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Community centre

Community centres or community halls are public locations where members of a community tend to gather for group activities, social support, public information, other purposes. They may sometimes be open for the whole community or for a specialized group within the greater community. Community centres can be religious in nature, such as Christian, Islamic, or Jewish community centres, or can be secular, such as youth clubs. Community centres perform many the following functions in its community; as the place for all-community celebrations at various occasions and traditions. As the place for public meetings of the citizens on various issues; as the place where politicians or other official leaders come to meet the citizens and ask for their opinions, support or votes. As a place where community members meet each other socially; as a place housing local clubs and volunteer activities. As a place that community members, can rent cheaply when a private family function or party is too big for their own home.

For instance the non-religious parts of weddings, funerals etc. As a place that retells local history; as a place where local non-government activities are organised. As a place where indoor circuses can entertain the paying public; as a place of relief in instances of community tragedies. Around the world there appear to be four common ways in which the operation of the kind of community centre are owned and organised. In the following description "Government" may refer to the ordinary secular government or to a dominant religious organisation such as the Roman Catholic Church. Community owned: The centre is directly owned and run by the local community through an organization separate from the official governmental institutions of the area, but with the full knowledge and sometimes funding from government institutions. Example:. Government owned: The centre is a public government facility, though it is used for non-government community activities and may have some kind of local leadership elected from its community.

Example:. Kominkan Sponsored: A rich citizen or commercial corporation owns the place and donates its use to the community for reasons of charity or public relations. Example:; each individual community centre has its own peculiar origin and history, though some variants seem to be common. Built as such. Buildings have been erected to function as community centres at least as far back as the 1880 even earlier. Disused public building; when an official government building is no longer needed for its original purpose, it is sometimes offered to the community as gift, loan or sale. Disused commercial building; when a commercial building of some local importance is no longer used, it is sometimes sold or donated to the community. Building that served many of the community centre purposes in addition to a different primary use, acquired so it could continue these functions after its primary use subsided. Early forms of community centres in the United States were based in schools providing facilities to inner city communities out of school hours.

An early celebrated example of this is to be found in Rochester, New York from 1907. Edward J. Ward, a Presbyterian minister, joined the Extension Department at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, organizing the Wisconsin Bureau of Civic and Social Development. By 1911 they organized a country-wide conference on schools as social centres. Despite concerns expressed by politicians and public officials that they might provide a focus for alternative political and social activity, the idea was successful. In 1916, with the foundation of the National Community Center Association, the term Community Center was used in the US. By 1918 there were community centres in 107 US cities, in 240 cities by 1924. By 1930 there were nearly 500 centres with more than four million people attending; the first of these was Public School 63, located in the Lower East Side. Clinton Child's, one of the organizers, described it as "A Community organized about some centre for its own political and social welfare and expression.

In the UK many villages and towns have their own Community Centre, although nearby schools may offer their assembly or dining hall after school for Community Centre activities. For example, local schools near Ouston may host dance, or sporting activities provided by a local community centre. Parks are considered community centres. Another pioneer of community centres was Mary Parker Follett, who saw community centres as playing a major part in her concept of community development and democracy seen through individuals organizing themselves into neighbourhood groups, attending to people's needs and aspirations; this can include parks. In the United Kingdom, the oldest community centre is that, established in 1901 in Thringstone, Leicesters


The House of Hohenlohe is a German princely dynasty descended from the ancient Franconian Imperial immediate noble family that belonged to the German High Nobility. The family was granted the titles of Count and Prince. In 1806 the Princes of Hohenlohe lost their independence and their lands formed part of the Kingdoms of Bavaria and of Württemberg by the Act of the Confederation of the Rhine. At the time of this mediatization in 1806, the area of Hohenlohe was 1 760 km² and its estimated population was 108,000; the Act of the Confederation of the Rhine deprived the Princes of Hohenlohe of their Imperial immediacy, but did not confiscate their possessions. Until the German Revolution of 1918–19 the Princes of Hohenlohe, as other mediatized families, had important political privileges, they were considered equal by birth to the European Sovereign houses. In Bavaria, Prussia and Württemberg the Princes of Hohenlohe had hereditary right to sit in the House of Lords. In 1825 the Assembly / Diet of the German Confederation recognized the predicate of "Serene Highness" for the heads of the Hohenlohe lines.

