twins" with Humber College and York University does the same with Seneca College. More however, colleges have been offering a variety of their own degrees in business and technical fields; the academic and economic value of the college degree is still being tested in the marketplace. Each province has its own educational system, as prescribed by the Canadian federalism model of governance. In the mid-1960s and early 1970s, most Canadian colleges began to provide practical education and training for the emerging baby boom generation, for immigrants from around the world who were entering Canada in increasing numbers at that time. A formative trend was the merging of the separate vocational training and adult education institutions. Canadian colleges are either publicly funded or private post-secondary institutions. There are 150 institutions that are equivalent to the US community college in certain contexts, they are referred to as "colleges" since in common usage a degree-granting institution is exclusively a university.
In addition to graduate degrees, universities grant Associate's degrees and Bachelor's degrees, but in some regions and/or courses of study and universities collaborate so college students can earn transfer credits toward undergraduate university degrees. University degrees are attained through four years of study; the term associate degree is used in western Canada to refer to a two-year college arts or science degree, similar to how the term is used in the United States. In other parts of Canada the term advanced degree is used to indicate a 3- or 4-year college program. In the province of Quebec, three years is the norm for a university degree because a year of credit is earned in the CEGEP system; when speaking in English, people refer to all colleges as Cégeps, however the term is an acronym more applied to the French-language public system: Collège d'enseignement général et professionnel. The word College can refer to a private High School in Quebec. Canadian community college systemsList of colleges in Canada Colleges and Institutes Can
University of Maryland, Baltimore
The University of Maryland, Baltimore, is a public university in Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1807, it comprises some of the oldest professional schools of dentistry, medicine, social work and nursing in the United States, it is the original campus of the University System of Maryland and has a strategic partnership with the University of Maryland, College Park. Located on 60 acres on the west side of downtown Baltimore, it is part of the University System of Maryland. Effective July 1, 2010, Jay A. Perman was appointed president of the university by William English Kirwan, chancellor of the University System of Maryland. In 2012, the University of Maryland and the flagship University of Maryland, College Park united under the MPowering the State initiative to leverage the strengths of both institutions; the University of Maryland Strategic Partnership Act of 2016 formalized the partnership as it has created more innovative medical and educational programs in Baltimore, as well as been awarded greater research grants and joint faculty appointments.
In 2018, UMB was awarded $667 million in extramural grant funding, ranked #1 in Maryland, 15th in the country, in average salary of alumni, based on College Scorecard data released by the U. S. Department of EducationUM comprises seven professional schools: School of Medicine School of Law Dental School, first in the world School of Pharmacy School of Nursing Graduate School School of Social Work The University of Maryland at Baltimore was founded in 1807 as the Maryland College of Medicine. In 1812, it was rechartered as the University of Maryland and given the authority to establish additional faculties in law and arts and sciences; the faculty of law was founded in 1816, though it operated intermittently until 1868. The faculty of arts and sciences known as the Baltimore College for undergraduates operated intermittently in the early 19th century. From 1907 to 1920, St. John's College in Annapolis functioned as the University of Maryland's faculty of arts and sciences. In 1970, the General Assembly of Maryland established a five-campus University of Maryland network comprising the University of Maryland at Baltimore,.
The University of Maryland School of Dentistry was the first dental school in the world. Founded in 1840 as the Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, it was chartered by an act of the Maryland General Assembly, its principal founders were Chapin A. Harris, it was the first school in the world to offer a science-based curriculum in dentistry. It ranks among top 10 in the nation to receive NIH research funding; the school moved to a new building in October 2006. The new building, located adjacent to the old one in Baltimore Street, offers some of the newest facilities and technologies in the world for education and patient care; the cost of construction and equipment was over $140 million USD, the highest spent by the state of Maryland on an academic building. The University of Maryland School of Law opened in 1816 as the "Maryland Law Institute" "in a spacious and commodious building on South Street, near Market street." It is the third-oldest law school in the nation. It was founded by David Hoffman, who authored a comprehensive course of legal study that had a lasting influence on other law school programs around the country and led to the development of legal ethics programs and responsibilities.
