Simultaneous recruiting of new graduates
Simultaneous recruiting of new graduates or periodic recruiting of new graduates is the custom that companies hire new graduates all at once and employ them. This custom was unique to South Korea. A 2010 age discrimination law enforced in South Korea bans employers from discriminating against job-seekers who have not graduated from high school or university. Japan is now the only country practising this custom. In Japan, entry-level jobs are classified further into three categories, that is, entry-level positions for students who have not graduated from high school or university yet, entry-level positions for job-seekers who have graduated and entry-level positions for those who have less than 3 years' work experience, however few employers post jobs for entry-level positions for job-seekers who have graduated; that is why job-seekers who have graduated want to apply for entry-level positions for students who have not graduated from high school or university yet. In Japan, most students hunt for jobs before graduation from university or high school, seeking "informal offers of employment" one year before graduation, which will lead to "formal offer of employment" six months securing them a promise of employment by the time they graduate.
Japanese university students begin job hunting all at once in their third year. The government permits companies to begin the selection process and give out informal offers beginning April 1, at the start of the fourth year; these jobs are set to begin on April 1 of the following year. Due to this process, attaining a good position as a regular employee at any other time of year, or any in life, is difficult. Since companies prefer to hire new graduates, students who are unsuccessful in attaining a job offer upon graduating opt to stay in school for another year. According to a survey conducted by Mynavi, nearly 80% of job-seekers who had graduated from university had difficulty applying for entry-level positions in Japan; this is in contrast to other countries, where companies do not discriminate against those who have graduated. By contrast, potential employees in Japan are judged by their educational background; the prestige of the university and high school that a student attends has a marked effect on their ability to find sought-after jobs as adults.
Large companies in particular, prefer to hire new graduates of prestigious universities "in bulk" to replace retiring workers and groom in-house talent, the numbers can vary from year to year. Employers tend to hire a group of people in a mechanical fashion every year. One example is Toyota; the company may offer more jobs on, but those who missed out on the current round of hiring will have a slim chance of gaining a position because they will be overshadowed by fresh graduates. This practice leaves thousands of young Japanese sidelined in extended studies, part-time jobs, or on unemployment benefits instead of participating in the domestic economy and contributes to producing a great number of freeters and neets in Japan. According to the nonprofit group Lifelink's survey conducted in July, 2013, one in five Japanese college students thought about committing suicide during the job-hunting process; this custom has been seen to cause many social problems in modern Japan. Students who do not reach a decision about their employment before graduating from university face great hardships searching for a job after the fact, as the majority of Japanese companies prefer to hire students scheduled to graduate in the spring.
In recent years, an increasing number of university seniors looking for jobs have chosen to repeat a year to avoid being placed in the "previous graduate" category by companies. Under the current system, Japanese companies penalize students who study overseas or have graduated. Reiko Kosugi, a research director at the Japan Institute for Labor Policy and Training, criticized this process in a 2006 essay in The Asia-Pacific Journal, saying, "If business is in a slump at the point of one's graduation and he cannot get a job, this custom produces inequality of opportunity, people in this age bracket tend to remain unemployed for a long time." Nagoya University professor Mitsuru Wakabayashi has stated, "If this custom is joined to permanent employment, it produces closed markets of employment, where outplacement is hard, the employees tend to obey any and all unreasonable demands made by their companies so as not to be fired.". Yuki Honda, a professor at the University of Tokyo's Graduate School of Education, has said "Whether they get a job when they graduate decides their whole life".
