Interstate Highway System
The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways known as the Interstate Highway System, is a network of controlled-access highways that forms part of the National Highway System in the United States; the system is named for President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Construction was authorized by the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, the original portion was completed 35 years although some urban routes were cancelled and never built; the network has since been extended. In 2016, it had a total length of 48,181 miles; as of 2016, about one-quarter of all vehicle miles driven in the country use the Interstate system. In 2006, the cost of construction was estimated at about $425 billion; the United States government's efforts to construct a national network of highways began on an ad hoc basis with the passage of the Federal Aid Road Act of 1916, which provided for $75 million over a five-year period for matching funds to the states for the construction and improvement of highways.
The nation's revenue needs associated with World War I prevented any significant implementation of this policy, which expired in 1921. In December 1918, E. J. Mehren, a civil engineer and the editor of Engineering News-Record, presented his "A Suggested National Highway Policy and Plan" during a gathering of the State Highway Officials and Highway Industries Association at the Congress Hotel in Chicago. In the plan, Mehren proposed a 50,000-mile system, consisting of five east–west routes and 10 north–south routes; the system would include two percent of all roads and would pass through every state at a cost of $25,000 per mile, providing commercial as well as military transport benefits. As the landmark 1916 law expired, new legislation was passed—the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1921; this new road construction initiative once again provided for federal matching funds for road construction and improvement, $75 million allocated annually. Moreover, this new legislation for the first time sought to target these funds to the construction of a national road grid of interconnected "primary highways", setting up cooperation among the various state highway planning boards.
The Bureau of Public Roads asked the Army to provide a list of roads that it considered necessary for national defense. In 1922, General John J. Pershing, former head of the American Expeditionary Force in Europe during the war, complied by submitting a detailed network of 20,000 miles of interconnected primary highways—the so-called Pershing Map. A boom in road construction followed throughout the decade of the 1920s, with such projects as the New York parkway system constructed as part of a new national highway system; as automobile traffic increased, planners saw a need for such an interconnected national system to supplement the existing non-freeway, United States Numbered Highways system. By the late 1930s, planning had expanded to a system of new superhighways. In 1938, President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave Thomas MacDonald, chief at the Bureau of Public Roads, a hand-drawn map of the United States marked with eight superhighway corridors for study. In 1939, Bureau of Public Roads Division of Information chief Herbert S. Fairbank wrote a report called Toll Roads and Free Roads, "the first formal description of what became the interstate highway system" and, in 1944, the themed Interregional Highways.
The Interstate Highway System gained a champion in President Dwight D. Eisenhower, influenced by his experiences as a young Army officer crossing the country in the 1919 Army Convoy on the Lincoln Highway, the first road across America. Eisenhower gained an appreciation of the Reichsautobahn system, the first "national" implementation of modern Germany's Autobahn network, as a necessary component of a national defense system while he was serving as Supreme Commander Of Allied Forces in Europe during World War II, he recognized that the proposed system would provide key ground transport routes for military supplies and troop deployments in case of an emergency or foreign invasion. The publication in 1955 of the General Location of National System of Interstate Highways, informally known as the Yellow Book, mapped out what became the Interstate Highway System. Assisting in the planning was Charles Erwin Wilson, still head of General Motors when President Eisenhower selected him as Secretary of Defense in January 1953.
The Interstate Highway System was authorized on June 29, 1956 by the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, popularly known as the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act of 1956. Three states have claimed the title of first Interstate Highway. Missouri claims that the first three contracts under the new program were signed in Missouri on August 2, 1956; the first contract signed was for upgrading a section of US Route 66 to what is now designated Interstate 44. On August 13, 1956, Missouri awarded the first contract based on new Interstate Highway funding. Kansas claims. Preliminary construction had taken place before the act was signed, paving started September 26, 1956; the state marked its portion of I-70 as the first project in the United States completed under the provisions of the new Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956. The Pennsylvania Turnpike could be considered one of the first Interstate Highways. On October 1, 1940, 162 miles of the highway now designated I‑70 and I‑76 opened between Irwin and Carlisle.
