Emergency medical technician
Emergency medical technician and ambulance technician are terms used in some countries to denote a health care provider of emergency medical services. EMTs are clinicians, trained to respond to emergency situations regarding medical issues, traumatic injuries and accident scenes. EMTs are most found working in ambulances, but should not be confused with "ambulance drivers" or "ambulance attendants" – ambulance staff who in the past were not trained in emergency care or driving. EMTs are employed by private ambulance services and hospitals, but are often employed by fire departments, in police departments, there are many firefighter/EMTs and police officer/EMTs. EMTs operate under a limited scope of practice. EMTs are supervised by a medical director, a physician; some EMTs are paid employees. There is considerable degree of inter-provincial variation in the Canadian Paramedic practice. Although a national consensus identifies certain knowledge and abilities as being most synonymous with a given level of Paramedic practice, each province retains ultimate authority in legislating the actual administration and delivery of emergency medical services within its own borders.
For this reason, any discussion of Paramedic Practice in Canada is broad, general. Specific regulatory frameworks and questions related to Paramedic practice can only definitively be answered by consulting relevant provincial legislation, although provincial Paramedic Associations may offer a simpler overview of this topic when it is restricted to a province-by-province basis. In Canada, the levels of paramedic practice as defined by the National Occupational Competency Profile are: Emergency Medical Responder, Primary Care Paramedic, Advanced Care Paramedic, Critical Care Paramedic. Regulatory frameworks vary from province to province, include direct government regulation to professional self-regulating bodies, such as the Alberta College of Paramedics. Though the title of Paramedic is a generic description of a category of practitioners, provincial variability in regulatory methods accounts for ongoing differences in actual titles that are ascribed to different levels of practitioners. For example, the province of Alberta has adopted the title "Emergency Medical Technician", or'EMT', for the Primary Care Paramedic.
Only someone registered in Alberta can call themselves an EMT or Paramedic in Alberta, the title is protected. All other provinces are moving to adopting the new titles, or have at least recognized the NOCP document as a benchmarking document to permit inter-provincial labour mobility of practitioners, regardless of how titles are regulated within their own provincial systems. In this manner, the confusing myriad of titles and occupational descriptions can at least be discussed using a common language for comparison sake. Most providers that work in ambulances will be identified as'Paramedics' by the public. However, in many cases, the most prevalent level of emergency prehospital care is that, provided by the Emergency Medical Responder; this is a level of practice recognized under the National Occupational Competency Profile, although unlike the next three successive levels of practice,The high number of EMRs across Canada cannot be ignored as contributing a critical role in the chain of survival, although it is a level of practice, least comprehensive, is generally not consistent with any medical acts beyond advanced first-aid and oxygen therapy,administration of ASA and oral glucose and administration of narcan with the exception of automated external defibrillation.
Primary Care Paramedics are the entry-level of paramedic practice in Canadian provinces. The scope of practice includes performing semi-automated external defibrillation, interpretation of 4-lead ECGs, administration of Symptom Relief Medications for a variety of emergency medical conditions, performing trauma immobilization, other fundamental basic medical care. Primary Care Paramedics may receive additional training in order to perform certain skills that are in the scope of practice of Advanced Care Paramedics; this is regulated both provincially and locally, ordinarily entails an aspect of medical oversight by a specific body or group of physicians. This is referred to as Medical Control, or a role played by a base hospital. For example, in the provinces of Ontario and Newfoundland and Labrador, many paramedic services allow Primary Care Paramedics to perform 12-lead ECG interpretation, or initiate intravenous therapy to deliver a few additional medications; the Advanced Care Paramedic is a level of practitioner, in high demand by many services across Canada.