Ken Mogi, a Japanese brain scientist, points out that limiting job opportunities would lead to a human rights issue and that Japanese companies cannot secure non-traditional competent people in the current job hunting system. Salaryman Japanese work environment Japan's New Recruits: Victims of the Japanese-Style Family and Japanese-Style Employment In Bleak Economy, Japanese Students Grow Frustrated With Endless Job Hunt More universities allowing students to delay graduation due to job shortage Japanese Graduates Finding Few Jobs Ph. D.’s in Japan can’t find work: Little recognition for high expertise, says Mainichi Communications Survey Economic and Social Data Rankings Hiring practices in Japan Once drawn to U. S. universities, more Japanese students staying home Japan offers a lifetime j
Employment is a relationship between two parties based on a contract where work is paid for, where one party, which may be a corporation, for profit, not-for-profit organization, co-operative or other entity is the employer and the other is the employee. Employees work in return for payment, which may be in the form of an hourly wage, by piecework or an annual salary, depending on the type of work an employee does or which sector she or he is working in. Employees in some fields or sectors may receive bonus payment or stock options. In some types of employment, employees may receive benefits in addition to payment. Benefits can include health insurance, disability insurance or use of a gym. Employment is governed by employment laws, regulations or legal contracts. An employee contributes labor and expertise to an endeavor of an employer or of a person conducting a business or undertaking and is hired to perform specific duties which are packaged into a job. In a corporate context, an employee is a person, hired to provide services to a company on a regular basis in exchange for compensation and who does not provide these services as part of an independent business.
Employer and managerial control within an organization rests at many levels and has important implications for staff and productivity alike, with control forming the fundamental link between desired outcomes and actual processes. Employers must balance interests such as decreasing wage constraints with a maximization of labor productivity in order to achieve a profitable and productive employment relationship; the main ways for employers to find workers and for people to find employers are via jobs listings in newspapers and online called job boards. Employers and job seekers often find each other via professional recruitment consultants which receive a commission from the employer to find and select suitable candidates. However, a study has shown that such consultants may not be reliable when they fail to use established principles in selecting employees. A more traditional approach is with a "Help Wanted" sign in the establishment. Evaluating different employees can be quite laborious but setting up different techniques to analyze their skill to measure their talents within the field can be best through assessments.
Employer and potential employee take the additional step of getting to know each other through the process of job interview. Training and development refers to the employer's effort to equip a newly hired employee with necessary skills to perform at the job, to help the employee grow within the organization. An appropriate level of training and development helps to improve employee's job satisfaction. There are many ways that employees are paid, including by hourly wages, by piecework, by yearly salary, or by gratuities. In sales jobs and real estate positions, the employee may be paid a commission, a percentage of the value of the goods or services that they have sold. In some fields and professions, employees may be eligible for a bonus; some executives and employees may be paid in stocks or stock options, a compensation approach that has the added benefit, from the company's point of view, of helping to align the interests of the compensated individual with the performance of the company.
Employee benefits are various non-wage compensation provided to employee in addition to their wages or salaries. The benefits can include: housing, group insurance, disability income protection, retirement benefits, tuition reimbursement, sick leave, social security, profit sharing, funding of education, other specialized benefits. In some cases, such as with workers employed in remote or isolated regions, the benefits may include meals. Employee benefits can improve the relationship between employee and employer and lowers staff turnover. Organizational justice is an employee's perception and judgement of employer's treatment in the context of fairness or justice; the resulting actions to influence the employee-employer relationship is a part of organizational justice. Employees can organize into trade or labor unions, which represent the work force to collectively bargain with the management of organizations about working, contractual conditions and services. Either an employee or employer may end the relationship at any time subject to a certain notice period.
This is referred to as at-will employment. The contract between the two parties specifies the responsibilities of each when ending the relationship and may include requirements such as notice periods, severance pay, security measures. In some professions, notably teaching, civil servants, university professors, some orchestra jobs, some employees may have tenure, which means that they cannot be dismissed at will. Another type of termination is a layoff. Wage labor is the socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer, where the worker sells their labor under a formal or informal employment contract; these transactions occur in a labor market where wages are market determined. In exchange for the wages paid, the work product becomes the undifferentiated property of the employer, except for special cases such as the vesting of intellectual property patents in the United States where patent rights are vested in the original personal inventor. A wage laborer is a person whose primary means of income is from the selling of his or her labor in this way.
