Compact of Free Association

The Compact of Free Association is an international agreement establishing and governing the relationships of free association between the United States and the three Pacific Island sovereign states of the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands, Palau. As a result, these nations are sometimes known as the Freely Associated States; these nations, together with the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands composed the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, a United Nations trusteeship administered by the United States Navy from 1947 to 1951 and by the U. S. Department of the Interior from 1951 to 1986; the compact came into being as an extension of the U. S.–U. N. Territorial trusteeship agreement, which obliged the federal government of the United States "to promote the development of the people of the Trust Territory toward self-government or independence as appropriate to the particular circumstances of the Trust Territory and its peoples and the expressed wishes of the peoples concerned".

Under the compact, the U. S. federal government provides guaranteed financial assistance over a 15-year period administered through its Office of Insular Affairs in exchange for full international defense authority and responsibilities. The Compact of Free Association was initialed by negotiators in 1980 and signed by the parties in the years 1982–1983, it was approved by the citizens of the Pacific states in plebiscites held in 1983. Legislation on the Compact was adopted by the U. S. Congress in 1986 and signed into law on November 13, 1986; each of the associated states participate in all Office of Insular Affairs technical assistance activities. The U. S. treats these countries uniquely by giving them access to many U. S. domestic programs, including disaster response and recovery and hazard mitigation programs under the Federal Emergency Management Agency, some U. S. Department of Education programs including the Pell Grant, services provided by the National Weather Service, the United States Postal Service, the Federal Aviation Administration, the Federal Communications Commission, U.

S. representation to the International Frequency Registration Board of the International Telecommunication Union. The Compact area, while outside the customs area of the United States, is duty-free for imports. Most citizens of the associated states may live and work in the United States, most U. S. citizens and their spouses may work in the associated states. In 1996, the U. S. Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act removed Medicaid benefits for resident foreigners from the states after the five-year waiting period that most other resident aliens have; the COFA allows the United States to operate armed forces in Compact areas and to demand land for operating bases, excludes the militaries of other countries without U. S. permission. The U. S. in turn becomes responsible for protecting its affiliate countries and responsible for administering all international defense treaties and affairs, though it may not declare war on their behalf. It is not allowed to use chemical, or biological weapons in Palauan territory.

In the territories of the Marshall Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia it is not allowed to store such weapons except in times of national emergency, state of war, or when necessary to defend against an actual or impending attack on the U. S. the Marshall Islands, or the Federated States of Micronesia. Citizens of the associated states may serve in America's armed forces, there is a high level of military enlistment by Compact citizens. For example, in 2008, the Federated States of Micronesia had a higher per-capita enlistment rate than any U. S. state, had more than five times the national per-capita average of casualties in Iraq and Afghanistan. In 2003, the Compacts with the RMI and FSM were renewed for 20 years; these new Compacts provided US$3.5 billion in funding for both countries. US$30 million will be disbursed annually among American Samoa, Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands in "Compact Impact" funding; this funding helps the governments of these localities cope with the expense of providing services to immigrants from the RMI, FSM, Palau.

The U. S. usage of Kwajalein Atoll for missile testing was renewed for the same period. The new Compacts changed certain immigration rules. RMI and FSM citizens traveling to the U. S. are now required to have passports. The U. S. Postal Service was given the option to apply international postage rates for mail between the U. S. and RMI/FSM. The USPS began implementing the change in January 2006, but decided to resume domestic services and rates in November 2007; the renewed Compact for FSM took effect on June 25, 2004, for RMI on June 30, 2004. The economic provisions of the Compact for Palau which provided $18 million in annual subsidies and grants, expired on September 30, 2009, the renewal talk was concluded in late 2010. U. S. financial support for Palau is based on a continuing resolution passed by the U. S. Congress; the Compact Trust Fund set up to replace U. S. financial aid underperformed because of the Great Recession. The military and civil defense provisions remained until 2015. Senate Bill S.343, which would enact the results of the 15-year review, died in the 2011–12 Congress.