The law school moved to a new building of English Tudor Revival architecture replacing its earlier modernistic structure on the same site at the northwest corner of West Baltimore and North Paca Streets in 2002, adjacent to the site to the north of the old Westminster Presbyterian Church and old Western Burying Grounds facing West Fayette and North Greene Streets, the cemetery where the famous poet and writer Edgar Allan Poe is buried. It is the only law school in the United States with a famous author buried on its campus; the former restored church building, now known as Westminster Hall is used for campus events and lectures and is requested for wedding and other social ceremonies. The University of Maryland School of Law was ranked 48th among law schools according to the 2017 edition of U. S. News & World Report law school rankings and was ranked among the top 10 programs for health law, clinical law and environmental law; the School of Law's students' undergraduate median GPA is a 3.47 and
Catonsville is a census-designated place in Baltimore County, United States. The population was 41,567 at the 2010 census; the community lies to the west of Baltimore along the city's border. Catonsville contains the majority of the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, a major public research university with close to 14,000 students. Before European colonists settled in present-day Catonsville, the area was occupied by the Piscataway tribe; these Native Americans had good relations with the first European settlers in the area, but wars and diseases caused their population to decline. The remainder of the tribe’s population dispersed. In the early 1700s, colonists settled in the area, roads were built; the first of these settlements in the present-day Catonsville area was Johnnycake Town, settled in the 1720s. Johnnycake Town was named after the kind of cornbread sold to travelers at the local tavern. Although Johnnycake Town has since disappeared from maps, its main roads and Rolling Road, still exist today.
Rolling Road was used to transport tobacco from plantations south to the Patapsco River on horse-drawn wagons. In 1787, the Ellicott family built a road, called the Frederick Turnpike, to transport goods from their flour mill, Ellicott Mills, to the Baltimore harbor; the turnpike was built just south of. Charles Carroll, the last surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence, owned land next to the newly built road, he instructed Richard Caton, to develop the area along the road. He gave his name to the community and called it “Catonville”, although the name was changed to “Catonsville” in the 1830s. For decades, the village remained as a quiet farming community. Businesses sprang up along the Frederick Turnpike to cater to travelers traveling from Ellicott City to the Baltimore harbor. Catonsville served as a layover stop for the travelers, the town grew and developed; the pleasant surroundings attracted wealthy Baltimorean merchants, eager to escape the summer heat, built large Victorian and colonial summer homes there.
Many of these homes still stand today. Starting in 1862, horsecar services connected Catonsville to Baltimore, in 1884, the Catonsville Short Line railroad was built, providing 8 roundtrip trains to Baltimore daily; this allowed people to live in commute to work in Baltimore. Commuter traffic exploded in the 1890s with the construction of electric streetcar lines and fancy housing developments. Catonsville had become one of the first commuter suburbs in the United States. Baltimore had tried to annex Catonsville, their last attempt was in 1918. Homes of all sizes were being constructed until the 1950s when much of land around the Frederick Turnpike had been converted into housing. A new and modern business district opened along the newly built Baltimore National Pike, north, but parallel to the older Frederick Turnpike. Catonsville was made quite famous during the 1968 protest by the "Catonsville Nine", during which draft records were burned by Catholic anti-war activists. In 2002, the Maryland legislature issued a proclamation declaring Catonsville to be "Music City, Maryland", because of the concentration of musical retail stores and educational facilities in the area.
Life Sounds Great is a series of compilation albums highlighting Catonsville musicians. In 2007, Money' magazine ranked Catonsville the 49th best place to live in the United States and the third best in Maryland and Virginia. Catonsville is located at 39°16′26″N 76°44′17″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 14.0 square miles, all of it land. It is centered along Frederick Road the main road from Baltimore leading to points west. Johnnycake Road and Academy Road form the northeastern borders of Catonsville. Catonsville is bordered by Woodlawn to the north, Baltimore to the east, by Arbutus to the southeast, by Ilchester to the southwest, by Ellicott City to the west. In addition to Frederick Road, Interstate 695 services Wilkens Avenue, Edmondson Avenue and the Baltimore National Pike via Exits 12, 14 and 15 with the latter two thoroughfares converging in Baltimore City to the east; the main north-south roads in the area are Ingleside Avenue and Bloomsbury Avenue.
