A compact fluorescent lamp called compact fluorescent light, energy-saving light and compact fluorescent tube, is a fluorescent lamp designed to replace an incandescent light bulb. The lamps use a tube, curved or folded to fit into the space of an incandescent bulb, a compact electronic ballast in the base of the lamp. Compared to general-service incandescent lamps giving the same amount of visible light, CFLs use one-fifth to one-third the electric power, last eight to fifteen times longer. A CFL has a higher purchase price than an incandescent lamp, but can save over five times its purchase price in electricity costs over the lamp's lifetime. Like all fluorescent lamps, CFLs contain toxic mercury. In many countries, governments have banned the disposal of CFLs together with regular garbage; these countries have established special collection systems for other hazardous waste. The principle of operation remains the same as in other fluorescent lighting: electrons that are bound to mercury atoms are excited to states where they will radiate ultraviolet light as they return to a lower energy level.
CFLs radiate a spectral power distribution, different from that of incandescent lamps. Improved phosphor formulations have improved the perceived color of the light emitted by CFLs, such that some sources rate the best "soft white" CFLs as subjectively similar in color to standard incandescent lamps. White LED lamps now compete with CFLs for high-efficiency lighting, General Electric has stopped production of domestic CFL lamps in favour of LEDs; the parent to the modern fluorescent lamp was invented in the late 1890s by Peter Cooper Hewitt. The Cooper Hewitt lamps were used for photographic industries. Edmund Germer, Friedrich Meyer, Hans Spanner patented a high-pressure vapor lamp in 1927. George Inman teamed with General Electric to create a practical fluorescent lamp, sold in 1938 and patented in 1941. Circular and U-shaped lamps were devised to reduce the length of fluorescent light fixtures; the first fluorescent light bulb and fixture were displayed to the general public at the 1939 New York World's Fair.
The spiral CFL was invented in 1976 by Edward E. Hammer, an engineer with General Electric, in response to the 1973 oil crisis. Although the design met its goals, it would have cost GE about $25 million to build new factories to produce the lamps, thus the invention was shelved; the design was copied by others. In 1980, Philips introduced its model SL, a screw-in or bayonet mount lamp with integral magnetic ballast; the lamp used a folded T4 tube, stable tri-color phosphors, a mercury amalgam. This was the first successful screw-in replacement for an incandescent lamp. In 1985, Osram started selling its model EL lamp, the first CFL to include an electronic ballast. Volume was an issue in CFL development, since the fluorescent lamps had to fit in the same volume as comparable incandescent lamps; this required the development of new, high-efficacy phosphors that could withstand more power per unit area than the phosphors used in older, larger fluorescent tubes. In 1995, helical CFLs, manufactured in China by Shanghai Xiangshan, became commercially available.
Since that time, sales increased. Although their popularity varied across countries, in China CFLs were the "dominant technology in the residential segment" in 2011; the rise of LED lighting, however affected CFL sales and production. As a result of decreasing cost and better features, customers migrated toward LEDs. In India, "nearly 60 per cent of the lighting market in India has been taken over by LEDs" by 2018. LED prices fell well below US$5 for a basic bulb in 2015. In the United States, CFLs were facing the possibility of proposed regulations for 2017 that would create difficulty qualifying for the Energy Star rating. In early 2016, General Electric announced the phase out of CFL production in the US. There are two types of CFLs: integrated and non-integrated lamps. Integrated lamps combine the ballast in a single unit; these lamps allow consumers to replace incandescent lamps with CFLs. Integrated CFLs work well in many standard incandescent light fixtures, reducing the cost of converting to fluorescent.
3-way lamps and dimmable models with standard bases are available. Non-integrated CFLs have the ballast permanently installed in the luminaire, only the fluorescent tube is changed at its end of life. Since the ballasts are placed in the light fixture, they are larger and last longer compared to the integrated ones, they don't need to be replaced when the tube reaches its end-of-life. Non-integrated CFL housings can be sophisticated, they have two types of tubes: a bi-pin tube designed for conventional ballast, e.g. with G23 or G24d plug-in base, a quad-pin tube designed for an electronic ballast or a conventional ballast with an external starter. A bi-pin tube contains an integrated starter, which obviates the need for external heating pins but causes incompatibility with electronic ballasts. Non-integrated CFLs can be installed to a conventional light fixture using an adapter containing a built-in magnetic ballast; the adapter consists of a regular bulb screw, the ballast itself and a clip for the lamp's connector.