An early ancestor was mentioned in 1153 as one Lord of Weikersheim. His son Conrad jun. called himself the possessor of Hohlach Castle near Uffenheim, the dynasty's influence was soon perceptible between the Franconian valleys of the Kocher, the Jagst and the Tauber Rivers, an area, to be called the Hohenlohe Plateau.. Heinrich I was the first to take the name of Hohenlohe, in 1230 his grandsons and Conrad, supporters of Emperor Frederick II, founded the lines of Hohenlohe-Hohenlohe and Hohenlohe-Brauneck, names taken from their respective castles; the latter became extinct in 1390, its lands passing to Brandenburg, while the former was divided into several branches, only two of which, Hohenlohe-Weikersheim and Hohenlohe-Uffenheim-Speckfeld, need be mentioned here. Hohenlohe-Weikersheim, descended from Count Kraft I underwent several divisions, that which took place after the deaths of Counts Albert and George in 1551 being specially important. At this time the lines of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein and Hohenlohe-Waldenburg were founded by the sons of Count George.

Meanwhile, in 1412, the family of Hohenlohe-Uffenheim-Speckfeld had become extinct, its lands had passed through the marriages of its heiresses into other families. George Hohenlohe was archbishop of Esztergom, serving the King Sigismund of Hungary. In 1450, the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III granted Kraft of Hohenlohe and his brother, the sons of Elizabeth of Hanau, heiress to Ziegenhain, the title of Count of Hohenlohe and Ziegenhain and invested them with the County of Ziegenhain; the Landgraves of Hesse took the County of Ziegenhain, the House of Hohenlohe gave up the reference to Ziegenhain. The Hohenlohe possessions were located in the Franconian Circle, the family had two voices in its Diet / Assembly; the Hohenlohe family had six voices in the Franconian College of Imperial Counts of the Imperial Diet. The right to vote in the Imperial Diet / Assembly gave a German noble family the status of Imperial State and the right to belong to the High Nobility; the existing branches of the Hohenlohe family are descended from the lines of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein and Hohenlohe-Waldenburg, established in 1551 by Ludwig Kasimir and Eberhard, the sons of Count Georg.

The former of these became Protestant. Of the family of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein, which underwent several partitions and inherited Gleichen in 1631, the senior line became extinct in 1805, while in 1701 the junior line divided itself into three branches, those of Langenburg and Kirchberg. Kirchberg died out in 1861, but members of the families of Hohenlohe-Langenburg and Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen are still alive, the latter being represented by the branches of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen and Hohenlohe-Öhringen; the Roman Catholic family of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg was soon divided into three branches, but two of these had died out by 1729. The surviving branch, that of Schillingsfürst, was divided into the lines of Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst and Hohenlohe-Bartenstein; the family of Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst possessed the duchy of Ratibor and still owns the principality of Corvey, inherited in 1834. The Holy Roman Emperors granted the title of Imperial Prince to the Waldenburg line and to the Neuenstein line. In 1757, the Holy Roman Emperor elevated possessions of the Waldenburg line to the status of Imperial Principality.

In 1772, the Holy Roman Emperor elevated possessions of the Neuenstein and Langenburg lines to the status of Imperial Principality. Notable members of the von Hohenlohe family include: Heinrich von Hohenlohe, 13th-century Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights Gottfried von Hohenlohe, 14th-century Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, Prussian general Louis Aloy de Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Bartenstein and peer of France August, Prince of Hohenlohe-Öhringen, general Prince Alexander of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst, priest Kraft, Prinz zu Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen (1827–18

Ambrose Treacy College

Ambrose Treacy College is a Roman Catholic boys' school at Twigg Street, Brisbane, Australia. The school was established on the 28 January 2015 and was Nudgee Junior College and was named after Patrick Ambrose Treacy, a leading educator within the Christian Brothers who established many church schools in Australia; the school follows the Edmund Rice Tradition. It will reach year 12 and teach all year levels by 2019; the school is split up into three categories: years 4 to 6 are in the Junior School, years 7 to 9 are in the Middle School and Years 10 to 12 are in the Senior School. The current principal is Michael Senior and is known as the Foundation Principal of Ambrose Treacy College; the Edmund Rice building was built in 1938 to provide additional boarding accommodation for St Joseph's College at Nudgee. It was opened and blessed on 10 July 1938 by the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Brisbane, James Duhig. In 1994, all of the boarding was relocated to the Nudgee site and the Indooroopilly site became a day school for junior students.