However, Quebec still does not utilize this level of practice. The ACP carries 20 different medications, although the number and type of medications may vary from region to region. ACPs perform advanced airway management including intubation, surgical airways, intravenous therapy, place external jugular IV lines, perform needle
A local government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state. The term is used to contrast with offices at state level, which are referred to as the central government, national government, or federal government and to supranational government which deals with governing institutions between states. Local governments act within powers delegated to them by legislation or directives of the higher level of government. In federal states, local government comprises the third tier of government, whereas in unitary states, local government occupies the second or third tier of government with greater powers than higher-level administrative divisions; the question of municipal autonomy is a key question of public governance. The institutions of local government vary between countries, where similar arrangements exist, the terminology varies. Common names for local government entities include state, region, county, district, township, borough, municipality, shire and local service district.
Local government traditionally had limited power in Egypt's centralized state. Under the central government were twenty-six governorates; these were subdivided into villages or towns. At each level, there was a governing structure that combined representative councils and government-appointed executive organs headed by governors, district officers, mayors, respectively. Governors were appointed by the president, they, in turn, appointed subordinate executive officers; the coercive backbone of the state apparatus ran downward from the Ministry of Interior through the governors' executive organs to the district police station and the village headman. Before the revolution, state penetration of the rural areas was limited by the power of local notables, but under Nasser, land reform reduced their socioeconomic dominance, the incorporation of peasants into cooperatives transferred mass dependence from landlords to government; the extension of officials into the countryside permitted the regime to bring development and services to the village.
The local branches of the ruling party, the Arab Socialist Union, fostered a certain peasant political activism and coopted the local notables—in particular the village headmen—and checked their independence from the regime. State penetration did not retreat under Mubarak; the earlier effort to mobilize peasants and deliver services disappeared as the local party and cooperative withered, but administrative controls over the peasants remained intact. The local power of the old families and the headmen revived but more at the expense of peasants than of the state; the district police station balanced the notables, the system of local government integrated them into the regime. Sadat took several measures to decentralize power to the towns. Governors acquired more authority under Law Number 43 of 1979, which reduced the administrative and budgetary controls of the central government over the provinces; the elected councils acquired, at least formally, the right to approve or disapprove the local budget.
In an effort to reduce local demands on the central treasury, local government was given wider powers to raise local taxes. But local representative councils became vehicles of pressure for government spending, the soaring deficits of local government bodies had to be covered by the central government. Local government was encouraged to enter into joint ventures with private investors, these ventures stimulated an alliance between government officials and the local rich that paralleled the infitah alliance at the national level. Under Mubarak decentralization and local autonomy became more of a reality, local policies reflected special local conditions. Thus, officials in Upper Egypt bowed to the powerful Islamic movement there, while those in the port cities struck alliances with importers. In recent years, Mali has undertaken an ambitious decentralization program, which involves the capital district of Bamako, seven regions subdivided into 46 cercles, 682 rural community districts; the state retains an advisory role in administrative and fiscal matters, it provides technical support and legal recourse to these levels.
Opportunities for direct political participation, increased local responsibility for development have been improved. In August–September 1998, elections were held for urban council members, who subsequently elected their mayors. In May/June 1999, citizens of the communes elected their communal council members for the first time. Female voter turnout was about 70% of the total, observers considered the process open and transparent. With mayors and boards in place at the local level, newly elected officials, civil society organizations, decentralized technical services, private sector interests, other communes, donor groups began partnering to further development; the cercles will be reinstituted with a legal and financial basis of their own. Their councils will be chosen from members of the communal councils; the regions, at the highest decentralized level, will have a similar legal and financial autonomy, will comprise a number of cercles within their geographical boundaries. Mali needs to build capacity at these levels to mobilize and manage financial resources.
South Africa has a two tiered local government system comprising local munici
Volunteering is considered an altruistic activity where an individual or group provides services for no financial or social gain "to benefit another person, group or organization". Volunteering is renowned for skill development and is intended to promote goodness or to improve human quality of life. Volunteering may have positive benefits for the volunteer as well as for the person or community served, it is intended to make contacts for possible employment. Many volunteers are trained in the areas they work, such as medicine, education, or emergency rescue. Others serve on an as-needed basis, such as in response to a natural disaster; the verb was first recorded in 1755. It was derived from the noun volunteer, in C.1600, "one who offers himself for military service," from the Middle French voluntaire. In the non-military sense, the word was first recorded during the 1630s; the word volunteering has more recent usage—still predominantly military—coinciding with the phrase community service. In a military context, a volunteer army is a military body whose soldiers chose to enter service, as opposed to having been conscripted.