In modern mixed economies such as that
Application for employment
An application for employment is a standard business document, prepared with questions deemed relevant by an employer in order for the employer to determine the best candidate to be given the responsibility of fulfilling the work needs of the company. Most companies provide such forms to anyone upon request at which point it becomes the responsibility of the applicant to complete the form and returning it to the employer at will for consideration; the completed and returned document notifies the company of the applicants availability and desire to be employed and their qualifications and background so a determination can be made as to which candidate should be hired. From the employer's perspective, the application serves a number of purposes; these vary depending on the nature of the job and the preferences of the person responsible for hiring, as "each organization should have an application form that reflects its own environment". At a minimum, an application requires the applicant to provide information sufficient to demonstrate that he or she is permitted to be employed.
The typical application requires the applicant to provide information regarding relevant skills and experience. The application itself is a minor test of the applicant's literacy and communication skills - a careless job applicant might disqualify themselves with a poorly filled-out application; the application may require the applicant to disclose any criminal record, to provide information sufficient to enable the employer to conduct an appropriate background check. For a business that employs workers on a part-time basis, the application may inquire as to the applicant's specific times and days of availability, preferences in this regard, it is important to note, that an employer may be prohibited from asking applicants about characteristics that are not relevant to the job, such as their political view or sexual orientation. For white collar jobs those requiring communication skills, the employer will require applicants to accompany the form with a cover letter and a résumé; however employers who accept a cover letter and résumé will also require the applicant to complete a form application, as the other documents may neglect to mention details of importance to the employers.
In some instances, an application is used to dissuade "walk-in" applicants, serving as a barrier between the applicant and a job interview with the person with the authority to hire. For many businesses, applications for employment can be filled out online, do not have to be submitted in person. However, it is still recommended that applicants bring a printed copy of their application to an interview. Application blanks are the second most common hiring instrument next to personal interviews. Companies will use two types of application blanks and long, they both help companies with initial screening and the longer form can be used for other purposes as well. The answers that applicants choose to submit are helpful to the company because they can become an interview question for that applicant at a future date; the employment application is not a standardized form so every company may create its own as long as regulations set by the government are adhered. Applications ask the applicant at the minimum for their name, phone number, address.
In addition, applications ask for previous employment information, educational background, emergency contacts, references, as well as any special skills the applicant might have. The three categories application fields are useful for discovering are. If the company has a bona fide occupational qualification to ask regarding a physical condition, they may ask questions about it, for example: The job requires a lot of physical labor. Do you have any physical problems that may interfere with this job? Experience requirements can be separated into two groups on an application, work experience and educational background. Educational background is important to companies because by evaluating applicants' performance in school tells them what their personality is like as well as their intelligence. Work experience is important to companies because it will inform the company if the applicant meets their requirements. Companies are interested when applicants were unemployed and when/why the applicant left their previous job.
Companies are interested in the applicant's social environment because it can inform them of their personality and qualities. If they are active within an organization, that may demonstrate their ability to communicate well with others. Being in management may demonstrate their leadership ability as well as their determination and so on. Customs vary internationally when it comes to the inclusion or non-inclusion of a photograph of the applicant. In the English-speaking countries, notably the United States, this is not customary, books or websites giving recommendations about how to design an application advise against it unless explicitly requested by the employer. In other countries, for instance Germany, the inclusion of a photograph of the applicant is still common, many employers would consider an application incomplete without it. In France, the 2006 Equal Opportunities Act requires companies with more than 50 employees to request an anonymous application; the job application is called Bewerbung in Germany and consists of three parts, such as the Anschreiben, the Lebenslauf and the Zeugnisse.