The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania refers to the turnpike as the Granddaddy of the Pikes. Milestones in the construction of the Interstate Highway System include: October 17, 1974: Nebraska becomes
A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban or industrially developed area. In most cases, a conurbation is a polycentric urbanised area, in which transportation has developed to link areas to create a single urban labour market or travel to work area; the term "conurbation" was coined in 1915 by Patrick Geddes in his book Cities In Evolution. He drew attention to the ability of the new technology of electric power and motorised transport to allow cities to spread and agglomerate together, gave as examples "Midlandton" in England, the Ruhr in Germany, Randstad in the Netherlands and North Jersey in the United States; the term as described is used in Britain, whereas in the United States each polycentric "metropolitan area" may have its own common designation, such as San Francisco Bay Area or the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex. Conurbation consists of adjacent metropolitan areas that are connected with one another by urbanization Internationally, the term "urban agglomeration" is used to convey a similar meaning to "conurbation."
A conurbation should be contrasted with a megalopolis, where the urban areas are close but not physically contiguous and where the merging of labour markets has not yet developed. The cities and towns of Port Louis, Beau Bassin-Rose Hill, Quatre Bornes, Vacoas-Phoenix and other urbanized villages form a large and central conurbation on the island of Mauritius. A large part of this conurbation is located in the district of Plaines Wilhems; this network of urban areas has a total population of 606,650 as of 2011. Rabat-Salé Lagos is a conurbation formed through the merged development of the initial Lagos city area with other cities and towns, such as Ikeja, along with various suburban communities like Agege, Ifako-Ijaiye, Mushin and Shomolu. Johannesburg and Tshwane are merging to form a region that has a population of 14.6 million. Greater Buenos Aires – Greater La Plata – Zárate / Campana The entire Rio–São Paulo area is sometimes considered a conurbation, plans are in the works to connect the cities with a high-speed rail.
Yet the government of Brazil does not consider this area a single unit for statistical purposes, population data may not be reliable. The "Golden Horseshoe" is a densely populated and industrialized region centred on the west end of Lake Ontario in Southern Ontario, Canada. Most of it is part of the Windsor-Quebec City corridor. With a population of 8.8 million people, the Golden Horseshoe makes up over a quarter of the population of Canada and contains 75% of Ontario's population, making it one of the largest population concentrations in North America. Although it is a geographically named sub-region of Southern Ontario, "Greater Golden Horseshoe" is more used today to describe the metropolitan regions that stretch across the area in totality; the largest cities in the region include Toronto, Oakville, Burlington, St. Catherines and Hamilton. Greater Montreal is Canada's 2nd largest conurbation, with Statistics Canada defining the Census Metropolitan Area as 4,258.31 square kilometres and a population of 3,824,221 as of 2011, which represents half of the population of the province of Quebec.
Smaller, there are 82 municipalities grouped under the Montreal Metropolitan Community to coordinate issues such as land planning and economic development. British Columbia's Lower Mainland is the most populated area in Western Canada, it consists of many mid-sized contiguous urban areas, including Vancouver, North Vancouver, Burnaby and Coquitlam. The Lower Mainland population is around 2.5 million and the area has one of the highest growth rates on the continent of up to 9.2 percent from the 2006 census. The National Capital Region is made up of the capital and neighbouring Gatineau, located across the Ottawa River; as Ottawa is in Ontario and Gatineau, this is a unique conurbation. Federal government buildings are located in both cities and many workers live in one city and work in the other; the National Capital Region consists of an area of 5,319 square kilometres that straddles the boundary between the provinces of Ontario and Quebec. The area of the National Capital Region is similar to that of the Ottawa-Gatineau Census Metropolitan Area, although the National Capital Region contains a number of small neighbouring communities that are not contained within the CMA.