It is listed on the Brisbane Heritage Register as it is an excellent example of Interwar Functionalist architecture with its simple geometric volumes, asymmetrical massing and distinctive Modernist windows

James Montgomery (footballer, born 1994)

James Montgomery is an English professional footballer who plays for Forest Green Rovers, as a goalkeeper. Born in Sunderland, his grandfather was a cousin of footballer Jimmy Montgomery. Montgomery began his career playing youth football for Middlesbrough, he played in non-league with Guiseley, before attending the Nike Football Academy and signing with AFC Telford United in 2015. While with Telford he began training with Sunderland, with the V9 Academy, he moved to Gateshead in January 2017. Montgomery signed a two-year contract with Forest Green Rovers in May 2018, he made his professional debut on 14 August 2018, in the EFL Cup. During a match against Mansfield Town in January 2019, Montgomery collided with opposition player Gethin Jones, resulting in a cut lip and lost teeth. Montgomery was substituted by Lewis Ward

Mansion House, York

The Mansion House in York, England is the home of the Lord Mayors of York during their term in office. It is situated in St Helen's Square, where York's Coney Street and Lendal intersect in the city centre, it is built in an early Georgian style. The Mansion House is the earliest purpose built house for a Lord Mayor still in existence and predates the Mansion House in London by at least twenty years; the foundation stone for the Mansion House was laid in 1725, with the building being completed seven years in 1732. The architect who designed the Mansion House is unknown, although the frontage may be by William Etty. In 1998 the house was restored by the York Civic Trust. In October 2015 the Mansion House was closed for refurbishment as part of the "Opening Doors" Heritage Lottery Fund refurbishment and reopened in 2017; the four main areas of the "Opening Doors" project involve restoring the original kitchens. The Mansion House is built on the site of the old "Common Hall Gates" which provided an entrance to the Guildhall.

A chapel and other property and tenements which were once owned by the Guild of St. Christopher and St. George including the Cross Keys Public House lay on this site; these buildings were demolished to build the current Mansion House in 1724. The fifteenth century York Guildhall is situated behind the Mansion House, where the medieval city council held their meetings. In May of each year the Mayor Making ceremony is still held in the Guildhall before the Lord Mayor takes up residence in the Mansion House; these two buildings, represent a continuity of civic democracy for over six hundred years in the City of York. The Mansion House holds one of the largest civic silver collections in England; these collections will be displayed in a new Silver Gallery enabling visitors to view the collections from January 2017. Two of the earliest pieces are a seventeenth century silver chamber pot and gold cup which were bought for the City of York with monies bequeathed by Marmaduke Rawdon in 1669. Marmaduke left "one drinking cup of pure gold of the vallew of one hundred pounds, which I desire my executor to have handsomely made, the cittie arms and my arms graven upon it, "This is the guift of Marmaduke Rawdon, son of Laurence Rawdon, late of this cittie alderman".

The collection of civic regalia includes a seventeenth century mace and two city swords. The Bowes Sword was donated to the City of York by Sir Martin Bowes, Lord Mayor of London 1545. Bowes was born in York and was christened in St. Cuthbert's, where many of his family were buried. In the sixteenth century there was a move to reduce the number of parish churches in York and Bowes pleaded to the council to save St. Cuthbert's. In thanks for saving St. Cuthbert's Bowes wrote to York on 20 September 1549 saying that he was sending "a fayre sworde within a sheathe of crymesyn velvet garnysyshyd with perle and stone sett upon sylver and gylte". In 1603 when James VI of Scotland visited York the Bowes sword travelled with one of his entourage to London; when the sword was returned the original precious stones had disappeared and the sword was repaired with semi-precious stones. The Sigismund sword was once owned by the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund. In 1416 Sigismund was installed as a Knight of the Order of the Garter of the Knights of St. George as part of Henry V's alliance against France.

He sent a sword to be hung over his stall in St. George's Chapel and this sword was still in the chapel when he died in 1437; the sword was acquired by Henry Hanslapp, dean of Windsor, a canon of Howden and native of York. On 5 May 1439 Henry Hanslapp presented the sword to the City of York; the Sigismund sword blade is blued and inscribed with the Royal Arms of Elizabeth I. The scabbard is covered in crimson velvet, decorated with "scorpions" or dragons which are similar to the emblem of the knightly Order of the Dragon founded by Sigismund in 1408; the Mansion House has a collection of oil paintings of previous Lord Mayors of York which include, George IV as Prince Regent, Charles Watson-Wentworth, Marquis of Rockingham and George Hudson. York Mansion House - official site York Mansion House - Historypin page Mansion House oils paintings - Art Uk

North Ryde, New South Wales

North Ryde is a suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. North Ryde is located 15 kilometres north-west of the Sydney central business district, in the local government area of the City of Ryde. North Ryde is in the Northern Suburbs region of Sydney. One of Australia's major business districts, North Ryde is home to many multi-national corporations such as Microsoft, Hewlett Packard, Dimension Data and Honeywell; the suburb is the site of Macquarie University and its residents include those from the university academe and the research sector. The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation has a major site on Delhi Road in the Riverside Corporate Park. North Ryde shares the postcode of 2113 with adjacent suburbs Macquarie East Ryde; these suburbs were once part of North Ryde and many businesses and residences in these suburbs still advertise their address as being in North Ryde. Adjacent Macquarie University was issued with its own postcode, 2109, by Australia Post in the late 1980s.