Such volunteers are given regular pay. During this time, America experienced the Great Awakening. People realized the cause for movement against slavery. Younger people started helping the needy in their communities. In 1851, the first YMCA in the United States was started, followed seven years by the first YWCA. During the American Civil War, women volunteered their time to sew supplies for the soldiers and the "Angel of the Battlefield" Clara Barton and a team of volunteers began providing aid to servicemen. Barton founded the American Red Cross in 1881 and began mobilizing volunteers for disaster relief operations, including relief for victims of the Johnstown Flood in 1889; the Salvation Army is one of the largest organizations working for disadvantaged people. Though it is a charity organization, it has organized a number of volunteering programs since its inception. Prior to the 19th century, few formal charitable organizations existed to assist people in need. In the first few decades of the 20th century, several volunteer organizations were founded, including the Rotary International, Kiwanis International, Association of Junior Leagues International, Lions Clubs International.
The Great Depression saw one of the first large-scale, nationwide efforts to coordinate volunteering for a specific need. During World War II, thousands of volunteer offices supervised the volunteers who helped with the many needs of the military and the home front, including collecting supplies, entertaining soldiers on leave, caring for the injured. After World War II, people shifted the focus of their altruistic passions to other areas, including helping the poor and volunteering overseas. A major development was the Peace Corps in the United States in 1960; when President Lyndon B. Johnson declared a War on Poverty in 1964, volunteer opportunities started to expand and continued into the next few decades; the process for finding volunteer work became more formalized, with more volunteer centers forming and new ways to find work appearing on the World Wide Web. According to the Corporation for National and Community Service, about 64.5 million Americans, or 26.5 percent of the adult population, gave 7.9 billion hours of volunteer service worth $175 billion.
This calculates at 3 hours per week at a rate of $22 per hour. Volunteer hours in the UK are similar. In 1960, after the so called revolutionary war in Cuba ended, Ernesto Che Guevara created the concept of volunteering work, it was created with the intention that workers across the country volunteer a few hours of work on their work centers. Many schools on all education levels offer service-learning programs, which allow students to serve the community through volunteering while earning educational credit. According to Alexander Astin in the foreword to Where's the Learning in Service-Learning? by Janet Eyler and Dwight E. Giles, Jr."...we promote more wide-spread adoption of service-learning in higher education because we see it as a powerful means of preparing students to become more caring and responsible parents and citizens and of helping colleges and universities to make good on their pledge to'serve society.'" When describing service learning, the Medical Education at Harvard says, "Service learning unites academic study and volunteer community service in mutually reinforcing ways....service learning is characterized by a relationship of partnership: the student learns from the service agency and from the community and, in return, gives energy, commitment and skills to address human and community needs."
Volunteering in service learning seems to have the result of engaging both mind and heart, thus providing a more powerful learning experience. While not recognized by everyone as a legitimate approach, research on the efficacy of service learning has grown. Janet Eyler and Dwight E. Giles conducted a national study of American college students to ascertain the significance of service learning programs, According to Eyler and Giles,"These surveys, conducted before and after a semester of community service, examine the impact of service-learning on students." They describe their experience with students involved in service-learning in this way: "Students like service-learning. When we sit down with a group of students to discuss service-learning experiences, their enthusiasm is unmistakable....it is clear that believe that what they
Triage is the process of determining the priority of patients' treatments based on the severity of their condition. This rations patient treatment efficiently when resources are insufficient for all to be treated immediately; the term comes from the French verb trier, meaning to separate, sift or select. Triage may result in determining the order and priority of emergency treatment, the order and priority of emergency transport, or the transport destination for the patient. Triage may be used for patients arriving at the emergency department, or telephoning medical advice systems, among others; this article deals with the concept of triage as it occurs in medical emergencies, including the prehospital setting and emergency department treatment. Modern medical triage was invented by Dominique Jean Larrey, a surgeon during the Napoleonic Wars, who "treat the wounded according to the observed gravity of their injuries and the urgency for medical care, regardless of their rank or nationality", though the general concept of prioritizing by prognosis is foreshadowed in a 17th century BC Egyptian document.