When all the communities are added, the population is around 1,500,000. Ottawa-Gatineau is the only CMA in the nation to fall within two provinces; the Caribbean area, not considered to be part of a continent geographically speaking, has a conurbation in Puerto Rico consisting of San Juan, Bayamón, Carolina, Canóvanas, Trujillo Alto, Toa Alta, Toa Baja, Cataño, Caguas. This area is colloquially known as the "Área Metropolitana", houses around 1.4 million inhabitants spread over an area of 396.61 square kilometers. Thus, making it the largest city in the Caribbean by area. One example of a conurbation is the expansive concept of the New York metropolitan area centered on New York City, including 30 counties spread among New York State, New Jersey and Pennsylvania, with an estimated population of 21,961,994 in 2007. One-fifteenth of all U. S. residents live in the Greater New York City area. This conurbation is the result of se
A resort town called a resort city or resort destination, is an urban area where tourism or vacationing is the primary component of the local culture and economy. A typical resort town has one or more actual resorts in the surrounding area. Sometimes the term resort town is used for a locale popular among tourists; the term can refer to either an incorporated or unincorporated contiguous area where the ratio of transient rooms, measured in bed units, is greater than 60% of the permanent population. Tourism is the main export in a resort town economy, with most residents of the area working in the tourism or resort industry. Shops and luxury boutiques selling locally themed souvenirs and unique restaurants proliferate the downtown areas of a resort town. In the case of the United States, resort towns were created around the late 1800s and early 1900s with the development of early town-making. Consistent, throughout many resort towns includes elements of ambitious architecture, romanticizing a location, dependence on cheap labor.
If the resorts or tourist attractions are seasonal in nature, resort towns experience an on-season where the town is bustling with tourists and workers, an off-season where the town is populated only by a small amount of local year-round residents. In addition, resort towns are popular with wealthy retirees and people wishing to purchase vacation homes, which drives up property values and the cost of living in the region. Sometimes, resort towns can become boomtowns due to the quick development of retirement and vacation-based residences. However, most of the employment available in resort towns are low paying and it can be difficult for workers to afford to live the area in which they are employed. Many resort towns have spawned nearby bedroom communities where the majority of the resort workforce lives. Resorts towns sometimes struggle with problems regarding sustainable growth, due to the seasonal nature of the economy, the dependence on a single industry, the difficulties in retaining a stable workforce.
Local residents are receptive of the economic impacts of tourism. Resort towns tend to enjoy lower unemployment rates, improved infrastructure, more advanced telecommunication and transportation capabilities, higher standards of living and greater income in relation to those who live outside this area. Increased economic activity in resort towns can have positive effects on the country's overall economic growth and development. In addition, business generated by resort towns have been credited with supporting the local economy through times of national market failure and depression. In a study conducted by the Urban and Regional Planning Department of Istanbul Technical University, 401 local residents in the resort community of Antalya were interviewed and asked to give their opinion on the economic impacts of tourism. Among the participants, 67% had lived in Antalya for over ten years, 66% had at least a high school degree, 30% reported jobs that were related to tourism; the results are as follows: Perceived impact on select economic impact items More resort towns have come under greater scrutiny by local communities.
Instances where resort towns are poorly managed have adverse effects on the local economy. One example is the uneven distribution of income and land ownership between local residents and businesses. During tourist season, increased demand for accommodation may raise the price of land, causing a simultaneous increase in rent for local residents whose income in invariably lower than foreign residents; this results in a preponderance of foreigners in the land market and an erosion of economic opportunities for local residents. The revenues amassed from tourism do not benefit the host country or the local communities. Income to local communities generated by tourism are all of the expenditures accrued after taxes and wages are paid out; these funds are referred to as leakages. Tourism has been blamed for other negative economic impacts to local communities. Although resort towns boast more improved infrastructure than surrounding areas, these developments present high costs to local governments and tax payers.