Catonsville is a terminus of the Short Line Railroad Trail. The Maryland Transit Administration provides bus service to the Catonsville area via the Purple CityLink route with service to Downtown Baltimore, LocalLink routes 37 and 77, Express BusLink 150 to Columbia. MARC Train provides commuter train service at the nearby Halethorpe station in Arbutus. Major north-south routes in Catonsville include: Interstate 695 traveling south to north from Glen Burnie to Towson. Interstate 195 traveling east to west from southern Catonsville to BWI Airport. Maryland Route 166 traveling north to south from Frederick Road to Relay. North Rolling Road continues north of Frederick Road to Old Court Road in Randallstown. Major east-west routes in Catonsville include: Interstate 70 traveling east to west from Security Boulevard-Cooks Lane to Frederick. U. S. Route 40 east to west from Baltimore to Ellicott City. Maryland Route 144 traveling east to west from Irvington to Ellicott City. Maryland Route 372 traveling east to west from Southwestern Boulevard to Rolli
The Peabody Institute of The Johns Hopkins University is a conservatory and university-preparatory school in the Mount Vernon-Belvedere neighborhood of northern Baltimore, United States, facing the landmark Washington Monument circle at the southeast corner of North Charles and East Monument Streets. The Peabody Institute was founded in 1857 and opened in 1866 by merchant/ financier and philanthropist George Peabody, is the oldest conservatory in the United States, its association in recent decades begun in 1977 with JHU allows students to do research across disciplines. George Peabody, founded the Institute with a bequest of about $800,000 from his fortune made in Massachusetts and augmented in Baltimore, vastly increased in banking and finance during following residences in New York City and London, where he became the wealthiest American of his times. Completion of the white marble Grecian-Italianate west wing / original building housing the Institute, designed by Edmund George Lind, was delayed by the Civil War.
It was dedicated in 1866, with Peabody himself, traveling across the North Atlantic Ocean, speaking at the ceremonies on the front steps in front of landmark Washington Monument circle before a large audience of notaries and citizens including hundreds of assembled pupils from the Baltimore City Public Schools. Under the direction of well-known musicians, composers and Peabody alumni, the music conservatory, lecture series and art gallery, led by men of literary and intellectual lights along with an annual awarding of gold and bronze medals with certificates and cash prizes to top graduates of the city, known as the "Peabody Prizes", attracted a considerable national attention to the Institute and the city's growing culture. Under strong academic leadership, the Peabody evolved into an internationally renowned cultural and literary center through the late 19th and the 20th centuries after a major expansion in 1877-1878, with the completion of its eastern half housing the George Peabody Library with iconic five stacked tiers of wrought iron balconies holding book stacks/shelves, surmounted by a beveled glass skylight, one of the most beautiful and distinctive libraries in America.
The Institute building's 1878 east wing on East Mount Vernon Place containing the affiliated George Peabody Library, joined the other rows of architecturally significant structures of townhouses, art gallery, hotels, churches around the Nation's first memorial to its first President which developed into the Mount Vernon-Belvedere neighborhood, carved from the rolling hills north of Baltimore Town on the estate and nearby mansion of "Belviedere", home of Revolutionary War commander of famous "Maryland Line" troops in the Continental Army, Colonel John Eager Howard. The Institute grew from a local academy, with an art and sculpture gallery, public lecture series, the extensive non-circulating reference library which predated the first public library system in America; that library was created and endowed in 1882 by Peabody's friend and fellow "Bay-Stater", merchant/philanthropist Enoch Pratt.. In 1978, "The Peabody" began working with The Johns Hopkins University, under an affiliation agreement.
In 1985, the Institute became a division of "The Hopkins". Peabody is one of 156 schools in the United States, it houses two libraries: the historical George Peabody Library established when the Institute opened in 1866, renowned for its collection of 19th-century era and other rare books and the Arthur Friedheim Library, a separate music reference academic library added to supplement the Institute's original library that includes more than 100,000 books and sound recordings. The Conservatory was supplemented by a preparatory school, an auditorium/music hall. Under instructions from Peabody's original 1857 bequest - an art and sculpture gallery, non-circulating public research library, with a public lecture series, a system of awarding gold and bronze medals, certificates with money prizes for top honor graduates of Baltimore's only public secondary schools. "Peabody Prizes" are awarded to top high school graduates beginning the following year at commencement exercises and continued for 122 years as an honored annual tradition with public announcements to city's media.
Additional structures to the south and east of somewhat jarring modernistic light tan/brown brick along East Centre Street and Saint Paul Street were constructed in 1971 with two corner towers. During the early 1990s, several remaining townhouses on East Mount Vernon Place to the east intersection with St. Paul were acquired and rebuilt leaving their front original facades facing the historic Monument squares /pocket parks but rebuilt interiors and extended to the rears. Along with other townhouses acquired to the south with distinctive iron scrollwork balconies facing North Charl