Triage was used further during World War I by French doctors treating the battlefield wounded at the aid stations behind the front. Those responsible for the removal of the wounded from a battlefield or their care afterwards would divide the victims into three categories: Those who are to live, regardless of what care they receive. For many emergency medical services systems, a similar model may sometimes still be applied. In the earliest stages of an incident, such as when one or two paramedics exist to twenty or more patients, practicality demands that the above, more "primitive" model will be used. However, once a full response has occurred and many hands are available, paramedics will use the model included in their service policy and standing orders; as medical technology has advanced, so have modern approaches to triage, which are based on scientific models. The categorizations of the victims are the result of triage scores based on specific physiological assessment findings; some models, such as the START model may be algorithm-based.
As triage concepts become more sophisticated, triage guidance is evolving into both software and hardware decision support products for use by caregivers in both hospitals and the field. This section is for concepts in triage. See other sections for specific triage tools and systems Simple triage is used in a scene of an accident or "mass-casualty incident", in order to sort patients into those who need critical attention and immediate transport to the hospital and those with less serious injuries; this step can be started. Upon completion of the initial assessment by physicians, nurses or paramedical personnel, each patient may be labelled which may identify the patient, display assessment findings, identify the priority of the patient's need for medical treatment and transport from the emergency scene. At its most primitive, patients may be marked with coloured flagging tape or with marker pens. Pre-printed cards for this purpose are known as a triage tags. A triage tag is a prefabricated label placed on each patient that serves to accomplish several objectives: identify the patient.
Bear record of assessment findings. Identify the priority of the patient's need for medical treatment and transport from the emergency scene. Track the patients' progress through the triage process. Identify additional hazards such as contamination. Triage tags may take a variety of forms; some countries use a nationally standardized triage tag, while in other countries commercially available triage tags are used, these will vary by jurisdictional choice. The most used commercial systems include the METTAG, the SMARTTAG, E/T LIGHT tm and the CRUCIFORM systems. More advanced tagging systems incorporate special markers to indicate whether or not patients have been contaminated by hazardous materials, tear off strips for tracking the movement of patients through the process; some of these tracking systems are beginning to incorporate the use of handheld computers, in some cases, bar code scanners. For classifications, see the specific section for that topic. In advanced triage, specially trained doctors and paramedics may decide that some injured people should not receive advanced care because they are unlikely to survive.
It is used to divert scarce resources away from patients with little chance of survival in order to increase the chances for others with higher likelihoods. The use of advanced triage may become necessary when medical professionals decide that the medical resources available are not sufficient to treat all the people who need help; the treatment being prioritized can include the time spent on medical care, or drugs or other limited resources. This has happened in disasters such as terrorist attacks, mass shootings, volcanic eruptions, tornadoes and rail accidents. In these cases some percentage of patients will die regardless of medical care because of the severity of their injuries. Others would die without it. In these extreme situations, any medical care given to people who will die anyway can be considered to be care withdrawn from others who might have survived had they been treated instead, it becomes the task of the disaster medical authorities to set aside some victims as hopeless, to avoid trying to save one life at the expense of several others.
If immediate t
Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959. Hawaii is the only U. S. state located in Oceania, the only U. S. state located outside North America, the only one composed of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean; the state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian archipelago, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles. At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight main islands are—in order from northwest to southeast: Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe and the Island of Hawaiʻi; the last is the largest island in the group. The archipelago is ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania. Hawaii's diverse natural scenery, warm tropical climate, abundance of public beaches, oceanic surroundings, active volcanoes make it a popular destination for tourists, surfers and volcanologists.