Reallocating government funds to subsidize infrastructure and tax breaks to firms shift available funding to local education and health services. In addition, resort towns do not have dynamic economies, resulting in an over dependence on one industry. Economic dependence on tourism poses particular challenges to resort towns and its local residents given the seasonal nature of the job market in some areas. Local residents of resort towns face job insecurity, difficulties in obtaining training, medical-benefits, housing; every resort town is unique and local governance should be viewed on a case-by-case basis. There are, several broad criteria for insuring the most effective governance models, they include: implementation of desirable services to local residents. In most democratic systems, a voter must reside in one place, vote only for local government representatives in that place. For example, in Alberta, there is a special type of municipal government for holiday areas called a summer village which allows non-permanent reside
A mill town known as factory town or mill village, is a settlement that developed around one or more mills or factories cotton mills or factories producing textiles. In the United Kingdom, the term "mill town" refers to the 19th century textile manufacturing towns of northern England and the Scottish Lowlands those in Lancashire and Yorkshire; some former mill towns have a symbol of the textile industry in their town badge. Some towns may have statues dedicated to textile workers or have a symbol in the badge of local schools; the list below includes some towns. For example, mining was a key industry in Wigan and Leigh in Greater Manchester, in Ossett in Yorkshire. On his tour of northern England in 1849, Scottish publisher Angus Reach said: In general, these towns wear a monotonous sameness of aspect and moral... In fact, the social condition of the different town populations is as much alike as the material appearance of the tall chimneys under which they live. Here and there the height of the latter may differ by a few rounds of brick, but in all essential respects, a description of one is a description of all.
Crespi d'Adda, UNESCO World Heritage Site Nuovo quartiere operaio in Schio Villaggio Leumann a Collegno Villaggio Frua in Saronno Villaggio operaio della Filatura in Tollegno The town grew out of a textile factory founded in 1833 by the sons of Feliks Lubienski, who owned the land where it was built. They brought in a specialist from his newly designed machines, he was French inventor, Philippe de Girard from Lourmarin. He became a director of the firm; the factory town developed during the 19th century into a significant textile mill town in Poland. In honour of Girard,'Ruda Guzowska' as the original estate was called, was renamed Żyrardów, a toponym derived of the polonised spelling of Girard's name. Most of Żyrardów's monuments are located in the manufacturing area which dates from the 19th and early 20th centuries, it is believed that Żyrardów's textile settlement is the only entire urban industrial complex from the 19th-century to be preserved in Europe. Beginning with Samuel Slater and technological information smuggled out of England by Francis Cabot Lowell, large mills were established in New England in the early to mid 19th century.
Mill towns, sometimes planned and owned as a company town, grew in the shadow of the industries. The region became a manufacturing powerhouse along rivers like the Housatonic, Shetucket, Merrimack, Cocheco, Androscoggin, Kennebec or Winooski. In the 20th century, alternatives to water power were developed, it became more profitable for companies to manufacture textiles in southern states where cotton was grown and winters did not require significant heating costs; the Great Depression acted as a catalyst that sent several struggling New England firms into bankruptcy. Laurel Mill San José de Suaita Company town Industrial district Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Old Great Falls Historic District, Paterson, NJ American Textile History Museum, Lowell, MA Belknap Mill Society Museum, Laconia, NH Berlin and Coös County Historical Society, Berlin, NH Slater Mill Historic Site, Pawtucket, RI Lowell National Historic Park, Lowell, MA Lynn Heritage State Park, Lynn, MA The Millyard Museum, Manchester, NH Quinebaug & Shetucket Rivers Valley National Historic Corridor San Jose de Suaita Cotton Mill Museum Southern Textile Heritage Corridor, Vir, NC, SC, Ga, Al Museum Lewiston-Auburn, Lewiston, ME
Warwick, New York
Warwick is a town in the southwest part of Orange County, New York, in the United States. Its population was 32,065 at the 2010 census; the town contains eight hamlets. Warwick is the home of the annual Applefest, the Summer Arts Festival, The Black Dirt Feast, the Hudson Valley Jazz Festival, other events and festivals; the region has been referred to as Warwick since the early eighteenth century. During the American War for Independence, Warwick was the site of a Continental Army encampment; the Hudson River Chain was forged at Stirling Iron Works in Warwick, preventing the British Navy from sailing up the Hudson River. In 1783, George Washington traveled through Warwick, stopping at Baird's Tavern and spending the night in the home of John Hathorn. Warwick is situated along a freight rail line, along with many other towns in Orange County, contributed to the growth of the area; the nineteenth-century writer and naturalist Henry William Herbert, writing as Frank Forrester, popularized the area with his 1845 book, "The Warwick Woodlands."