CFLs have two main components: a gas-filled tube. Replacement of magnetic ballasts with electronic ballasts has removed most of the flickering and slow starting traditionall
The Armero tragedy was one of the major consequences of the eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz stratovolcano in Tolima, Colombia, on November 13, 1985. After 69 years of dormancy, the volcano's eruption caught nearby towns unaware though the government had received warnings from multiple volcanological organizations to evacuate the area after the detection of volcanic activity two months earlier; as pyroclastic flows erupted from the volcano's crater, they melted the mountain's glaciers, sending four enormous lahars down its slopes at 50 kilometers per hour. The lahars picked up speed in gullies and engulfed the town of Armero, killing more than 20,000 of its 29,000 inhabitants. Casualties in other towns Chinchiná, brought the overall death toll to 23,000. Footage and photographs of Omayra Sánchez, a young victim of the tragedy, were published around the world. Other photographs of the lahars and the impact of the disaster captured attention worldwide and led to controversy over the degree to which the Colombian government was responsible for the disaster.
A banner at a mass funeral in Ibagué read, "The volcano didn't kill 22,000 people. The government killed them." The relief efforts were hindered by the composition of the mud, which made it nearly impossible to move through without becoming stuck. By the time relief workers reached Armero twelve hours after the eruption, many of the victims with serious injuries were dead; the relief workers were horrified by the landscape of fallen trees, disfigured human bodies, piles of debris from entire houses. This was the second-deadliest volcanic disaster of the 20th century, surpassed only by the 1902 eruption of Mount Pelée, is the fourth-deadliest volcanic event recorded since 1500 AD; the event was a foreseeable catastrophe exacerbated by the populace's unawareness of the volcano's destructive history. Hazard maps for the vicinity were poorly distributed. On the day of the eruption, several evacuation attempts were made, but a severe storm restricted communications. Many victims stayed in their houses as they had been instructed, believing that the eruption had ended.
The noise from the storm may have prevented many from hearing the sounds of the eruption until it was too late. Nevado del Ruiz has erupted several times since the disaster, continues to threaten up to 500,000 people living along the Combeima, Chinchiná, Coello-Toche, Guali river valleys. A lahar similar in size to the 1985 event might travel as far as 100 kilometres from the volcano, could be triggered by a small eruption. To counter this threat, the Colombian government established a specialized office which promotes awareness of natural threats; the United States Geological Survey created the Volcano Disaster Assistance Program and the Volcano Crisis Assistance Team, which evacuated 75,000 people from the area around Mount Pinatubo before its 1991 eruption. In 1988, three years after the eruption, Dr. Stanley Williams of Louisiana State University stated that, "With the possible exception of Mount St. Helens in the state of Washington, no other volcano in the Western Hemisphere is being watched so elaborately" as Nevado del Ruiz.
Additionally, many of Colombia's cities have programs to raise awareness of natural disaster planning programs which have helped save lives in natural disasters. Near Nevado del Ruiz in particular, locals have become wary of volcanic activity: when the volcano erupted in 1989, more than 2,300 people living around it were evacuated. Armero, located 48 kilometers from the Nevado del Ruiz volcano and 169 kilometers from Colombia's capital of Bogotá, was the third largest town in Tolima Department, after Ibagué and Espinal. A prominent farming town before the eruption, it was responsible for one-fifth of Colombia's rice production, for a large share of the cotton and coffee crops. Much of this success can be attributed to Nevado del Ruiz, as the fertile volcanic soil had stimulated agricultural growth. Built on top of an alluvial fan, host to historic lahars, the town was destroyed by a volcanic eruption in 1595 and by mudflows in 1845. In the 1595 eruption, three distinct Plinian eruptions produced lahars that claimed the lives of 636 people.
During the 1845 event, 1,000 people were killed by earthquake-generated mudflows near the Magdalena River. Nevado del Ruiz has undergone three distinct eruptive periods, the first beginning 1.8 million years ago. During the present period, it has erupted at least twelve times, producing ashfalls, pyroclastic flows, lahars; the recorded eruptions have involved a central vent eruption followed by an explosive eruption the formation of lahars. Ruiz's earliest identified Holocene eruption was in about 6660 BC, further eruptions occurred around 1245, 850, 200 BC and in about 350, 675, in 1350, 1541, 1570, 1595, 1623, 1805, 1826, 1828, 1829, 1831, 1833, 1845, 1916, December 1984 through March 1985, 1987 through July 1991, in April 1994. Many of these eruptions involved a central vent eruption, a flank vent eruption, a phreatic explosion. Ruiz is the second-most active volcano in Colombia after Galeras. One week before the eruption, the Palace of Justice siege took place; the assailants planned to hold a trial involving Colombian President Belisario Betancur.
