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Community college

A community college is a type of educational institution. The term can have different meanings in different countries: many community colleges have an "open enrollment" for students who have graduated from high school; the term refers to a higher educational institution that provides workforce education and college transfer academic programs. Some institutions maintain athletic dormitories similar to their university counterparts. In Australia, the term "community college" refers to small private businesses running short courses of a self-improvement or hobbyist nature. Equivalent to the American notion of community colleges are Tertiary and Further Education colleges or TAFEs. There are an increasing number of private providers, which are colloquially called "colleges". TAFEs and other providers carry on the tradition of adult education, established in Australia around the mid-19th century, when evening classes were held to help adults enhance their numeracy and literacy skills. Most Australian universities can be traced back to such forerunners, although obtaining a university charter has always changed their nature.

In TAFEs and colleges today, courses are designed for personal development of an individual or for employment outcomes. Educational programs cover a variety of topics such as arts, languages and lifestyle, they are scheduled to run two, three or four days of the week, depending on the level of the course undertaken. A Certificate I may only run for 4 hours twice a week for a term of 9 weeks. A full-time Diploma course might have classes 4 days per week for a year; some courses may be offered in the weekends to accommodate people working full-time. Funding for colleges may come from government grants and course fees. Many are not-for-profit organisations; such TAFES are located in metropolitan and rural locations of Australia. Education offered by TAFEs and colleges has changed over the years. By the 1980s, many colleges had recognised a community need for computer training. Since thousands of people have increased skills through IT courses; the majority of colleges by the late 20th century had become Registered Training Organisations.

They offer individuals a nurturing, non-traditional education venue to gain skills that better prepare them for the workplace and potential job openings. TAFEs and colleges have not traditionally offered bachelor's degrees, instead providing pathway arrangements with universities to continue towards degrees; the American innovation of the associate degree is being developed at some institutions. Certificate courses I to IV, diplomas and advanced diplomas are offered, the latter deemed equivalent to an undergraduate qualification, albeit in more vocational areas; some TAFE institutes have become higher education providers in their own right and are now starting to offer bachelor's degree programs. In Canada, colleges are adult educational institutions that provide higher education and tertiary education, grant certificates and diplomas; as well, in Ontario, the 24 colleges of applied arts and technology have been mandated to offer their own stand-alone degrees as well as to offer joint degrees with universities through "articulation agreements" that result in students emerging with both a diploma and a degree.

Thus, for example, the University of Guelph "twins" with Humber College and York University does the same with Seneca College. More however, colleges have been offering a variety of their own degrees in business and technical fields; the academic and economic value of the college degree is still being tested in the marketplace. Each province has its own educational system, as prescribed by the Canadian federalism model of governance. In the mid-1960s and early 1970s, most Canadian colleges began to provide practical education and training for the emerging baby boom generation, for immigrants from around the world who were entering Canada in increasing numbers at that time. A formative trend was the merging of the separate vocational training and adult education institutions. Canadian colleges are either publicly funded or private post-secondary institutions. There are 150 institutions that are equivalent to the US community college in certain contexts, they are referred to as "colleges" since in common usage a degree-granting institution is exclusively a university.

In addition to graduate degrees, universities grant Associate's degrees and Bachelor's degrees, but in some regions or courses of study and universities collaborate so college students can earn transfer credits toward undergraduate university degrees. University degrees are attained through four years of study; the term associate degree is used in western Canada to refer to a two-year college arts or science degree, similar to how the term is used in the United States. In other parts of Canada the term advanced degree is used to indicate a three- or four-year college program. In the province of Quebec, three years is the norm for a university degree because a year of credit is earned in the CEGEP system; when speaking in English, people refer to all colleges as Cégeps, however the term is an acronym more applied to the French-language public system: Collège d'enseignement général et professionnel. The word College can refer to a private High School in Quebec. Canadian community college systemsList of colleges in Canada Colleges and Institutes Can