The earliest reference to the area being known as North Ryde appears to be after the district's first public school changed its name from City View Public School to North Ryde Public School in 1879. North Ryde was farming area, until in 1897, it was sold to a Catholic parish. North Ryde is an extension of the adjacent suburb of Ryde, named after the'Ryde Store', a business run by G. M. Pope, he adopted the name from his birthplace of Ryde on the Isle of Wight, in the UK. Ryde was the name used from the 1840s and adopted as the name of the municipality in 1870; the whole area between the Parramatta and Lane Cove Rivers was populated by Indigenous Australians and known by its Aboriginal name Wallumatta. Contact with the first white settlement's bridgehead into Australia devastated much of the population through epidemics of smallpox and other diseases; the Aboriginal name survives in a local reserve, the Wallumatta Nature Reserve, located at the corner of Twin and Cressy roads, North Ryde. Few remnants of Sydney Turpentine-Ironbark Forest still exist.

The most substantial undisturbed area is the Wallumatta Nature Reserve in North Ryde, owned and managed by the National Parks and Wildlife Service. This small and critically endangered reserve known as the Macquarie Hospital Bushland, is one of the last remnants of the remaining 0.5% of original and endangered turpentine-ironbark forests on Wianamatta shale soil in Sydney. See Sydney Turpentine-Ironbark Forest. Ryde is the third oldest settlement in Australia, after Parramatta; the area between the Parramatta and Lane Cove Rivers was known by white settlers as the Field of Mars and the Eastern Farms. North Ryde was established in the mid 19th century as a farming district, in what was a vegetated area, next to the established district of Ryde; the Field of Mars Common was considered dangerous, as escaped convicts and bushrangers were known to frequent the area. The earliest settler to receive a land grant in the area bordered by the Field of Mars Common and Bridge/Twin and Badajoz Roads, now North Ryde was Jane Wood in 1800.

Following land grants were to David Brown in 1802, William Kent Jnr in 1803, "Tudor Farm" being the largest land grant in the district, which included all the land between Lane Cove, Herring and Waterloo roads, James Weavers and Michael Connor in 1804, Thomas Granger in 1809. Amongst the earliest settlers was James Weavers, a farm labourer born in 1752, sentenced to death at 28 March 1787 Bury St Edmunds Assizes, his sentence was reduced to transportation for life and he arrived in the colony aboard the ship Surprize on 26 June 1790. He was granted 30 acres of land in, he married Mary Hutchinson in 1792 and they had four children. James Weavers and his descendants were part of a remarkable pioneering family whose members variously survived the hardships of harsh conditions, infant mortality and the tragic loss of many of its members in an isolated settlement. James Weavers did well as a farmer and in 1803 he purchased a 60-acre farm and received a 100-acre grant of adjoining land in 1804. James Weavers is thought to have been killed by Aborigines on 3 April 1805 and although his burial was registered at St Philips Church, his descendants believe that he was buried on his own land.

The earliest settlers to farm in the Putney district were related by marriages and this included the Weavers, Benson, Cox and Heard families of North Ryde. Henry Heard came to Sydney from Devonshire and acquired four acres of land on Twin Road and planted an orchard, he and his wife Mary Jane had nine children, four sons and five daughters born between 1859 and 1876. Apart from the first child, born and died in 1859 and registered in St Leonards, all the other children were registered in Ryde. Therefore, the growing Heard family must have come to the district just before 1860, he continued to expand his orchards and vineyards. After his death one of his sons obtained a further 24 acres, bounded on the north and north-east by Joseph Cox's property, on the south and south-east by Wicks Road, on the south-west by Twin Road. In addition to this orchard he obtained 12 acres of bush land, further cleared to expand the farm; the Heard's orchard was named the Model Farm. Two of Heard's cottages survive to this day, the main house at 505 Twin Road and semi-detached Orchard House and Heards Cottage on the corner of Cox's and Wicks Roads, North Ryde and is listed on Ryde Council's Heritage List.

Around 1868 Josep