Another bill, S.1268 in the 2013–14 Congress was not passed. The government of the United States unincorporated territory of Guam, led by Governor Eddie Calvo, is campaigning for a plebiscite on Guam's future political status, with free association following the model of the Marshall Islands and Palau as one of the possible options; the United States' admini

Evansville, Wyoming

Evansville is a town in Natrona County, United States. It is part of Wyoming Metropolitan Statistical Area; the population was 2,544 at the 2010 census. Evansville is the location of the Oregon Trail State Veterans Cemetery; the town was named after W. T. Evans, a blacksmith. Evans settled in the area in 1902, built a successful ranch. From 1918 to 1920, portions of the ranch were sold to the Texas Oil Companies. Evansville is located at 42°51′28″N 106°15′33″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 3.58 square miles, of which, 3.54 square miles of it is land and 0.04 square miles is water. In 2018, an area of contaminated groundwater, classified as a superfund site for three decades was removed from the EPA's National Priorities List. Contaminants at the site include tetrachloroethene, it is believed that the contamination at the Mystery Bridge/U. S. Highway 20 Superfund site was caused by industrial operations at a plant operated by Kinder Morgan and an industrial truck wash operated by Dow Chemical and Dowell-Schlumberger.

As of the census of 2010, there were 2,544 people, 967 households, 637 families living in the town. The population density was 718.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,109 housing units at an average density of 313.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 90.8% White, 0.4% African American, 1.7% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 4.1% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 12.5% of the population. There were 967 households of which 40.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.0% were married couples living together, 16.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 8.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 34.1% were non-families. 23.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.11. The median age in the town was 29.1 years. 28.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 49.6% male and 50.4% female.

As of the census of 2000, there were 2,255 people, 848 households, 561 families living in the town. The population density was 879.7 people per square mile. There were 918 housing units at an average density of 358.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 90.07% White, 1.11% African American, 1.24% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 4.43% from other races, 2.93% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.43% of the population. There were 848 households out of which 39.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.3% were married couples living together, 17.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.8% were non-families. 25.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.15. In the town, the population was spread out with 32.1% under the age of 18, 13.7% from 18 to 24, 28.6% from 25 to 44, 18.4% from 45 to 64, 7.2% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 27 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $25,375, the median income for a family was $28,603. Males had a median income of $26,536 versus $17,981 for females; the per capita income for the town was $11,657. About 21.4% of families and 25.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 35.2% of those under age 18 and 15.4% of those age 65 or over. Public education in the town of Evansville is provided by Natrona County School District #1

Rubens Peale with a Geranium

Rubens Peale with a Geranium is an 1801 oil painting by American artist Rembrandt Peale. It is a portrait of Peale's younger brother, who helped run the family museums and raised plants and animals, it is an early painting by Rembrandt Peale, painted when he was 23 and Rubens was 17. It is signed "Rem Peale 1801"; the National Gallery of Art describes it as "among the finest portraits in the history of American art". The portrait reveals Rubens' sensitive nature, he has an unstudied posture, he is accompanied by a geranium in a terracotta pot, which takes up so much space in the composition as to compete for attention with the ostensible subject, Rubens. This is a departure from traditional European portraiture, valued for its "embodiment of an ideal in American art that favors candor over pretension, clarity over complexity, the natural over the conventional"; the National Gallery suggests that the work is a double portrait of Rubens and the geranium, which may be the first specimen of the plant grown in the US.

Stylistic aspects of the plant can be seen in the young man's clothing. The "V" shape of Rubens' lapels and shirt is echoed in the rising stalks of the geranium, the locks of hair on his forehead are echoed by the curves of the leftmost stalks; as two of his fingers rest on the lip of the pot, the two pointed fronds at the top of the plant are close to his hair. Rubens is holding glasses. In this era, portraits subjects wore glasses; the historian Billie Follensbee suggests that Peale sat for the portrait holding his glasses in his hand, with Rembrandt Peale returning to the canvas and overpainting another pair of glasses on his face. This would account for the impossible combination of the strong lens refractions seen on his cheeks with the lack of visual distortion seen through the lenses. There is no physical evidence that the glasses were added but Rubens' daughter, who received the painting in 1854, wrote that they were a addition; the painting was acquired by his relative James Claypoole Copper, who gave it to Rubens' daughter Mary Jane Peale, the painting descended through the Peale family.

It was sold to the art collector Lawrence A. Fleischman, before 1963 to Pauline E. Woolworth, wife of Norman Bailey Woolworth. In 1985 it was sold at Sotheby's to the National Gallery of Art; this set a record for an American work of art sold at auction, replacing Frederic Edwin Church's The Icebergs. Notes SourcesSoltis, Carol Eaton. "Rembrandt Peale's Rubens Peale with a Geranium: A Possible Source in David Teniers the Younger". American Art Journal. 33: 5–19. Doi:10.2307/1594643. JSTOR 1594643. Torchia, Robert Wilson. American Paintings of the Nineteenth Century, Part II. National Gallery of Art/Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-89468-254-7