Boshin War

The Boshin War, sometimes known as the Japanese Revolution, was a civil war in Japan, fought from 1868 to 1869 between forces of the ruling Tokugawa shogunate and those seeking to return political power to the Imperial Court. The war found its origins in dissatisfaction among many nobles and young samurai with the shogunate's handling of foreigners following the opening of Japan during the prior decade. Increasing Western influence in the economy led to a decline similar to other Asian countries at the time. An alliance of western samurai the domains of Chōshū, Satsuma and Tosa, court officials secured control of the Imperial Court and influenced the young Emperor Meiji. Tokugawa Yoshinobu, the sitting shōgun, realizing the futility of his situation, abdicated political power to the emperor. Yoshinobu had hoped that by doing this, the Tokugawa house could be preserved and participate in the future government. However, military movements by imperial forces, partisan violence in Edo, an imperial decree promoted by Satsuma and Chōshū abolishing the house of Tokugawa led Yoshinobu to launch a military campaign to seize the emperor's court in Kyoto.

The military tide turned in favor of the smaller but modernized imperial faction, after a series of battles culminating in the surrender of Edo, Yoshinobu surrendered. Those loyal to the Tokugawa retreated to northern Honshū and to Hokkaidō, where they founded the Ezo republic. Defeat at the Battle of Hakodate broke this last holdout and left the imperial rule supreme throughout the whole of Japan, completing the military phase of the Meiji Restoration. Around 120,000 men were mobilized during the conflict, of these about 3,500 were killed. In the end, the victorious imperial faction abandoned its objective to expel foreigners from Japan and instead adopted a policy of continued modernization with an eye to eventual renegotiation of the unequal treaties with the Western powers. Due to the persistence of Saigō Takamori, a prominent leader of the imperial faction, the Tokugawa loyalists were shown clemency, many former shogunate leaders and samurai were given positions of responsibility under the new government.

When the Boshin War began, Japan was modernizing, following the same course of advancement as that of the industrialized Western nations. Since Western nations the United Kingdom and France, were involved in the country's politics, the installation of Imperial power added more turbulence to the conflict. Over time, the war has been romanticized as a "bloodless revolution", because of the small number of casualties. For the two centuries prior to 1854, Japan had limited exchange with foreign nations, with the notable exceptions of Korea via Tsushima, Qing China via the Ryūkyū Islands, the Dutch through the trading post of Dejima. In 1854, Commodore Perry opened Japan to global commerce with the implied threat of force, thus initiating a period of rapid development in foreign trade and Westernization. In large part due to the humiliating terms of the unequal treaties, as agreements like those conveyed by Perry are called, the shogunate soon faced internal hostility, which materialized into a radical movement, the sonnō jōi.

Emperor Kōmei agreed with such sentiments and, breaking with centuries of imperial tradition, began to take an active role in matters of state: as opportunities arose, he fulminated against the treaties and attempted to interfere in the shogunal succession. His efforts culminated in March 1863 with his "order to expel barbarians". Although the shogunate had no intention of enforcing it, the order inspired attacks against the shogunate itself and against foreigners in Japan: the most famous incident was that of the English trader Charles Lennox Richardson, for whose death the Tokugawa government had to pay an indemnity of one hundred thousand British pounds. Other attacks included the shelling of foreign shipping in Shimonoseki. During 1864, these actions were countered by armed retaliations by foreign powers, such as the British bombardment of Kagoshima and the multinational Shimonoseki Campaign. At the same time, the forces of Chōshū, together with rōnin, raised the Hamaguri rebellion trying to seize the city of Kyoto, where the Emperor's court was held, but were repelled by shogunate forces under the future shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu.