He refused to participate and sent the national army into
The Old Uyghur alphabet was used for writing the Old Uyghur language, a variety of Old Turkic spoken in Turfan and Gansu, an ancestor of the modern Yugur language. The term "Old Uyghur" used for this alphabet is misleading because the Kingdom of Qocho, the Tocharian-Uyghur kingdom created in 843 used the Old Turkic alphabet; the Uyghur adopted this script from local inhabitants when they migrated into Turfan after 840. It was an adaptation of the Aramaic alphabet used for texts with Buddhist and Christian content for 700–800 years in Turpan; the last known manuscripts are dated to the 18th century. This was the prototype for the Manchu alphabets; the Old Uyghur alphabet was brought to Mongolia by Tata-tonga. The Old Uyghur script was used between the 8th and 17th centuries in the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, located in present-day Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, it is written vertically. The script flourished through the 15th century in Central Asia and parts of Iran, but it was replaced by the Arabic script in the 16th century.
Its usage was continued in Gansu through the 17th century. Like the Sogdian alphabet, the Old Uyghur tended to use matres lectionis for the long vowels as well as for the short ones; the practice of leaving short vowels unrepresented was completely abandoned. Thus, while deriving from a Semitic abjad, the Old Uyghur alphabet can be said to have been "alphabetized". Uyghur alphabets Uyghur Arabic alphabet Uyghur Cyrillic alphabet Uyghur Latin alphabet Gorelova, Liliya M.. Manchu Grammar. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-12307-6. Old Uyghur Alphabet on Omniglot Old Uyghur alphabet and Orkhon Turkic alphabet photos of the original text fragments written in Old Uyghur script discovered at Turpan
Tony DeMeo is a former American football coach. He served as the head football coach at Iona College in New Rochelle, New York from 1975 to 1978, Mercyhurst College—now known as Mercyhurst University—in Erie, Pennsylvania from 1981 to 1987, Washburn University in Topeka, Kansas from 1994 to 2001, the University of Charleston in Charleston, West Virginia from 2005 to 2010. DeMeo worked as the offensive coordinator at Temple University, James Madison University, Murray State University, the University of Richmond, he was an assistant football coach at Pace University, the University of Pennsylvania, the University of Delaware and the University of Massachusetts Amherst. DeMeo began his head coaching career at Iona College, he was twice named Metropolitan area coach of the year. DeMeo was inducted into the Iona College Hall of Fame in 1997 for his affiliation with two undefeated teams: first as a player in 1967 and as the head coach in 1977. DeMeo moved to the University of Pennsylvania in 1979 to serve as backfield coach for the Penn Quakers football team on the staff of head coach Harry Gamble.
In March 1981, DeMeo was hired as the first head coach for the new football team at Mercyhurst College—now known as Mercyhurst University. In seven seasons at Mercyhurst, he led the Lakers to a record of 41–21–2. DeMeo was named Eastern Intercollegiate Athletic Association Coach of the Year in 1985, he was inducted into the Mercyhurst University Hall of Fame in 2017. DeMeo was the 39th head football coach at Washburn University in Topeka, serving for eight seasons, from 1994 to 2001, compiling record of 31–54, his 31 wins are third-most among head coaches in Washburn's history, behind Ernest Bearg and Craig Schurig. After leading Washburn to a 6–5 record in 1999, the program's first winning season in over 10 years, DeMeo was named Mid-America Intercollegiate Athletics Association Coach of the Year. DeMeo coached at the University of Charleston in West Virginia from 2005 to 2010, his Golden Eagles finished the 2007 season with an 8–3 record and ranked ninth in the Northeast Region of Division II.
Charleston was tied for second place in the West Virginia Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. Non-NCAA NCAA Official website
Stephen Philip Collis is an English former professional footballer, the goalkeeping coach at English League Two club Carlisle United. Collis began his career at Barnet before signing for Nottingham Forest in 2000. After failing to break into the first team at Forest, Collis signed for Yeovil Town on a free transfer, going on to make over forty appearances for the South West team. During his time at Yeovil, Collis spent short loan spells at Tiverton Town and Aldershot Town with talks from Exeter City. Collis was always 2nd best between the sticks at Yeovil but was the perfect replacement for when Chris Weale got injured or sent off in matches; when Steve Collis first joined Yeovil he was only able to feature in Cup matches as Chris Weale was just beginning his long rein in goal. Collis was given the number 22 shirt being the third choice keeper after Number 1. Chris Weale and number 13. Jon Sheffield. Jon Sheffield retired from football making Collis able to step up through the ranks, although an injury to Weale in the 2004 season saw Sheffield return to be second best to Collis after Collis claimed the Number 13 shirt and Sheffield took the number 31.
He was first choice whilst the injury carried on to keeper Ryan Northmore. Steve Collis needed to join a club where he was guaranteed a first team place but after a move to Southend, his career never took off. Collis spent his best days at Yeovil if his time was cut short. After leaving Yeovil, Collis signed a two-year contract in 2006 to become Southend's first signing ahead of the new season in The Championship, but was released by the club at the end of the 2007–08 season. Following his spell at Southend, Collis signed for Crewe Alexandra as a replacement for departing goalkeeper Ben Williams, his first game in goal saw him save a penalty. On 1 January 2010, Crewe agreed to terminate his contract after he had lost his place to on-loan keeper John Ruddy, allowing Collis to sign for Football League Championship side Bristol City. Collis joined Torquay United on a seven-day emergency loan deal on 6 May 2010, for Torquay's final game of the season against Notts County. Collis was released by Bristol City at the end of the season.
Collis signed a short-term deal with Peterborough United on 6 August 2010. He was released after his loan move to Northampton Town when Peterborough invested in Exeter City Keeper Paul Jones, he signed for Macclesfield Town on 23 September 2011 on a short-term contract until January 2012 to provide cover for José Veiga. Collis was signed by Buxton manager Martin McIntosh at the start of the 2012–13 season after participating in several pre-season matches for the Northern Premier League Premier Division side. On 29 January, Rochdale lost their keeper as a late transfer, their manager went for the Buxton 31-year-old. Steve Collis therefore signed a short-term deal with Rochdale to take him to the summer. "Goalkeeper Steve Collis was drafted in on Thursday as a replacement for Ben Smith who has departed the club in a bid to find regular football closer to home. Hill explains more: "It is difficult with the'keeper situation because you're either in goal or you're on the bench; as a centre half you may be able to play full back or in midfield so you've got alternatives, but it's not often that a goalkeeper will get replaced.
It was an ideal situation to get Steve here as he's got experience." Rochdale A. F. C. Season 2014–15 Steve Collis at Soccerbase
David Armstrong Six is a Canadian artist. He is represented by Parisian Laundry in Montreal, Canada. Armstrong Six is from Toronto, Ontario and has been working in Montreal since 2006. Armstrong Six' work draws upon a wide range of references and materials, resulting in a practice encompassing sculpture and video. Whether it be the use of fluorescent light fixtures to articulate a minimalist form, leaking liquids from a false ceiling onto a gallery floor, or the unruly and humorously vitriolic performance of an original rap song, one may see in his body of work as a strategy for infecting culture through the tenuous nature of its prototypes. Armstrong Six's first solo exhibition, Depth Sounding, in Toronto was a pivotal point in the beginning of his artistic career; the artist has since participated in numerous exhibitions including Leak into Space at Mercer Union, Dog Leg Room at blanche, The Cave and the Island at Galerie Kunstbuero and White Columns, New York, Teorias de Resistencia at la Casa Encendida, Madrid, I Wanna Be a Popstar at Loop-raum fur aktuelle kunst, Berlin, If Not for Today, Tomorrow at State Projects, New York, Rien ne se perd, rien ne se crée, tout se transforme at the Musée d'art contemporain de Montréal, Two Flies Later at Hunter & Cook, The Dry Salvages at Parisian Laundry, Montreal, La Biennale de Montréal, Civil Elegies From the Vacuum State at Künstlerhaus Bethanien, Brown Star Plus One at Parisian Laundry, Three Known Points at the Museum of Contemporary Canadian Art and International Women's Day at Night Gallery, Los Angeles.
His work has been exhibited throughout Canada, the USA, Europe and New Zealand and is included in various collections including the Art Gallery of Ontario, the Musée National des Beaux-Arts du Québec, the Musée d'art contemporain de Montréal. Conseil des arts et des letters du Québec, 2010 Canada Council for the Arts, 2009 Canada Council for the Arts, 2002 Toronto Arts Council, 2001 Ontario Arts Council, 2001 Review in Frieze Magazine Review Andrea Carson, Sculpture speaks Volumes’’ View on Canadian Art, 05|21|10 Désordre Monumental No refunds on absurdity David Armstrong Six at Parisian Laundry