Today the town of Warwick is a rural community with many agricultural pursuits that stimulate its economy. The town of Warwick comprises the southern tip of Orange County, it borders the townships of Vernon and West Milford in the state of New Jersey. To its north, Warwick is bordered by Chester via Sugar Loaf, Orange County's oldest hamlet, predating both Warwick and Chester, part of Warwick until the mid-nineteenth century. To its east, Warwick is bordered by the town of Tuxedo, home of the New York Renaissance Faire and the hamlet of Tuxedo Park. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town is the second largest township in New York State and has a total area of 104.9 square miles, of which, 101.7 square miles of it is land and 3.2 square miles of it is water. Greenwood Lake is Orange County's largest lake, is bisected by the border between New Jersey and New York. Glenmere Lake, an critical endangered species habitat, is bisected by Warwick and Chester. Warwick is served by Warwick Municipal Airport and two regional state highways, New York State Route 17A and NY 94.
The Appalachian Trail passes through Warwick, designated an Appalachian Trail Community. As of the census of 2000, there were 30,764 people, 10,868 households, 7,955 families residing in the town; the population density was 302.6 people per square mile. There were 11,818 housing units at an average density of 116.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 91.06% White, 4.51% Black or African American, 0.31% Native American, 0.85% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 1.60% from other races, 1.61% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.47% of the population. There were 10,868 households out of which 38.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.7% were married couples living together, 8.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.8% were non-families. 22.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.74 and the average family size was 3.25. In the town, the population was spread out with 27.2% under the age of 18, 5.6% from 18 to 24, 31.3% from 25 to 44, 24.6% from 45 to 64, 11.3% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.2 males. The Warwick Valley Central School District serves as the public school system for Warwick residents and residents of the southern portion of the town of Chester, it does not serve all of the residents in the town of Warwick. The WVCSD consists of two elementary schools, a middle school, Warwick Valley High School. Warwick Valley High School is a large school; the elementary school Pine Island Elementary was closed down. The elementary school Kings Elementary was voted to be closed by a vote of 6 to 3 by the current board of education; the New York State Department of Education has been petitioned to review the closing of Kings Elementary, as it was after the award-winning Pine Island Elementary school was closed. Since its first appearance in 1989, Applefest has been selected as one of the top ten festivals in the "Top 100 Events in North America" by the American Bus Association attracting up to 35,000 people each year.
It features food and artisan vendors and rides, live music. Each year, Applefest is held on the first Sunday in October. In addition to Applefest, since 2000 the Warwick Summer Arts Festival, has been held in local agricultural settings bringing art and concerts to various locations. Founded by Elizabeth Reese, the WSAF has brought crowds to underused parks, established a performance venue on a farm in the middle of the Black Dirt and established an annual Main St. storefront art exhibit. There are regular smaller events such as Art on The Green, the Village Concert Series, Music in the Courtyard on Railroad Avenue, which features live music. "Ladies Night Out" first held in August 1997, started with a few local merchants offering some in store specials, promotions over wine and cheese, h
Cost of living
Cost of living is the cost of maintaining a certain standard of living. Changes in the cost of living over time are operationalized in a cost of living index. Cost of living calculations are used to compare the cost of maintaining a certain standard of living in different geographic areas. Differences in cost of living between locations can be measured in terms of purchasing power parity rates. Employment contracts, pension benefits,can be tied to a cost-of-living index to the consumer price index. A COLA adjusts salaries based on changes in a cost-of-living index. Salaries are adjusted annually, they may be tied to a cost-of-living index that varies by geographic location if the employee moves. In this case, the expatriate employee will see only the discretionary income part of their salary indexed by a differential CPI between the new and old employment locations, leaving the non-discretionary part of the salary unmodified. Annual escalation clauses in employment contracts can specify retroactive or future percentage increases in worker pay which are not tied to any index.