Because of its central location in the Pacific and 19th-century labor migration, Hawaii's culture is influenced by North American and East Asian cultures, in addition to its indigenous Hawaiian culture. Hawaii has over a million permanent residents, along with many visitors and U. S. military personnel. Its capital is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu. Hawaii is the 8th-smallest and the 11th-least populous, but the 13th-most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. It is the only state with an Asian plurality; the state's oceanic coastline is about 750 miles long, the fourth longest in the U. S. after the coastlines of Alaska and California. The state of Hawaii derives its name from the name of Hawaiʻi. A common Hawaiian explanation of the name of Hawaiʻi is that it was named for Hawaiʻiloa, a legendary figure from Hawaiian myth, he is said to have discovered the islands. The Hawaiian language word Hawaiʻi is similar to Proto-Polynesian *Sawaiki, with the reconstructed meaning "homeland". Cognates of Hawaiʻi are found in other Polynesian languages, including Māori and Samoan.
According to linguists Pukui and Elbert, "lsewhere in Polynesia, Hawaiʻi or a cognate is the name of the underworld or of the ancestral home, but in Hawaii, the name has no meaning". A somewhat divisive political issue arose in 1978 when the Constitution of the State of Hawaii added Hawaiian as a second official state language; the title of the state constitution is The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. Article XV, Section 1 of the Constitution uses The State of Hawaii. Diacritics were not used because the document, drafted in 1949, predates the use of the ʻokina and the kahakō in modern Hawaiian orthography; the exact spelling of the state's name in the Hawaiian language is Hawaiʻi. In the Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the federal government recognized Hawaii as the official state name. Official government publications and office titles, the Seal of Hawaii use the traditional spelling with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length. In contrast, the National and State Parks Services, the University of Hawaiʻi and some private enterprises implement these symbols.
No precedent for changes to U. S. state names exists since the adoption of the United States Constitution in 1789. However, the Constitution of Massachusetts formally changed the Province of Massachusetts Bay to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1780, in 1819, the Territory of Arkansaw was created but was admitted to statehood as the State of Arkansas. There are eight main Hawaiian islands; the island of Niʻihau is managed by brothers Bruce and Keith Robinson. Access to uninhabited Kahoʻolawe island is restricted; the Hawaiian archipelago is located 2,000 mi southwest of the contiguous United States. Hawaii is the southernmost U. S. the second westernmost after Alaska. Hawaii, like Alaska, does not border any other U. S. state. It is the only U. S. state, not geographically located in North America, the only state surrounded by water and, an archipelago, the only state in which coffee is commercially cultivable. In addition to the eight main islands, the state has many smaller islets. Kaʻula is a small island near Niʻihau.
The Northwest Hawaiian Islands is a group of nine small, older islands to the northwest of Kauaʻi that extend from Nihoa to Kure Atoll. Across the archipelago are around 130 small rocks and islets, such as Molokini, which are either volcanic, marine sedimentary or erosional in origin. Hawaii's tallest mountain Mauna Kea is 13,796 ft above mean sea level; the Hawaiian islands were formed by volcanic activity initiated at an undersea magma source called the Hawaii hotspot. The process is continuing to build islands; because of the hotspot's location, all active land volcanoes are located on the southern half of Hawaii Island. The newest volcano, Lōʻihi Seamount, is located south of the coast of Hawaii Island; the last volcanic eruption outside Hawaii Island occurred
Civil defense or civil protection is an effort to protect the citizens of a state from military attacks and natural disasters. It uses the principles of emergency operations: prevention, preparation, response, or emergency evacuation and recovery. Programs of this sort were discussed at least as early as the 1920s and were implemented in some countries during the 1930s as the threat of war and aerial bombardment grew, it became widespread. Since the end of the Cold War, the focus of civil defence has shifted from military attack to emergencies and disasters in general; the new concept is described by a number of terms, each of which has its own specific shade of meaning, such as crisis management, emergency management, emergency preparedness, contingency planning, civil contingency, civil aid and civil protection. In some countries, civil defense is seen as a key part of "total defense". For example, in Sweden, the Swedish word totalförsvar refers to the commitment of a wide range of resources of the nation to its defense—including to civil protection.