The shogunate further ordered a punitive expedition against Chōshū, the First Chōshū expedition, obtained Chōshū's submission without actual fighting. At this point initial resistance among the leadership in Chōshū and the Imperial Court subsided, but over the next year the Tokugawa proved unable to reassert full control over the country as most daimyōs began to ignore orders and questions from Edo. Despite the bombardment of Kagoshima, the Satsuma Domain had become closer to the British and was pursuing the modernization of its army and navy with their support; the Scottish dealer Thomas Blake Glover sold quantities of warships and guns to the southern domains. American and British military experts former officers, may have been directly involved in this military effort; the British ambassador Harry Smith Parkes supported the anti-shogunate forces in a drive to establish a legitimate, unified Imperial rule in Japan, to counter French influence with the shogunate. During that period, southern Japanese leaders such as Saigō Takamori of Satsuma, or Itō Hirobumi and Inoue Kaoru of Chōshū cultivated personal connections with British diplomats, notably Ernest Mason Satow.

The shogunate was preparing for further conflict by modernizing its forces. In line with Parkes' designs, the British the shogunate's primary partner

Rashed Radwan

Rashed Radwan is a Spanish film director and writer of Iraqi origin. "Target:Heart of Iraq", "Gaza Genocide" "Human Market" and "Iraq at the Edge of Civil War" are among documentaries Rashed has directed. Ø General and Creative Director, Conflict Films S. L "Heart of Iraq" Ø Commissioned Director “Witness” Al Jazeera English Ø Director “Accidental Hero” Al Jazeera English Ø Director “City of Widows” Al Jazeera English Ø Director “Guardian of Eden” Al Jazeera English Ø Director “Gaza Genocide” Ø Director “Fado Music” Al Jazeera English Ø Director “Tile Theft” Al Jazeera English Ø Director “Fighter in Danger Zone”, Al Jazeera English Ø Director “City of Widows”, Al Jazeera English Ø Director “Guardian of Eden”, Al Jazeera English Ø Director “Lesson in Conflict/Iraq”, Qatar Foundation/AJE Ø Director and Scriptwriter “The death of Al Muthannabi Street” Special Prize of the Jury of Malaga International Film Festival for his movie "Heart of Iraq" Best Documentary Film, Pamplona Film Festival for “Heart of Iraq” Best Documentary Film, “Ojo Cojo” Film Festival, supported by UNESCO http://www.plataforma21.com/02_cine/03.especiales/malaga06_02.htm http://www.nodo50.org/csca/agenda06/iraq/festival_4-10-06.html http://www.laopiniondemalaga.es/secciones/noticia.jsp?pRef=2471_11_65758__LucesdeMalaga-vision-diferente-invasion-Irak http://www.lapiluka.org/2006/04/26/semana-cultural/ http://ania.urcm.net/noticia.php3?id=18697&idcat=1&idamb=1 http://www.festivaldemalaga.com/2009/prensa_noticias.php?id=49 https://web.archive.org/web/20090329131619/http://212.34.138.187/festivalcinepamplona.com/es/videos2006/video21/video21.html es:Festival de Cine de Pamplona https://web.archive.org/web/20080612213004/http://noticias.kinoki.org/palmares-de-la-vi-edicion-de-docupolis-y-del-vii-festival-de-pamplona-irunea/ http://www.diariodirecto.com//DESARROLLOS/FESTIVAL-CINE-MALAGA-objetivo-irak.html https://web.archive.org/web/20090306233850/http://www1.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/7CE52451-7C46-4A52-B3B3-3F599AE44534.htm http://www.espaciotangente.net/AbrilPro06.html https://web.archive.org/web/20110708154358/http://www.cineytele.com/noticia.php?nid=17894 https://web.archive.org/web/20110710234925/http://www.festivalcinepamplona.com/es/VerNoticia.aspx?id=26c2f1bc-cbc0-403c-825e-b966fe9a89de http://www.laopiniondemalaga.es/secciones/noticia.jsp?pRef=2471_11_65758__LucesdeMalaga-vision-diferente-invasion-Irak http://www-1.munimadrid.es/par/Archivo?id=82&evento=65&tipo=asociacion&ext=pdf http://www.telenoika.net/documental-objetivo-irak Rashed Radwan on IMDb