These negotiated increases in pay are colloquially referred to as cost-of-living adjustments or cost-of-living increases because of their similarity to increases tied to externally determined indexes. Cost-of-living allowance is equal to the nominal interest minus the real interest rate; when cost-of-living adjustments, negotiated wage settlements and budgetary increases exceed CPI, media reports compare the two without consideration of the pertinent tax code. However, CPI is based on the retail pricing of a basket of services. Most purchases of that same basket require the use of after-tax dollars—dollars that were subject to the highest"marginal tax rate"; the COLA will have to exceed the CPI inflation rate to maintain purchasing power. The recognized problem known as bracket-creep can occur in countries where the marginal tax brackets themselves are not indexed—COLA increases place more dollars into higher tax rate brackets; some salaries and pensions in the United States with a COLA include: Social Security Civil Service Retirement System Federal Employees Retirement System Pensions in Canada with a COLA include: Canadian Auto Workers union Local 200 For 2018, the Social Security cost-of-living adjustment is 2.0%.
The maximum Supplemental Security Income benefit will go from $735 to $750, while the maximum SSI payment for a couple will go from $1,103 to $1,125. The estimated average monthly benefit for a disabled person will increase from $1,173 to $1,197; the estimated average monthly benefit for a retired person will increase from $1,377 to $1,404. The presumptive Substantial Gainful Activity threshold will increase from $1,170 to $1,180 for non-blind individuals, but from $1,950 to $1,970 for blind individuals; the Trial Work Period monthly amount will increase from $840 to $850. The amount of earnings needed for a worker to obtain a “quarter of coverage” or “credit” will increase from $1,300 to $1,320. Maximum taxable earnings under the Social Security OASDI program will go from $127,200 to $128,700. In 2019, Social Security benefits will increase 2.8 percent, which will be the largest cost-of-living adjustment in seven years. The Economist Intelligence Unit produces a semi-annual worldwide cost of living survey that compares more than 400 individual prices across 160 products and services.
They include food, clothing, household supplies and personal care items, home rents, utility bills, private schools, domestic help and recreational costs. The survey itself is an internet tool designed to calculate cost-of-living allowances and build compensation packages for corporate executives maintaining a western lifestyle; the survey incorporates easy-to-understand comparative cost of living indices between cities. The survey allows city-to-city comparisons, but for the purpose of this report all cities are compared to a base city of New York City, which has an index set at 100; the survey has been carried out for more than 30 years. The most recent survey was published in March 2017. Singapore remains the most expensive city in the world for the fourth year running, in a rare occurrence where the entire top five most expensive cities were unchanged from the year prior. Sydney and Melbourne have both cemented their positions as top-ten staples, with Sydney becoming the fifth most expensive, Melbourne becoming the sixth.
Asia is home to more than five most expensive cities in the top twenty but home to eight cheapest cities of the cheapest ten. Stipends or extra pay provided to employees who are being temporarily relocated may be called cost-of-living adjustments or cost-of-living allowances; such adjustments are intended to offset changes in welfare due to geographic differences in the cost of living. Such adjustments might more be described as a per diem allowance or tied to a specific item, as with housing allowances. Employees who are being permanently relocated are less to receive such allowances, but may receive a base salary adjustment to reflect local market conditions. A cost-of-living allowance is given to members of the U. S. military stationed at overseas bases if the area to which a service member is assigned has a higher cost of living than the average area in the United States. For example, service members stationed in Japan receive a cost of living all
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea