Company rule in India is the rule or dominion of the British East India Company over parts of the Indian subcontinent. This is variously taken to have commenced in 1757, after the Battle of Plassey, when the "puppet" Nawab of Bengal Mir Jafar ceded revenues to the Company. By 1818, with the defeat of Marathas followed by the pensioning of the Peshwa and the annexation of his territories, British supremacy in India was complete; the East India Company was a private company owned by stockholders and reporting to a board of directors in London. Formed as a monopoly on trade, it took on governmental powers with its own army and judiciary, it turned a profit, as employees diverted funds into their own pockets. The British government had little control, there was increasing anger at the corruption and irresponsibility of Company officials or "nabobs" who made vast fortunes in a few years. Pitt's India Act of 1784 gave the British government effective control of the private company for the first time.
The new policies were designed for an elite civil service career that minimized temptations for corruption. Company officials lived in separate compounds according to British standards; the Company's rule lasted until 1858, when it was abolished after the Indian Rebellion of 1857. With the Government of India Act 1858, the British government assumed the task of administering India in the new British Raj; the English East India Company was founded in 1600, as The Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies. It gained a foothold in India with the establishment of a factory in Masulipatnam on the Eastern coast of India in 1611 and the grant of the rights to establish a factory in Surat in 1612 by the Mughal emperor Jahangir. In 1640, after receiving similar permission from the Vijayanagara ruler farther south, a second factory was established in Madras on the southeastern coast. Bombay island, not far from Surat, a former Portuguese outpost gifted to England as dowry in the marriage of Catherine of Braganza to Charles II, was leased by the Company in 1668.
Two decades the Company established a presence on the eastern coast as well. Since, during this time other companies—established by the Portuguese, Dutch and Danish—were expanding in the region, the English Company's unremarkable beginnings on coastal India offered no clues to what would become a lengthy presence on the Indian subcontinent; the Company's victory under Robert Clive in the 1757 Battle of Plassey and another victory in the 1764 Battle of Buxar, consolidated the Company's power, forced emperor Shah Alam II to appoint it the diwan, or revenue collector, of Bengal and Orissa. The Company thus became the de facto ruler of large areas of the lower Gangetic plain by 1773. In 1793, the nizamat was abolished by the Company, it took complete control of Bengal-Bihar region and the Nawabs stood as mere pensioners of the Company. It proceeded by degrees to expand its dominions around Bombay and Madras; the Anglo-Mysore Wars and the Anglo-Maratha Wars left it in control of large areas of India south of the Sutlej River.
With the defeat of the Marathas, no native power represented a threat for the Company any longer. The expansion of the Company's power chiefly took two forms; the first of these was the outright annexation of Indian states and subsequent direct governance of the underlying regions, which collectively came to comprise British India. The annexed regions included the North-Western Provinces, Delhi and Sindh. Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Kashmir, were annexed after the Anglo-Sikh Wars in 1849–56. In 1854 Berar was annexed, the state of Oudh two years later; the second form of asserting power involved treaties in which Indian rulers acknowledged the Company's hegemony in return for limited internal autonomy. Since the Company operated under financial constraints, it had to set up political underpinnings for its rule; the most important such support came from the subsidiary alliances with Indian princes during the first 75 years of Company rule. In the early 19th century, the territories of these princes accounted for two-thirds of India.
When an Indian ruler, able to secure his territory, wanted to enter such an alliance, the Company welcomed it as an economical method of indirect rule, which did not involve the economic costs of direct administration or the political costs of gaining the support of alien subjects. In return, the Company undertook the "defense of these subordinate allies and treated them with traditional respect and marks of honor." Subsidiary alliances created the princely states, of the Muslim nawabs. Prominent among the princely states were: Cochin, Travancore, Mysore, Cis-Sutlej Hill States, Central India Agency and Gujarat Gaikwad territories and Bahawalpur; the area encompassed by modern India was fractured following the decline of the Mughal Empire in the first half of the 18th cent
Alaskans Together for Equality is a statewide education and political advocacy organization in Alaska that advocates for lesbian, gay and transgender rights, including same-sex marriage. Alaskans Together for Equality began in January 2007 as Alaskans Together, a ballot measure committee organized to oppose an advisory vote intended to deny public employees access to same-sex partner benefits. Following the vote, the organization adopted its current structure. Alaskans Together for Equality is a 501 nonprofit organization which lobbies at the local and federal levels of government on LGBT issues. Alaskans Together Foundation, Inc. is a 501 nonprofit organization which educates the public on LGBT issues. Alaskans Together for Equality endorses candidates for political office and engages in lobbying on LGBT rights. Alaskans Together Foundation, Inc. coordinates public awareness campaigns on LGBT issues. The organization is a member of the Equality Federation. LGBT rights in Alaska List of LGBT rights organizations Same-sex marriage in Alaska Official website
The X Prize Cup is a two-day air and space exposition, the result of a partnership between the X Prize Foundation and the State of New Mexico that began in 2004 when the Ansari X-Prize was held. This led to plans to build the world's first true rocket festival. Three X-Prize Cups have been held: in 2005, 2006 and 2007; each X Prize Cup hosts different events and demonstrations, such as rocket-powered bicycles, rocket jet packs. 85,000 visitors attended the 2007 X Prize Cup. Although there was no X Prize Cup in 2009, there was a Lunar Lander Challenge; this X Prize was first proposed by Dr. Peter Diamandis in an address to the NSS International Space Development Conference in 1995; the notion of a competitive goal was adopted from the SpaceCub project, demonstration of a private vehicle capable of flying a pilot to the edge of space, defined as 100 km altitude. This goal was selected to help encourage the space industry in the private sector; the X Prize Cup aimed to demonstrate that spaceflight can be affordable and accessible to corporations and civilians, opening the door to commercial spaceflight and space tourism.
It is hoped that competition will breed innovation to develop new low-cost methods of reaching Earth orbit. The X Prize Cup offers monetary rewards and organizational support to the community of aerospace professionals—and by staging Earth's great space exposition; the X Prize was modeled after many prizes from the early 20th century that helped prod the development of air flight, including most notably the $25,000 Orteig Prize that spurred Charles Lindbergh to make his solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean. NASA is developing similar prize programs called Centennial Challenges to generate innovative solutions to space technology problems; the original Ansari X Prize was a US$10,000,000 prize, offered by the X Prize Foundation, for the first non-government organization to launch a reusable manned spacecraft into space twice within two weeks. It was modeled after early 20th-century aviation prizes, aimed to spur development of low-cost spaceflight; the prize was won on October 4, 2004, the 47th anniversary of the Sputnik 1 launch, by the Tier One project using the experimental spaceplane SpaceShipOne.
The success and popularity of this event lead to the following events which were called the X-PRIZE Cup. Wirefly was named the official title sponsor of the competition in 2006, the event for that year was held on October 20–21 in Las Cruces, New Mexico, represented an effort by the X Prize Foundation to continue encouraging innovation in the private sector; the 2006 Wirefly X Prize Cup focused on rocketry and lunar landing technology, offered up $2.5 million in prizes to teams competing in several distinct competitions related to the general theme. The exposition featured high-powered rocket launches and exhibits intended to boost public interest in aerospace technology. In December 2006, the Cup's organizers announced expansion plans based on the success of the October event. With the success of the original X Prize competition, the open competitions for $2.5 million in monetary prizes were the highlight of the 2006 Wirefly X Prize Cup. The aerospace teams in Las Cruces fought for the top prize in three events—the Lunar Lander Challenge, the Vertical Rocket Challenge, the Space Elevator Games.
In addition to the featured competitions, the Wirefly X Prize Cup included a series of rocketry exhibitions and educational presentations. "Rocketman" Dan Schlund demonstrated his "Rocketbelt," a device which allows him to soar above the earth with a rocket strapped to his back. The Rocket Racing League debuted a preview of next-generation motor sports. Other attractions included high-powered rocket launches, a student competition, a symposium on personal spaceflight, an assortment of ground displays and simulators; the 2007 X Prize Cup, was held at Holloman Air Force Base in Alamogordo, NM, on October 26–28. The 2007 X Prize Cup marked the rebirth of the Teacher in Space Project, when the Space Frontier Foundation and the United States Rocket Academy announced the competition rules and begin accepting applications for the first Teacher in Space "pathfinder". Aircraft as well as rockets were featured at the event, along with the Lunar Lander Challenge. 85,000 people attended the event. The Armadillo Aerospace team completed the first of two legs of the $350,000 prize Level 1 Lunar Lander Challenge on 27 October 2007 by completing a flight above 50 m altitude and moving horizontally to a second pad for landing after more than 90 seconds of flight time.
The prize was not claimed in 2007 as the rocket engine experienced a hard start on the second leg return flight, resulting in a cracked engine, excessive loss of fuel, an inability to remain in the air for the full 90 seconds required. No other competitor was able to achieve a successful first leg of the competition; the Northrop Grumman Lunar Lander Challenge is intended to accelerate the commercial development of a vehicle capable of launching from the surface of the Moon to lunar orbit and back. The competition is part of NASA's Centennial Challenges program; such a vehicle would have direct application to NASA's space exploration goals as well as the personal spaceflight industry. The prize may help the industry build new vehicles and develop the operational capacity to operate quick turnaround vertical take-off, vertical landing vehicles. To win, the team's rocket must take-off vertically, climb at least 50 meters above the pad, fly for a minimum amount of time and land on a target, 100 meters from the takeoff point.
The team can refuel the rocket, which must fly back to the orig
Warner Bros. Family Entertainment was children's entertainment label of Warner Bros.. Entertainment, it released family television series. The division was founded in 1992 to produce more family-friendly films; the first theatrical film released under the Family Entertainment label was Dennis the Menace, released in the summer of 1993. The film proved to be a huge hit at the box office, grossing over $50 million at the domestic box office despite receiving negative reviews from critics. Following it was Free Willy, released in the summer of 1993 and would be a huge box office hit, grossing over $75 million domestically. Other 1993 releases included a live-action film adaptation of the book The Secret Garden, which didn't perform as well as the previous two films but still garnered over $30 million at the domestic box office, George Balanchine's The Nutcracker; the last 1993 WBFE theatrical release was Batman: Mask of the Phantasm, it wasn't a success at the box office, getting only $5 million at the box office compared to its $6 million budget, due to a lack of promotion from Warner Bros. 1994 was the worst year for WBFE, where it was home to numerous box-office bombs.
In the early part of 1994, Warner released Thumbelina, a major box-office bomb. Another 1994 film was a live-action rendition of the book Black Beauty, another box-office bomb for the studio, grabbing only nearly $5 million at the box office. Following it was A Troll in Central Park, which garnered less than $1 million at the box office; the last two films in 1994 were Little Giants, which performed better, but only received nearly $20 million domestically and Richie Rich, only a minor box-office bomb, grossing over $38 million for its $40 million budget. In 1995, it brought a live-action rendition of the book A Little Princess, which only got over $10 million in its domestic release. Other films that year included international distribution of The Pebble and the Penguin, a box-office bomb, grossing nearly $4 million, Born to Be Wild, which garnered nearly $4 million. However, the biggest success of 1995 for the company was the sequel to Free Willy, Free Willy 2: The Adventure Home, although not nearly as successful as the first film, was a minor success, garnering over $30 million.
1996 saw Space Jam, which garnered over $90 million domestically. The following year, the division released Turner Feature Animation's Cats Don't Dance, which bombed at the box office with over $3 million earned stemming from a lack of promotion; the next 1997 film was a sequel to The Swan Princess, The Swan Princess: Escape from Castle Mountain, but it performed poorly at the box office because of a limited theatrical release. The final 1997 film was the third Free Willy film, Free Willy 3: The Rescue, which performed poorly, grossing over $3 million. In 1998, it released Warner Bros. Animation's Quest for Camelot, which would be a box-office bomb, but grossed more than previous films released by the company, grossing nearly $23 million domestically. In 1999, it brought two more films from Warner Bros. Animation, the poorly performed The King and I, which only grossed nearly $12 million, Brad Bird's The Iron Giant, a box-office bomb, grossing over $23 million; the only film released under WBFE in 2000 was My Dog Skip, which became the company's first major box-office success in nearly four years, grossing nearly $35 million.
Beginning with My Dog Skip, WBFE's theatrical films used the standard Warner Bros logo, the Family Entertainment logo was only used on foreign films, TV shows, direct-to-video films from there-on out. Two more family films were released in 2001 through WBFE. Cats & Dogs was proved to be one of the biggest successes of the company's history, grossing over $200 million worldwide; the next film, Osmosis Jones, was hoped to follow the previous two films in the success line-up, but sadly flopped, only grossing nearly $15 million. It wasn't until 2004 that another film from WBFE was released, Clifford's Really Big Movie, another box-office bomb because of opening under 500 screens, grossing only over $3 million. Warner Bros. continued to release family films in the 2000s, but the logo for its Family Entertainment subsidiary was no longer used. The last film to be released under the Family Entertainment banner was the German animated movie Laura's Star. WBFE formerly distributed family entertainment divisions and companies that were related to Warner, such as WarnerVision Entertainment’s KidVision children’s home entertainment division and Rhino Entertainment’s Kid Rhino Home Video division until the early 2000s, when both Kid Rhino and KidVision went defunct and were discontinued.
WBFE served as the label for children’s and family-friendly entertainment programming that were not made by Warner Bros. but were distributed by the company, such as ALF’s Animated Adventures and the original ThunderCats, as well as TV specials and telefilms including Rankin-Bass’ The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings and Dr. Seuss’ How the Grinch Stole Christmas!. The la
House Luminous is a Day House at the University of Pretoria. It was established to provide day students with educational support and ability to participate in organised student life; the application forms for the establishment were approved on 28 February 2011. The house has grown since and accommodates over 200 students. Luminous is at present the fourth, newest addition to the Day House family. In 2010, the University of Pretoria realized that there are too few Day Houses, allowed for a new Day House to be formed. At that time, Duncan Platt was part of the Student Representative Council, at the end of 2010, he came to hear about this opportunity. However, because of his position in the SRC, he wasn't allowed to chair a Day House, thus looked for another candidate who would. Bernhard Breytenbach was asked to help form a team to run the Day House, set up the application forms, which included, amongst others, the name, vision and logo. In the end, Bernhard Breytenbach became the first Chairperson of Luminous.
The application was approved by the University of Pretoria on 28 January 2011 14:00, one day before welcoming day, under the name Metaphos, changed to Luminous. In 2012, Luminous participated in Ienkmelodienk for the first time; the House came first in the Mixed category, 9th overall. Luminous was not assigned a RAG partner. Luminous helped with the building of their float. Luminous and Curltizia were RAG partners, they came 12th in the Procession. A new table has been drawn up to accommodate all the new residences that weren't added to the previous table. Luminous partnered with Jasmyn for RAG. Luminous and Inca were RAG partners; the procession was held on the grounds of LC de Villiers. Luminous will be Rag partners with Vividus ladies. Luminous teams up with Hatfield Studios for Luminous' first Feesjaar. House Luminous - Web Page
Love Conquers All is the second album by Los Angeles, California soul singer Michael Wycoff. Michael Wycoff – Lead and Backing Vocals, Keyboards Webster Lewis – Keyboards Al McKay, David T. Walker, Charles Bynum – Guitar Nathan Watts, Eddie N. Watkins Jr. – Bass James Gadson – Drums Fred Wesley, George Bohanon – Trombone Ray Brown, John Roberts, Nolan Andrew Smith – Trumpet Ronald Brown, Jeff Clayton, Ernie Fields – Woodwind Bob Watts – French Horn Janice Gower – Concertmaster New Paradise – Backing Vocals H. B. Barnum, Webster Lewis – String arrangements Ernie Fields, James Gadson, Webster Lewis – Horn arrangements James Gadson, Michael Wycoff, Monica Pege, Webster Lewis – Vocal arrangements Michael Wycoff – Love Conquers All at Discogs