Some countries may have or have had military-organized civil defense units as part of their armed forces or as a paramilitary service. The advent of civil defense was stimulated by the experience of the bombing of civilian areas during the First World War; the bombing of the United Kingdom began on 19 January 1915 when German zeppelins dropped bombs on the Great Yarmouth area, killing six people. German bombing operations of the First World War were effective after the Gotha bombers surpassed the zeppelins; the most devastating raids inflicted. After the war, attention was turned toward civil defense in the event of war, the Air Raid Precautions Committee was established in 1924 to investigate ways for ensuring the protection of civilians from the danger of air-raids; the Committee produced figures estimating that in London there would be 9,000 casualties in the first two days and a continuing rate of 17,500 casualties a week. These rates were thought conservative, it was believed that there would be "total chaos and panic" and hysterical neurosis as the people of London would try to flee the city.
To control the population harsh measures were proposed: bringing London under military control, physically cordoning off the city with 120,000 troops to force people back to work. A different government department proposed setting up camps for refugees for a few days before sending them back to London. A special government department, the Civil Defence Service, was established by the Home Office in 1935, its remit included the pre-existing ARP as well as wardens, fire watchers, first aid post, stretcher party and industry. Over 1.9 million people served within the CD. The organization of civil defense was the responsibility of the local authority. Volunteers were ascribed to different units depending on training; each local civil defense service was divided into several sections. Wardens were responsible for local reconnaissance and reporting, leadership, organization and control of the general public. Wardens would advise survivors of the locations of rest and food centers, other welfare facilities.
Rescue Parties were required to assess and access bombed-out buildings and retrieve injured or dead people. In addition they would turn off gas and water supplies, repair or pull down unsteady buildings. Medical services, including First Aid Parties, provided on the spot medical assistance; the expected stream of information that would be generated during an attack was handled by'Report and Control' teams. A local headquarters would have an ARP controller who would direct rescue, first aid and decontamination teams to the scenes of reported bombing. If local services were deemed insufficient to deal with the incident the controller could request assistance from surrounding boroughs. Fire Guards were responsible for a designated area/building and required to monitor the fall of incendiary bombs and pass on news of any fires that had broken out to the NFS, they could deal with an individual magnesium electron incendiary bomb by dousing it with buckets of sand or water or by smothering. Additionally,'Gas Decontamination Teams' kitted out with gas-tight and waterproof protective clothing were to deal with any gas attacks.
They were trained to decontaminate buildings, roads and other material, contaminated by liquid or jelly gases. Little progress was made over the issue of air-raid shelters, because of the irreconcilable conflict between the need to send the public underground for shelter and the need to keep them above ground for protection against gas attacks. In February 1936 the Home Secretary appointed a technical Committee on Structural Precautions against Air Attack. During the Munich crisis, local authorities dug trenches to provide shelter. After the crisis, the British Government decided to make these a permanent feature, with a standard design of precast concrete trench lining, they decided to issue the Anderson shelter free to poorer households and to provide steel props to create shelters in suitable basements. During the Second World War, the ARP was responsible for the issuing of gas masks, pre-fabricated air-raid shelters, the upkeep of local public shelters, the mainte
Venturing is one of the core programs of the Boy Scouts of America, serving young men and women. Members must be at least 14 years old, or 13 years old and have completed eighth grade, through age 21; the purpose of Venturing is to provide positive experiences to help youth mature and to prepare them to become responsible adults. The Venturing program has a long history within the BSA; the program got its start in the 1930s as the "Senior Scout" Division for boys 15 and older. The Senior Scout programs included the Sea Scouts, Air Scouts, Explorer Scouts, Rover Scouts, a few others. Explorer Scouts worked on advancement leading to the Ranger Award. Sea Scouts and Air Scouts were aviation-focused programs, respectively. In 1949 the Senior Scout Division became the Explorer Division. Sea Scouts became Sea Explorers, Air Scouts became Air Explorers, Explorer Scouts Explorers; the Explorer program became less of an advanced outdoor program and more a broader program for young men, with the minimum age lowered to 14 years old.
Explorers got a new advancement program leading to the Silver Award. Explorer advancement was dropped in 1959; the Air Explorer program was eliminated in 1964 and the Sea Explorer program had changes made. The program was further changed to be more appealing to older youth, with career exploration becoming a bigger part of the program; the BSA allowed young women ages 14–20 to join special-interest Explorer posts beginning in 1969. Many posts became co-ed; the focus on career exploration was increased and, as the years progressed, Exploring focused more on career exploration posts, though outdoor and sports-oriented Posts continued to thrive. Posts that consisted of seminars at high school with guest speakers were designated as Career Awareness Explorer posts in the early 1980s; this was the BSA during the 1980s. These posts were realigned into the new Learning for Life subsidiary in 1991, the posts were designated as High School Career Awareness groups and the youth were no longer considered to be Explorers.
The Exploring program was reorganized and split into two program categories in 1998. All the career-oriented posts were moved to Learning for Life under the name Exploring, while the rest became the new Venturing program. Sea Exploring was placed under the Venturing program. In February 2016, Sea Scouting became a separate program division; the Venturing crew is sponsored by a community organization such as a business, service organization, labor group, or church. The chartered organization is responsible for selecting leadership, providing a meeting place, promoting a good program; the chartered organization representative is the liaison between the crew, the chartered organization, the BSA. The crew may elect to be all-female, or co-ed; the crew committee is a group of adults, led by the crew committee chair, who guide the crew program and activities and manage record keeping, leadership recruitment, registration. The crew must have at least five adults registered with the crew to become a legitimate crew.
The crew is led by youths who are elected to the positions of president, one or more vice-presidents, treasurer, quartermaster and historian. Other positions in the Venturing crew may exist, such as activity chair; the adult adviser and associate advisers provide guidance while allowing the youth to lead the crew. At the Council, Area and National level, Venturing is led by youth organized into Venturing Officers' Associations; the National VOA known as the National Venturing Cabinet, are the youth leaders of the Venturing program. These youth are the National Venturing President, the National Venturing Vice President, the four regional Venturing presidents. Dominic Wolters was selected by a 16-member panel of youth from around the country on March 29, 2018, he is the 2018-19 National Venturing President. He attended VenturingFest 2018 at the Summit Bechtel Reserve and the 2018 National Order of the Arrow Conference in Bloomington, IN. Dominic has been active in Scouting since 2007, beginning when he joined Pack 9012 of Northern Star Council in Saint Paul, MN.
He fell in love with the Scouting program, the unique challenges and opportunities that it offered him, continued on into Troop 9050 and Crew 9761. Dominic is an Eagle Scout, has served as the 2017-2018 Central Region Venturing President. Dominic has received the Summit Award, as well as Venturing Leadership Awards at all levels of the organization, he is a Vigil Honor member of Totanhan Nakaha lodge. Dominic has served on staff for NYLT courses in his council, has been an instructor or facilitator for numerous other area and national Venturing trainings. Notable projects include work redeveloping the Area Standards of Venturing Excellence and revising new Venturing trainings, serving as the lead instructor for the 2017 Philmont Training Center Growing a Venturing Program conference. Dominic attends the University of Minnesota; this term, he hopes to work with the four regions to promote collaboration on projects that make a difference for Venturers and crews across the country. Dominic looks forward to building on past successes in communication, expanding the access that Venturers have to share their experiences and insight with their local VOAs.
Catherine Seebauer was selected to serve as the National Venturing Vice President on April 4th, 2017. Known by "Cathie", Ms. Seebauer is from Crew 1 in Prairielands Council, based out of Champaign, Illinois. Cathie has served as Crew President, Council VOA President, Area VO