Anschreiben is the German word for Cover Letter and aims at the same goal: convincing the employer to submit an invitation for a job interview. It i
U.S. Coal and Coke Company Store
U. S. Coal and Coke Company Store was a historic company store building located at Ream, McDowell County, West Virginia, it was built about 1910, was two-story, square-plan brick building. It featured simple decoration, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1992. It was demolished sometime between March 2004 and 2006
A job interview is an interview consisting of a conversation between a job applicant and a representative of an employer, conducted to assess whether the applicant should be hired. Interviews are one of the most popularly used devices for employee selection. Interviews vary in the extent to which the questions are structured, from a unstructured and free-wheeling conversation, to a structured interview in which an applicant is asked a predetermined list of questions in a specified order. A job interview precedes the hiring decision; the interview is preceded by the evaluation of submitted résumés from interested candidates by examining job applications or reading many resumes. Next, after this screening, a small number of candidates for interviews is selected. Potential job interview opportunities include networking events and career fairs; the job interview is considered one of the most useful tools for evaluating potential employees. It demands significant resources from the employer, yet has been demonstrated to be notoriously unreliable in identifying the optimal person for the job.
An interview allows the candidate to assess the corporate culture and demands of the job. Multiple rounds of job interviews and/or other candidate selection methods may be used where there are many candidates or the job is challenging or desirable. Earlier rounds sometimes called'screening interviews' may involve fewer staff from the employers and will be much shorter and less in-depth. An common initial interview approach is the telephone interview; this is common when the candidates do not live near the employer and has the advantage of keeping costs low for both sides. Since 2003, interviews have been held through video conferencing software, such as Skype. Once all candidates have been interviewed, the employer selects the most desirable candidate and begins the negotiation of a job offer. Researchers have attempted to identify which interview strategies or "constructs" can help interviewers choose the best candidate. Research suggests. Constructs can be classified into three categories: job-relevant content, interviewee performance, job-irrelevant interviewer biases.
Job-relevant interview content Interview questions are designed to tap applicant attributes that are relevant to the job for which the person is applying. The job-relevant applicant attributes that the questions purportedly assess are thought to be necessary for one to perform on the job; the job-relevant constructs that have been assessed in the interview can be classified into three categories: general traits, experiential factors, core job elements. The first category refers to stable applicant traits; the second category refers to job knowledge. The third category refers to the knowledge and abilities associated with the job. General traits: Mental ability: Applicants' capacity to learn and process information Personality: Conscientiousness, emotional stability, openness to new experiences Interest and values: Applicant motives and person-organization fitExperiential factors: Experience: Job-relevant knowledge derived from prior experience Education: Job-relevant knowledge derived from prior education Training: Job-relevant knowledge derived from prior trainingCore job elements: Declarative knowledge: Applicants' learned knowledge Procedural skills and abilities: Applicants' ability to complete the tasks required to do the job Motivation: Applicants' willingness to exert the effort required to do the jobInterviewee performance Interviewer evaluations of applicant responses tend to be colored by how an applicant behaves in the interview.
These behaviors may not be directly related to the constructs the interview questions were designed to assess, but can be related to aspects of the job for which they are applying. Applicants without realizing it may engage in a number of behaviors that influence ratings of their performance; the applicant may have acquired these behaviors during training or from previous interview experience. These interviewee performance constructs can be classified into three categories: social effectiveness skills, interpersonal presentation, personal/contextual factors. Social effectiveness skills: Impression management: Applicants' attempt to make sure the interviewer forms a positive impression of them Social skills: Applicants' ability to adapt his/her behavior according to the demands of the situation to positively influence the interviewer Self-monitoring: Applicants' regulation of behaviors to control the image presented to the interviewer Relational control: Applicants' attempt to control the flow of the conversationInterpersonal presentation: Verbal expression: Pitch, pauses Nonverbal behavior: Gaze, hand movement, body orientationPersonal/contextual factors: Interview training: Coaching, mock interviews with feedback Interview experience: Number of prior interviews Interview self-efficacy: Applicants' perceived ability to do well in the interview Interview motivation: Applicants' motivation to succeed in an interviewJob-irrelevant interviewer biases The following are personal and demographic characteristics that can influence interviewer evaluations of interviewee responses.
These factors are not relevant to whether the individual can do the job, their influence on interview rat
Mentorship is a relationship in which a more experienced or more knowledgeable person helps to guide a less experienced or less knowledgeable person. The mentor may be older or younger than the person being mentored, but he or she must have a certain area of expertise, it is a learning and development partnership between someone with vast experience and someone who wants to learn. Interaction with an expert may be necessary to gain proficiency with/in cultural tools. Mentorship experience and relationship structure affect the "amount of psychosocial support, career guidance, role modeling, communication that occurs in the mentoring relationships in which the protégés and mentors engaged."The person in receipt of mentorship may be referred to as a protégé, a protégée, an apprentice or, in the 2000s, a mentee. The mentor may be referred to a rabbi. "Mentoring" is a process that always involves communication and is relationship-based, but its precise definition is elusive, with more than 50 definitions in use.
One definition of the many that have been proposed, is Mentoring is a process for the informal transmission of knowledge, social capital, the psychosocial support perceived by the recipient as relevant to work, career, or professional development. Mentoring in Europe has existed since at least Ancient Greek times. Since the 1970s it has spread in the United States in training contexts, with important historical links to the movement advancing workplace equity for women and minorities, it has been described as "an innovation in American management"; the roots of the practice are lost in antiquity. The word itself was inspired by the character of Mentor in Homer's Odyssey. Though the actual Mentor in the story is a somewhat ineffective old man, the goddess Athena takes on his appearance in order to guide young Telemachus in his time of difficulty. Significant systems of mentorship include the guru–disciple tradition practiced in Hinduism and Buddhism, the discipleship system practiced by Rabbinical Judaism and the Christian church, apprenticing under the medieval guild system.
In the United States, advocates for workplace equity in the second half of the twentieth century popularized the term "mentor" and concept of career mentorship as part of a larger social capital lexicon which includes terms such as glass ceiling, bamboo ceiling, role model, gatekeeper—serving to identify and address the problems barring non-dominant groups from professional success. Mainstream business literature subsequently adopted the terms and concepts, promoting them as pathways to success for all career climbers. In 1970, these terms were not in the general American vocabulary; the European Mentoring and Coaching Council called the EMCC, is the leading global body in terms of creating and maintaining a range of industry standard frameworks and processes across the mentoring and related supervision and coaching fields e.g. a code of practice for those practising mentoring. The focus of mentoring is to develop the whole person and so the techniques are broad and require wisdom in order to be used appropriately.
A 1995 study of mentoring techniques most used in business found that the five most used techniques among mentors were: Accompanying: making a commitment in a caring way, which involves taking part in the learning process side-by-side with the learner. Sowing: mentors are confronted with the difficulty of preparing the learner before he or she is ready to change. Sowing is necessary when you know that what you say may not be understood or acceptable to learners at first but will make sense and have value to the mentee when the situation requires it. Catalyzing: when change reaches a critical level of pressure, learning can escalate. Here the mentor chooses to plunge the learner right into change, provoking a different way of thinking, a change in identity or a re-ordering of values. Showing: this is making something understandable, or using your own example to demonstrate a skill or activity. You show what you are talking about, you show by your own behavior. Harvesting: here the mentor focuses on "picking the ripe fruit": it is used to create awareness of what was learned by experience and to draw conclusions.
The key questions here are: "What have you learned?", "How useful is it?". Different techniques may be used by mentors according to the situation and the mindset of the mentee, the techniques used in modern organizations can be found in ancient education systems, from the Socratic technique of harvesting to the accompaniment method of learning used in the apprenticeship of itinerant cathedral builders during the Middle Ages. Leadership authors Jim Kouzes and Barry Z. Posner advise mentors to look for "teachable moments" in order to "expand or realize the potentialities of the people in the organizations they lead" and underline that personal credibility is as essential to quality mentoring as skill. Multiple mentors: A new and upcoming trend is having multiple mentors; this can be helpful. Having more than one mentor will widen the knowledge of the person being mentored. There are different mentors. Profession or trade mentor: This is someone, in the trade/profession you are entering, they know the trends, important changes and new practices that you should know to stay at the top of your career.
A mentor like thi